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VOL. I. 




• • * 

• • • 













. ^ D. DE BRUSE, 



melancholia: anatomen, 




The work now restored to public notice has had an ex- 
ti*aordinary fate. At the time of its original publication it 
obtained a great celebrity, which continued more than half 
a century. During that period few books were more read, 
or more deservedly applauded. It was the delight of the 
learned, the solace of the indolent, and the refuge of the 
uninfoi-med. It passed through at least eight editions, by 
wliich the bookseller, as Wood records, got an estate ; and, 
notwithstanding the objection sometimes opposed against it, 
of a quaint style, and too great an accumulation of authori- 
ties, the fascination of its wit, fancy, and sterling sense, have 
borne down all censures, and extorted praise from the first 
writers in the English language. The grave Johnson has 
praised it in the warmest terms, and the ludicrous Sternb 
has interwoyen many parts of it into his own popular per- 
formance. Milton did not disdain to build two of his finest 
poems on it ; and a host of inferior writers have embellished 
their works with beauties not their own, culled from a per- 
formance which they had not the justice even to mention. 
Change of times, and the frivolity of fashion, suspended, in 
some degree, that fame which had lasted near a century; 
and the succeeding generation affected indifference towards 
an author, who at length was only looked into by the plun- 
derers of literature, the poachers in obscure volumes. The 

vi Advertisement. 

plagiarisms of Tristram Shandy, so successfully brought to 
light by Dr. Ferriar, at length drew the attention of the 
public towards a writer, who, though then little • known, 
might, without impeachment of modesty, lay claim to every 
mark of respect ; and inquiry proved, beyond a doubt, that 
the calls of justice had been little attended to by others, as 
well as the facetious Yorick. Wood observed, more than 
a century ago, that several authors had unmercifully stolen 
matter from Burton without any acknowledgment The 
time, however, at length arrived, when the merits of the 
Anatomy of Melancholy were to receive their due praise. 
Tlie book was again sought for and read, and again it be- 
came an applauded performance. Its excellences once more 
stood confessed, in the increased price which every copy 
offered for sale produced ; and the increased demand pointed 
out the necessity of a new edition. This is now presented to 
the public in a manner not disgraceful to the memory of the 
author ; and the publisher relies with . confidence, that so 
valuable a repository of amusement and information, will 
continue to hold the rank to which it has been restored, 
firmly supported by its own merit, and safe from the influ- 
ence and blight of any future caprices of fashion. To open 
its valuable mysteries to those who have not had the advan- 
tage of a classical education, translations of the countless 
quotations from ancient writers which occur in the work, are 
now for the first time given, and obsolete orthography is in 
all instances modernized. 


BoBERT Burton was the son of Ealph Burton, of an ancient 
and genteel family at Lindley, in Leicestershire, and was born 
there on the 8th of February, 1576.* He received the first rudi- 
ments of learning at the free school of Sutton Coldfield, in War- 
wickshire,! from whence he was, at the age of seventeen, in the 
long vacation, 1593, sent to Brazen Nose College, in the condition 
of a commoner, where he made a considerable progress in logic 
and philosophy. In 1599 he was elected student of Christ Church, 
and, for form sake, was put under the tuition of Dr. John Ban- 
croft, afterwards Bishop of Oxford. In 1614 he was admitted to 
the reading of the Sentences, and on the 29th of November, 1616, 

♦ His elder brother was William Bur- may appear by his ' Description of Leices- 

ton, the Leicestershire antiquary, bom tershire.'^' His weak constitution not 

24th August, 1575, educated at Suttoa permitting him to follow business, he re- 

Coldfield, admitted commoner, or gentle- tired into the country, and his greatest 

man commoner, of Brazen Nose College, work, '* The Description of Leicester- 

1591 ; at the Inner Temple, 20th May, shire," was published in foUo, 1622. He 

1593; B.A. 22d June, 1394; and after- died at Falde, after suffering much io 

wards a barrister and reporter in the the civil war, 6th April, 1645, and was 

Court of Common Pleas. "But his buried in the parish chui^h belonging 

natural genius," says Wood, " leading thereto, called Hanbury. 

him to the studies of heraldry, genealo- f This is Wood's account. His will 

gies, and antiquities, he became excellent says, Nuneaton ; but a passage in this 

In those obscure and intricate matters ; work [yol. ii. p. 159,] mentions Sutton 

and, look upon him as a gentleman, was Coldfield : probably he may have been at 

accounted, by all that knew him, to be both schools. 
tke best of his time for those studies, as 

8 Account of the Author. 

had the vicarage of St. Thomas, in the west suburb of Oxford, 
conferred on him by the dean and canons of Christ Church, which, 
with the rectory of Segrave, in Leicestershire, given to him in 
the year 1636, by Greorge, Lord Berkeley, he kept, to use the 
words of the Oxford antiquary, with much ado to his dying day. 
He seems to have been first beneficed at Walsby, in Lincobishire, 
through the munificence of his noble patroness, Frances, Count- 
ess Dowager of £xeter, but resigned the same, as he tells us, for 
some special reasons. At his vicarage he is remarked to have 
always given the sacrament in wafers. Wood's character of him 
is, that *^ he was an exact mathematician, a curious calculator of 
nativities, a general read scholar, a thorough-paced philologist, and 
one that understood the surveying of lands welL As he was by 
many accounted a severe student, a devourer of authors, a melan- 
choly and humorous person ; so by others, who knew him well, a 
person of great honesty, plain dealing and charity. I have heard 
some of the ancients of Christ Church often say, that his com- 
pany was very merry, facete, and juvenile; and no man in his 
time did surpass him for his ready and dexterous interlarding his 
common discourses among them with verses from the poets, or 
sentences from classic authors ; which being then all the fashion 
in the University, made his company the more acceptable." He 
appears to have been a universal reader of all kinds of books, and 
availed himself of his multifarious studies in a very extraordinary 
manner. From the information of Hearne, we learn that John 
Bouse, the Bodleian librarian, furnished him with choice books for 
the prosecution of his work. The subject of his labour and amuse- 
ment, seems to have been adopted from the infirmities of his own 
habft and constitution. Mr. Granger says, **He composed this 
book with a view of relieving his own melancholy, but increased 
It to such a degree, that nothing could make him laugh, but going 
to the bridge-foot and hearing the ribaldry of the bargemen, which 
rarely failed to throw him into a violent fit of laughter. Before 
he was overcome with this horrid disorder, he, in the intervals of 
his vapours, was esteemed one of the most facetious companions in 
the University.** 

His residence was chiefly at Oxford ; where, in his chamber in 
Christ Church College, he departed this life, at or very near the 
time which he had some years before foretold, from the calculation 
of his own nativity, and which, says Wood, " being exact, several 

Account of the Author, 


of the students did not forbear to whisper among themselves, that 
rather than there should be a mistake in the calculation, he sent 
up his soul to heaven through a slip about his neck." Whether 
this suggestion is founded in truth, we have no other evidence 
than an obscure hint in the epitaph hereafter inserted, which was 
written by the author himself, a short time before his death. His 
body, with due solemnity, was buried near that of Dr. Robert 
Weston, in the north aisle which joins next to the choir of the 
Cathedral of Christ Church, on the 27th of January, 1689-40. 
Over his grave was soon after erected a comely monument, on 
the upper pillar of the said aisle, with his bust, painted to the 
life. On the right hand is the following calculation of his 
nativity : — 

10 Account of the Author, 

and ander the bust, this inscription of his own composition :^ 

Paacis notus, paucioribns ignotus, 

Hio jacet Democritus ]umoT 

Cai yitam dedit et mortem 
Ob. 8 Id. Jan. A. G. mdcxxxix. 

Arms: — Azure on a bend O. between three dogs' heads O. a 
crescent G. 

A few months before his death, he made his will, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

Extracted from the Registry op the Prerogative Court 

OF Casterburt. 

iH Nomine Dei Amen. August 16^ One thousand six hundred thirty 
nfaie because there be so many casualties to which our life is subject 
besides quarrelling and contention which happen to our Successors sStet 
our Death by reason of unsettled Estates I Robert Burton Student of 
Ohristchurch Oxon. though my means be but small have thought good 
by this my last Will and Testament to dispose of that little which I have 
and being at this present I thank God in perfect health of Bodie and Mind 
and if this Testament be not so formal according to the nice and strict 
terms of Law and other Circumstances peradventure required of which I 
am ignorant I desire howsoever this my Will may be accepted and stand 
good according to my true Intent and meaning First I bequeath Animam 
Deo Corpus TerrsB whensoever it shall please God to call me I give my 
Land in Higham which my good Father Ralphe Burton of Lindly in the 
Goimty of Leicester Esquire gave me by Deed of Gift and that which I 
have annexed to that Farm by purchase since, now leased for thirty-eight 
pounds per Ann. to mine Elder Brother William Burton of Lindly Esquire 
during his life and after him to his Heirs I make my said Brother William 
likewise mine Executor as well as paying such Annuities and Legacies 
out of my Lands and Goods as are hereafter specified I give to my nephew 
Cassibilan Burton twenty pounds Annuity per Ann. out of my Land in 
Higham during his life to be paid at two equall payments at our Lady 
Day in Lent and Michaelmas or if he be not paid within fourteen Days 
after the said Feasts to distrain on any part of the Ground on or any of 
my Lands of Inheritance Item I give to my sister Katherine Jackson dur- 
ing her life eight pounds per Ann. Annuity to be paid at the two Feasts 
equally as above said or else to distrain on the Ground if she be not paid 
after fourteen 'days at Lindly as the other tome is out of the said Land 
Item I give to my Servant John Upton the Annuity of Forty Shillings out 
of my said Farme during his life (if till then my Servant) to be paid on 
Michaelmas day in Lindley each year or else after fourteen days to dis- 
train Now for my goods I thus dispose them First I give an C*^ pounds to 

Account of the Author, 11 

Christ Church in Oxford where I have so long lived to buy five pounds 
Lands per Ann. to be Yearly bestowed on Books for the Library Item I 
give an hundredth pound to the University Library of Oxford to be be- 
stowed to purchase five pound Land per Ann. to be paid out Yearly on 
Books as Mrs. Brooks formerly gave an hundred pounds to buy Land to 
tin same purpose and the Rent to the same use I give to my Brother 
George Burton tweaty pounds and my watch I give to my Brother Ralph 
Burton five pounds Item I give to the Parish of Seagrave in Leicestershire 
where I am now Rector ten pounds to be given to certain Feoffees to the 
perpetual good of the said Parish Oxon * Item I give to my Niece Eugenia 
Burton One hundredth pounds Item I give to my Nephew Richard Burton 
now Prisoner in London an hundredth pound to redeem him Item I give 
to the Poor of Higham Forty Shillings where my Land is to the Poor of 
Nuneaton where I was once a Grammar Scholar three pound to my Cousin 
Purfey of Wadlake [Wadley] my Cousin Purfey of Calcott my Cousin 
Hales of Coventry my Nephew Bradshaw of Orton twenty shillings a piece 
for a small remembrance to Mr. Whitehall Rector of Cherkby myne own 
Chamber Fellow twenty shillings I desire my Brother George and my 
Cosen Purfey of Calcott to be the Overseers of this part of my Will I give 
moreover five pounds to make a small Monument for my Mother where 
she is buried in London to my Brother Jackson forty shillings to my Ser- 
vant John Upton fort]^ shillings besides his former Annuity if he be my 
Servant till I die if he be till then my Servant f— ROBERT BURTON— 
Charles Russell Witness — John Pepper Witness. 

An Appendix to this my Will if I die in Oxford or whilst I am of Christ 
Church and with good Mr. Paynes August the Fifteenth 1689. 

I Give to Mr. Doctor Fell Dean of Christ Church Forty Shillings to the 
Eight Canons twenty Shillings a piece as a small remembrance to the poor 
of St. Thomas parish Twenty Shillings to Brasenose Library five pounds 
to Mr. Rowse of Oriell Colledge twenty Shillings to Mr. Heywood xx9. to 
Dr. Metcalfe axes, to Mr. Sherley xxs. If I have any Books the University 
Library hath not, let them take them If 1 have any Books our own Library 
hath not, let them take them I give to Mrs. Fell all my English Books of 
Husbandry one excepted to her Daughter Mrs. Kathe- 

rine Fell my Six Pieces of Silver Plate and six Silver Spoons to Mrs lies 
my Gerards Herball to Mrs. Morris my Country Farme Translated out of 
French 4. and all my English Physick Books to Mr. Whistler the Recorder 
of Oxford I give twenty shillings to all my fellow Students M" of Arts a 
Book in fol. or two a piece as Master Morris Treasurer or Mr Dean shall 
appoint whom I request to be the Overseer of this Appendix and give him 
for his pains Atlas Geografer and Ortelins Theatrum Mond' I give to John 
Fell the Dean's Son Student my Mathematical Instruments except ray 
two Crosse Staves which I give to my Lord of Donnol if he be then of the 
House To Thomas lies Doctor lies his Son Student Saluntch on Paurrhelia 

• 8o in tbA Register. t So in the Register. 

12 AccomU of the Author, 

and Lncian's Works in 4 Tomes If any books be left let my Ezecntors dis- 
pose of them with all such Books as are written with my own hands and 
half my Melancholy Copy for Crips hath the other half To Mr. Jones 
Chuplin and Chanter my Surveying Books and Instruments To the Ser- 
vants of the House Forty Shillings BOB. BURTON— Charles Russell 
Witness — John Pepper Witness — This Will was shewed to me by the 
Testator and acknowledged by him some few days before his death to 
be his last Will Ita Testor John Morris S Th D. Prebendari' Eccl Chri* 
Oxon Feb. 8, 1689. 

Probatum fuit Testamentum suprascriptum, &c. 11« 1640 Juramento 
Willmi Bui*ton Fris* et Executoris cui &c. de bene et fideliter ad- 
ministrand. &c. coram Mag'ris Nathanaele Stephens Rectore Eccl. 
de Drayton, et Edwardo Farmer, Clericis, vigore commlssionis, 

The only work our author executed was that now reprinted, 
which probably was the principal employment of his life. Dr. 
Ferriar says, it was originally published in the year 1617; but 
this is evidently a mistake ; * the first edition was that printed in 
4to, 1621, a copy of which is at present in the collection of John 
Nichols, Esq., the indefatigable illustrator of the History of LeiceS' 
tershire ; to whom, and to Isaac Reed, Esq., of Staple Inn, this 
account is greatly indebted for its accuracy. The other impres- 
sions of it were in 1624, 1628, 1632, 1638, 1651-2, 1660, and 1676, 
which last, in the title-page, is called the eighth edition. 

The copy from which the present is reprinted, is that of 1651-2 : 
at the conclusion of which is the following address : — 


*' Be pleased to know (Courteous Reader) that since the last Impression 
of this Book, the ingenuous Author of it is deceased, leaving a Copy of it 
exactly corrected, with several considerable Additions by his own hand ; 
this Copy he committed to my care and custody, with directions to have 
those Additions inserted in the next Edition; which in order to his com- 
mand, and the Publicke Good, is faithfully performed in this last Impres- 


H. a (». e. HEN, CRIPPS.) 

* Originating, perhaps, in a note, p. 448, printed in 1676, there seems very little 

6th edit. (vol. ill, p. 29, of the present), In reason to doubt that, in the note above 

which a book is quoted as having been alluded to. either 1624 has been a mis- 

" printed at Paris. 1624. seven years after print for 1628, or seven years for three 

Barton's first edition." An, however, years. The numerous typographical er- 

the editions after that of 1621, are r^u- rata in other parts of the work strongly 

larly marked in succesEion to the eighth, aid this latter supposition. 

Account of the Author. 13 

The following testimonies of various authors will serve to show 
the estimation in which this work has been held : — 

* The Anatomy of Melancholy, wherein the author hath piled up 
variety of much excellent learning. Scarce any book of philology in 
our land hath, in so short a time, passed so many editions." — FfMer'>$ 
Wbrthiet^ fol. 16. 

" *Tis a book so full of variety of reading, that gentlemen who have 
lost their time, and are put to a push for invention, may furnish them- 
selves with matter for common or scholastical discourse and writing." — 
WdocPi AthencB Oaxmietuis, vol. i. p. 628, 2d edit. 

** If you never saw Burton upon Melancholy, printed 1676, 1 pray 
look into it, and read the ninth page of his Preface, *Democritus to 
the Reader.' There is something there which touches the point we are 
upon; but I mention the author to you, as the pleasantest, the most 
learned, and the most full of sterling sense. The wits of Queen Anne*8 
reign, and the beginning of George the First, were not a little beholden to 
him." — Archbuhap Herring^s Letters^ 12mo, 1777, p. 149. 

^ Burton's Anatomy op Melancholy, he (Dr. Johnson) said, was 
the oulv book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than he 
wished to rise." — BosweWs Life <f Johnson, vol. i. p. 680, 8vo. edit. 

^ Burton's Anatomy of MELANCiroLY is a valuable book," said Dr. 
Johnson. *^ It is perhaps, overloaded with quotation. But there is great 
spirit and great power in what Burton says when he writes from his own 
mind."— /Wti vol. ii. p. 826. 

" It will be no detraction from the powers of Milton's original genius 
and invention, to remark, that he seems to have borrowed the subject 
of VAUegro and II Pemeroao together with some particular thoughts, 
expressions, and rhymes, more especially the idea of a contrast between 
these two dispositions, from a forgotten poem prefixed to the first edition 
of Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, entitled, * The Author's Ab- 
stract of Melancholy; or, A Dialogue between Pleasure and Pain.' Here 
pain is melancholy. It was written, as I conjecture, about the year 1600. 
I wiU make no apology for abstracting and citing as much of this poem 
as will be sufficient to prove, to a discerning reader, how far it had taken 
possession of Milton's mind. The measure will appear to be the same ; 
and that our author was at least an attentive reader of Burton's book, may 
be already concluded from the traces of resemblance which I have inci- 
ilentally noticed hi passing through the VAUegro and II Penseroto."— 
After extracting the lines, Mr. Warton adds, " as to the very elaborate 
work to which these visionary verses are no unsuitable introduction, the 
writer's variety of learning, his quotations from scarce and curious books, 
his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless elegance, miscella- 

14 Account of the Author, 

neons matter, intermixture of agreeable tales and illnstrations, and, 
perhaps, above all, the sin^larities of his feelings, dothed in an un- 
common quaintness of style, have contributed to render it, even to modem 
readers, a valuable repository of amusement and information." — WarUmU 
MUUm, 2d edit. p. 94. 

*^ The Anatomy of Melancholy is a book which has been univer- 
sall}' read and admired. This work is, for the most part, what the author 
himself styles it, ' a cento ; ' but it is a very ingenious one. His quota- 
tions, which abound in every page, are pertinent ; but if be had made 
more use of his inventicm and less of his commonplace-book, his work 
would perhaps have been more valuable than it is. He is generally free 
from the affected language, and ridiculous metaphors which disgrace most 
of the books of his time." — Granger*8 Biographical Biatory. 

" Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy a book once the favourite of 
the learned and the witty, and a source of surreptitious learning, though 
written on a regular plan, consists chiefly of quotations : the author has 
honestly termed it a cento. He collects, under every division, the opin- 
ions of a multitude of writers, without regard to chronological order, and 
has too often the modesty to decline the interposition of his own senti- 
ments. Indeed the bulk of his materials generally overwhelms him. 
In the course of his folio he has contrived to treat a great variety of 
topics, that seem very loosely connected with the general subject ; and, 
like Bayle, when he starts a favourite train of quotations, he does not 
scruple to let the digression outrun the principal question. Thus, from 
the doctrines of religion to military discipline, from inland navigation to 
the morality of dancing-schools, everything is discussed and determined." 
— Ferriar^s Ilbittrationt of Sterne^ p. 68. 

*^The archness which Burton displays occasionally, and his indul- 
gence of playful digressions from the most serious discussions, often give 
his style an air of familiar conversation, notwithstanding the laborious 
collections which supply his text. He was capable of writing excellent 
poetry, but he seems to have cultivated this talent too little. The Eng- 
lish verses prefixed to his book, which possess beautiful imagery, and 
great sweetness of versification, have been frequently published. His 
Latin elegiac verses addressed to his book, show a very agreeable turn for 
raiDery." — Ibid. p. 68. 

" When the force of the subject opens his own vein of prose, we discover 
valuable sense and brilliant expression. Such is his afccount of the first 
feelings of melancholy persons, written, probably, from his own experi- 
ence." [See p. 161, of the present edition.] — Jbid. p. 60. 

''During a pedantic age, like that in which Burton's production 
appeared, it must have been eminently serviceable to writers of many 
descriptions. Hence the unlearned might furnish themselves with appro- 

Account of the Author. 15 

priate scraps of Greek and Latin, whilst men of letters would find their 
inquiries shortened, by knowiuji; where they might look for what both 
ancients and modems have advanced on the subject of human pas- 
sions. I confess my inability to point out any other English author 
who has so largely dealt |n apt and original quotation/' — Manmcript 
note of the hie Gforge StUtens, Eaq.^ in Ut copy qf Thb Anatomy of 






Vade liber, qnalis, non ansim dicere, foeliz, 

Te nisi tolicem fecerit Alma dies, 
Vade tamen qnocnnque lubet, qnasctinqne per ons, 

£t Geniam Domini fac imitere tui. 
I blandas inter Charites, myst&mqne salnta 

Mnsamm qnemviSi si tibi lector erit. 
Bnra colas, tirbem, subeksve palatia regnm, 

Snbraiss^, placid^, te sine dente geras. 
Nobilis, aut si quis te fort^ inspexerit heros, 

Da te morigeram, perlegat nsqne Inbet. 
Est quod Nobilitas, est qnod desideret heros, 

Gratior hsec forsan charta placere potest. 
Si quis morosQS Oato, tetricnsque Senator, 

Hunc etiam libram fort^ yidere velit, 
Sive magistratns, tarn te reverenter habeto; 

Sed nullus; muscas non capiunt Aqnilas. 
Kon yacat his tempns ftigitiynm impendere nugis^ 

Nee tales cnpio; par mihi lector erit. 
Si matrona grayis casu diyerterit istnc, 

ninstris domina, ant te Comitissa legat: 
Est qnod displiceat, placeat quod forsitan ilUs, 

Ingerere his noli te modb, pande tamen. 
At si yirgo tuas dignabitur inclyta chartas 

Tangere, siye schedis hsreat ilia tuis: 
Da modo te facilem, et qnsedam folia esse memento 

Gonyeniant oculis quse magis apta suis. 
Si generosa ancilla tnos aut alma puella 

Visnra est Indos, annue, pande lubens. 
Dio utinam nunc ipse mens * (nam diligit istas) 

In preesens esset conspiciendns hems. 
Ignotus notusye mihi de gente togatll 

Siye aget in ludis, pulpita siye colet, 

* Bkc eomk^ dieta oaye ne mal^ capiaa. 
VOL. I. 2 

18 Democritus Junxor ad Lihrutn Suum, 

Siye in Lycceo, et nngas evolyerit istos, 

Si quasdam mendas viderit inspiciens, 
Da veniam Authori, dices; nam plurima Tellet 

Expungi, quas jam displicnisse sciat. 
Sive Melancholicus quisquam, sen blandns Amator, 

Aulicus ant Civis, sen ben^ comptns Eqnes 
Hnc appellat, age et tnt6 te cfede iegenti, 

Mnlta istic foraan non mal^ nata leget. 
Quod fugiat, caveat, qnodqne amplexabitur, ista 

Pagina fortassis promere mnlta potest 
At si quis Medicns coram te sistet, amice 

Fao circnmspect^, et te sine labe geras: 
Inyeniet namque ipse meis qnoque plnrima soriptii, 

Non leve subsidinm qnaa sibi forsan emnL 
Si qnis Causidions chartas impingat in istas, 

Nil mihi vobiscnm, pessima turba vale; 
Sit nisi vir bonus, et juris sine fraude peritus, 

Tum legat, et forsan doctior inde siet 
Si quis cordatus, facilis, lectorque benignus- 

Hue ocnlos vertat, quae velit ipse legat; 
Candid us ignoscet, metuas nil, pande libenter, 

Offensus mendis non erit ille tuis, 
Laudabit nonnulla. Venit si Rhetor ineptns, 

Limata et tersa, et qui ben^ cocta petit, 
Claude citus librum ; nulla hie nisi ferrea verba, 

Offendent stomachum quse miniis apta suum. 
At si quis non eximius de plebe poeta, 

Annue; namque istic plnrima ficta leget. 
Nos sumus ^ numero, nullus mihi spirat Apollo, 

Grandiloquus Yates quilibet esse neqnit 
Si Criticus Lector, tnmidus Censorque molestus, 

Zoilus et Momus, si rabiosa cohors : 
Binge, freme, et noli turn pandere, turba malignis 

Si occurrat sannis Invidiosa suis: 
Fac fugias; si nulla tibi sit copta eundi, 

Contemnes, tacitd scommata quseque feres. 
Frendeat, allatret, vacuas gannitibus auras 

Impleat, hand cures ; his placuisse nefas. 
Vemm age si forsan divertat purior hospes, 

Cuique sales, ludi, displiceantque joci,^ 
Objiciatque tibi sordes, lascivaque: dices, 

Lasciva est Domino et Musa jocosa tuo. 
Nee lasciva tamen, si pensitet omne; sed esto; 

Sit lasciva licet pagina, vita proba est. 
Barbarus, indocttisque rudis spectator in istam 

Si messem intrudat, fuste fugabis eum, 
Fnngum pelle procul ( jubeo) nam quid mihi fungo? 

Conveniunt stomaoho non minus ista suo. 

Democritus Junior ctd lAhrum Suum. 19 

Sed nee pelle tamen; Isto omnes aecipe valtn, 

Quos, qnas, vel quales, inde vel undo viroe. 
Gratns erit qnieunque venit, gratiMimns hospes 

Quisqnls erit, facilis difficilisque mihi. 
Nam si calp&rit, qnsedam cul passe javabit, 

Culpando faciet me meliora sequi. 
Sed si laud&rit, neque laudibus efferar nllis, 

Sit satis hisce malis opposuisse boniim. 
H»c sunt quss nostro placuit mandare libello, 

£t qiuB dimittens dicere jnssit Herat. 



Go forth my book into the open day; 

Happy, if made so by its garish eye. 
O'er earth's wide surface take thy vagrant way, 

To imitate thy master's genius try. 
The graces three, the Muses nine salute, 

Should those who love them try to con thy lore. 
The country, city seek, grand thrones to boot, 

With gentle courtesy humbly bow before. 
Should nobles gallant, soldiers frank and brave 

Seek thy acquaintance, hail their first advance: 
From twitch of care thy pleasant vein may save, 

May laughter cause or wisdom give perchance. 
Some surly Cato, Senator austere, 

Haply may wish to peep into thy book: 
Seem very nothing — tremble and revere : 

No forceful eagles, butterflies e'er look. 
They love not thee : of them then little seek, 

And wish for readers triflers like thyself. 
Of ludeful matron watchful catch the beck, 

Or gorgeous countess full of pride and pelf. 
They may say " pish ! " and frown, and yet read on: 

Cry odd, and silly, coarse, and yet amusing. 
Should dainty damsels seek thy page to con. 

Spread thy best stores: to them be ne'er refusing: 
Say, fair one, master loves thee dear asJife; 

Would he were here to gaze on thy sweet look. 
Should known or unknown student, free'd from strife 

Of logic and the schools, explore my book : 
Cry mercy critic, and thy book withhold : i 

Be some few errors pardonM though observ'd: ! 

An humble author to implore makes bold. 

Thy kind indulgence, even undesery*d. 

Democritus Junior to his Book. 23. 

Should melancholy wight or pensiye lover, 

Courtier, snug cit, or carpet knight so trim 
Our blossoms cull, he*ll find himself in cIoTer, 

Gain s^nse from precept, laughter from our whim. 
Should learned leech with solenm air unfold 

Thy leaves, beware, be civil, and be wises 
Thy volume many precepts sage may hold, 

His well fraught head may find no trifling prize. 
Should crafty lawyer trespass on our ground, 

Caitiffs avaunt ! disturbing tribe away I 
Unless (white crow) an honest one be found; 

He'll better, wiser go for what we say. 
Should some ripe scholar, gentle and benign, 

With candour, care, and judgment thee peruse: 
Thy faults to kind oblivion he'll consign ; 

Nor to thy merit will his praise refuse. 
Thou may'st be searched for polish'd words and verfe; 

By flippant spouter, emptiest of praters : 
Tell him to seek them in some mawkish verse : 

My periods all are rough as nutmeg graters. 
The doggrel poet, wishing thee to read. 

Reject not; let him glean thy jests and stories. 
His brother I, of lowly sembling breed: 

Apollo grants to few Parnassian glories. 
Henac'd by critic with sour furrowed brow, 

Momus or Troilus or Scotch reviewer: 
Buflie your heckle, grin and growl and vow: 

Ill-natured foes you thus will find the fewer. 
When foul-mouth'd senseless railers cry thee down, 

Reply not; fly, and show the rogues thy stem: 
They are not worthy even of a frown : 

Good taste or breeding they can never learn; 
Or let them clamour, turn a callous ear, 

As though in dread of some harsh donkey's bray 
If chid by censor, friendly though severe, 

To such explain and turn thee not away. 
Thy vein, says he perchance, is all too free; 

Thy smutty language suits not learned pen: 
Reply, Good Sir, throughout, the context see ; 

Thought chastens thought; so prithee judge again. 
Besides, although my master's pen may wander 

Through devious paths, by which it ought not stray 
His life is pure, beyond the breath of slander: 

So pardon grant; 'tis merely but his way. 
Some rugged ruffian makes a hideous rout — 

Brandish thy cudgel, threaten him to baste ; 
The filthy fungus far from thee cast out; 

Such noxious banquets never suit my taste. 

22 DemocrituB Junior to his Book. 

Yet, calm and cautious moderate thy ire, 

Be ever conrteous should the case allow — 
Sweet malt is ever made by gentle fire: 

Warm to thy friends, give all a civil bow. 
Even censure sometimes teaches to improve, 

Slight frosts have often cured too rank a crop, 
So candid blame my spleen shall never move, 

For skilful gard'ners wny ward branches lop. 
Go then, my book, and bear my words in mind; 
Guides safe at once, and pleasant them you'll find. 



TiH distinet Squares here seen apart, 
Are jirixied in one by Cutter's art. 

Old Democritus under a tree, 
Sits on a stone with book on knee; 
About him hang there many features, 
Of Cats, Dogs, and such like creatures, 
Of which he makes anatomy, 
The seat of black choler to see. 
Oyer his head appears the sky. 
And Saturn Lord of melancholy. 

To the left a landscape of Jealousy, 
Presents itself unto thine eye. 
A Kingfisher, a Swan, an Hern, 
Two fighting-cocks you may discern, 
Two roaring Bulls each other hie, 
To assault concerning venery. 
Symbols are these; I say no more, 
GonodTe the rest by that^s afore. 

The next of solitariness, 
A Portraiture doth well express. 
By Bleeping dog, cat : Buck and Doe, 
Hares, Conies in the desart go : 
Bats, Owls the shady bowers over, 
In melancholy darkness hover. 
Mark well : If 't be not as't should be, 
Blame the bad Cutter, and not me. 


F th' under column there doth stand 

Lmmorato with folded hand ; 

I>own hangs his head, terse and polite, 

Some ditty sure he doth indite. 

His lute and books about him lie. 

As symptoms of his Tanity. 

If this do not enough disclose. 

To paint him, take thyself by th' nose. 

Hypocondriaeus leans on his arm, 
Wind in his side doth him much harm, 
And troubles him full sore, Qod knows, 
Much pain he hath and many woes. 
About him pots and glasses lie. 
Newly brought from-s Apothe<»ry. 
This Saturn's aspects signify. 
Tea see them portray'd in the sky. 

Beneath them kneeling on his knee, 
A superstitious man you see : 
He fi^ts, prays, on his Idol flxt. 
Tormented hope and fear betwixt : 
For hell perhaps he takes more paf n, 
Than thou dost heaven itself to gain. 
Alas poor soul, I pity thee. 
What stars inciiae thee so to be f 

But see the madman rage downright 
With furious looks, a ghastly sight. 
Naked in chains bound doth he lie, 
And roars amain he knows not irhj ! 
Observe him ; for as in a glass. 
Thine angry portraiture it was 
His picture keeps still in thy presence ; 
'Twixt him and thee, there's no difBraence. 

ym, DC. 
Borate and HeUebor fill two scenes, 
Sovereign plants to purge the veins 
Of melancholy, and cheer the heart, 
Of those black fumes which make it smart ; 
To clear the brain of misty fogs. 
Which dull our senses, and Soul clogs. 
The best medicine that e'er Ood made 
For this malady, if well assay'd. 


Now last of all to fill a place. 
Presented is the Author's Jkoe ; 
And in that habit which he wears, 
His image to the world appears. 
His mind no art can well express. 
That by his writings you may guess. 
It was not pride, nor yet vain glory, 
(Though others do it commonly,) 
Made him do this : if you must know. 
The Printer would needs have it so. 
Then do not frown or scoff at it, 
Deride not, or detract a whit. 
For surely as thou dost by him. 
He will do the same again. 
Then look upon't, behold and see. 
As thou like'st it, so it likes thee. 
And I for it will stand in view. 
Thine to command. Reader, adieu. 

* These verses refer to the Frontlspleee, which is divided into ten compartments 
that are here severally explained. The author's portrait, mentioned in the tenth 
itinw, is copied in page 7. 


Wkbt I go masing all alone, 
p-Xbinking of diyera things Ibre-^own, 
/ W hen I build caetles in the air^ 
^Told of sorrow and yold of fear, 
Pleasing myself with phantasms sweet, 
Hethioks the time runs very fleet. 
All my Joys to this are folly, 
Naun&t 80 sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie waking all alone. 
Recounting what I have ill done» 
My thoughts on me then tyrannize. 
Fear and sorrow me surprise, 
Whether I tarry still or go, 
Methinks the time moves very slow. 
All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so sad ax melancholy. 
When to myself I act and smile, 
With pleasing thoughts the time begnile, 
By a brook side or wood so green, 
Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, 
A thousand pleasures do me bless, 
And crown my soul with happiness. 
All my joys besides are folly. 
None so sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie. sit, or walk alone, 
I sigh, I gneve, making great mone, 
In a dark grove, or irksome den. 
With discontents and Furies then, 
A thousand miseries at once 
Mine heavy heart and soul ensconee, 
All my griefi to this are Jolly, 
None so sour as melancholy. 
Methinks I hear, methinks I see, 
Sweet music, wondrous melody, 
Towns, palaces, and cities fine ; 
Here now, then there ; the world is mine, 
Bare beauties, gallant ladies shine, 
Whatever is lovely or divine. 
AU other Joys to this are fblly, 
Nene so sweet as melancholy. 
Methinks I hear, methinks I see 
Ohoets, goblins, fiends ; my fantasy 
Presents a thousand ugly shapes. 
Headless bears, black men, and apeS) 
Doleful outcries, and fearful sights. 
My sad and dismal soul affirights. 
All my grieft to this are Jolly, 
None so damn'd as melancho^. 

Methinks I conrt, methinks I Uss, 
Methinks I now embrace my mishin. 

blessed days, sweet content, 
In Paradise my time is spent. 

Such thoughts may still my fitncy mov*, 
So may I ever be in love. 
All my joys to this are IbUy, 
Naught so sweet as melaneholy. 
When I recount love's many firights. 
My sighs and tears, my waking nights, 
My jealous fits ; mine hard &te 

1 now repent, but 'tis too late. 
No torment is so bMl as love, 
So bitter to my soul can prove. 

All my grieft to this are Jolly, 
Naught so harsh as melancholy. 
Friends and companions get yon gone, 
'Tis my desire to be alone ; 
Ne'er well but when my thoughts and I 
Do domineer in privacy. 
No Gem, no treasure like to this, 
'lis my delight, my crown, my bliss. 
All my joys to this are IbUy, 
Naught so sweet as melancholy. 
'Tis my sole plague to be alone, 
I am a beast, a monster grown, 
I will no light nor company, 
I find it now my misery. 
The scene is turn'd, my joys are gone, 
Fear, discontent, and sorrows come. 
All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Naught so fierce as melancholy. 
I'll not change life with any King, 
I ravisht am : can the world bring 
More joy, than still to laugh and smile, 
In pleasant toys time to beguile ? 
Do not, do not trouble me, 
So sweet content I feel and see. 
All my joys to this are fblly, 
None so divine as melancholy. 
I'll change my state with any wretch. 
Thou canst from jail or dunghill fetch 
My pain's past cure, another hell, 
I may not in this torment dwell ! 
Now desperate I hate my life, 
Lend me a halter or a knife ; 
All my grielSs to this are jolly. 
Naught so damn'd as melancoftly. 




Gentle Reader, I presume thou wilt be very inquisitiYe 
to know what antic or personate actor this is, that so inso- 
lently intrudes upon this common theatre, to the world's 
view, arrogating another man's name ; whence he is, why he 
doth it, and what he hath to say ; although, as ^ he said, 
Primum si noluero, non respondebo, quis coacturtu estf I 
am a free man bom, and may choose whether I will tell ; 
who can compel me ? If I be urged, I will as readily reply 
as that Egyptian in ' Plutarch, when a curious fellow would 
needs know what he had in his basket, Quum vides vekUamy 
quid inquiris in rem absconditam ? It was therefore covered, 
because he should not know what was in it. Seek not after 
that which is hid ; if the contents please thee, '^ * and be for, 
thy use, suppose the Man in the Moon, or whom thou wilt to 
be the Author ; " I would not willingly be known. Yet in 
some sort to give thee satisfaction, which is more than I 
need, I will show a reason, both of this usurped name, title, 
and subject. And first of the name of Democritus; lest 
any man, by reason of it, should be deceived, expecting a 
pasquil, a satire, some ridiculous treatise (as I myself should 
have done), some prodigious tenet, or paradox of the earth's 

1 Seneca in ludo in mortem Clandii Caa- hieo tibi nral sint, qnemTis anctorem tin- 
luifl. s Lib. de Coziodtate. 'ModA gito. Weokor. 

26 Democritus to the Reader. 

motion, of infinite worlds, in infinito vacuOy ex fartuitd cUO' 
marum coUinane, in an infinite waste, so caused by an acci- 
dental collision of motes in the sun, all which Democritus 
held, Epicurus and their master Lucippus of old maintained^ 
and are lately revived hj Copernicus, Brunus, and some 
others. Besides, it hath been always an ordinary custom, as 
* Gellius observes, " for later writers and impostors, to broach 
many absurd and insolent fictions, under the name of so 
noble a philosopher as Democritus, to get themselves credit, 
and by that means the more to be respected,'* as artificers 
usually do. Novo qui marmori aecrihunt PraxatHem suo. 
Tis not so with me. 

< Kon hie Centauros, non Gorgonas, Harpyasqne 
InvoDies, hominem pagina nostra sapit. 

No Centaurs here, or Gorgons look to find, 
My subject is of man and human kind. 

Thou thyself art the subject of my discourse. 

' Quicquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 
Gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli. 

Whatever men do, vows, fears, in ire, in sport, 
Joys, wand'rings, are the sum of my report 

My intent is no otherwise to use his name, than Mercurius 
Gallobelgicus, Mercurius Britannicus, use the name of Mer- 
cury, ^ Democritus Christianus, &c ; although there be some 
other circumstances for which I have masked myself under 
this vizard, and some peculiar respect which I cannot so 
well express, until I have set down a brief character of this 
our Democritus, what he was, with an Epitome of his life. 

Democritus, as he is described by 'Hippocrates and 'Laer- 
tius, was a little wearish old man, very melancholy by 
nature, averse from comjpany in his latter days,^ and much 
given to solitariness, a famous philosopher in his age, ^ co€bvus 
with Socrates, wholly addicted to his studies at the last, and 

1 lib. 10, c. 12. Multa 4 mal6 feriatis leo edit. ColoniaB, 1816. & Hip. Epist 

in Democriti nomine commenta data, no- Dam^pet. * LaSrt lib. 9. 7 Hortulo 

bilitatis, auctoritatlsqae ^us perfugio sibi cellnlam seligens, ibiqne seipsum 

utentlbus. > MartialLs, lib. 10, eptgr. includenii, Tizit solitarius. s Floruit 

14. s Jut. Sat. 1 « Auth. Pet. Bes- Olympiade 80; 700 annis post Trolam. 

Democritus to the JReader. 27 

to a private life ; wrote many excellent works, a great divine, 
according to the divinity of those times, an expert physician, 
a politician, an excellent mathematician, as ^ Diacosmus and 
the rest of his works do witness. He was much delighted 
with the studies of husbandry, saith ^ Columella, and oflen I 
find him cited by * Constantinus, and others treating of that 
subject He knew the natures, differences of all beasts, 
plants, fishes, birds ; and, as some say, could ^ understand the 
tunes and voices of them. In a word, he was ammfanam 
doctusj a general scholar, a great student ; and to the intent 
he might better contemplate, • I find it related by some, that 
he put out his eyes, and was in his old age voluntarily blind, 
yet saw more than all Greece besides, and •writ of every 
subject, JNihil in toto opificio natur<By de quo non scripsit^ 
A man of an excellent wit, profound conceit ; and to attain 
knowledge the better in his younger years he travelled to 
Egypt and ^ Athens, to confer with learned men, * ^ admired 
of some, despised of others." After a wandering life, he 
settled at Abdera, a town in Thrace, and was sent for thither 
to be their lawmaker, recorder, or town-clerk, as some will ; 
or, as others, he was there bred and bom. Howsoever it 
was, there he lived at last in a garden in the suburbs, wholly 
betaking himself to his studies and a private life, ^^ "• saving 
that sometimes he would walk down to the haven, ^and 
laugh heartily at such variety of ridiculous objects, which 
there he saw." Such a one was Democritus. 

But in the mean time, how doth this concern me, or upon 
what reference do I usurp this habit ? I confess, indeed, that 
to compare myself unto him for aught I have yet said, were 
both impudency and arrogancy. I do not presume to make 

1 Bineos. qnod cnnetlfl opexibtu JfadU ioa, libexales disdplinaB, artiiiinqiie om- 

ezcellit. Lagrt. > Col. lib. 1, c. 1. niam peritiam callebat. f Nothing in 

> Const, lib. de agric. passim. ^ Volu- natare*8 power to contriTe of which he 

cram Toces et lingoas intelUgere se dicit has not written. & Veni Athenas, et 

Abderitans Bp. Hip. 6 Sabellicus ex- nemo me noTit. > Idem contemptui et 

empl. lib. 10. Ocalis se privavit, nt me- admirationi habitus, lo Solebat ad por- 

Has contemplatiooi operam daret, sab- tarn ambalare, et inde, &c. Hip. Bp. 

limi vir ingenio, profundn cogitationis, Dameg. ^^ Perpetao risa palmonem 

&e. • Nataralia, moralia, mathemat- agitaie solebat Democxitos. Jay. Sat. 7* 

28 JDemocriius to the Reader. 

any parallel^ AnHetcU tmhi tmUihue treeemtiey ^parvw eum, 
mUlue euniy akum nee tpiro, nee qpera. Yet thus much I 
will say of myself, and that I hope without all su^icion of 
pride, or self-conoeit, I have lived a silent, sedentary, solitary, 
private life, miht et mtuis in the University, as long almost aa 
Xenocrates in Athens, cui senectam fere to kam wisdom as 
he did, penned up most part in my study. For I have been 
brought up a student in the most flourishing college of 
Europe, ^auguttissimo coUegio, and can brag with 'Jovins^ 
almost, in ed Ittce domicilii Vaticanij totius orbis ceUherrimiiy 
per 37 annoe mtdta opportunaque didici ;'* for thirty years 
I have continued (having the use of as good ^libraries aa 
ever he had) a scholar, and would be therefore loth, either 
by living as a drone, to be an unprofitaUe or unworthy mencK 
ber of so learned and noble a society, or to write that whick 
should be any way dishonourable to such a royal and an^le 
foundation. Something I have done, though by my profes* 
sion a divine, yet turhine raptue ingenii, as *he said, out of a 
running wit, an unconstant, unsettled mind, I had a great 
desire (not able to attain to a superficial skill in any) to have 
some smattering in all, to be aliguis in omnibus^ nuHtu in 
eingidis,^ which ^ Plato commends, out of him * Lipsius ap- 
proves and furthers, ^' as fit to be imprinted in all curious 
wits, not to be a slave of one science, or dwell together ia 
one subject, as most do, but to rove abroad, centum puer 
artium, to have an oar in every man's boat, to * taste of 
every dish, and sip of every cup," which, saith ^^ Montaigne, 
was well performed by Aristotle, and his learned countryman 
Adrian Tumebus. This roving humour (though not with 
like success) I have ever had, and like a ranging spaniel, 
that barks at every bird he sees, leaving his game, I have 
followed all, saving that which I should, and may justly 

1 Non sam dlgnns pnestare matdla. oupidis et eariosifl tngenila imprimendnm, 

Hurt. > Christ Church in Oxford. ut sit talis qui nulii rei serriat, ant ex- 

* PrsBftkt. hist. * Keeper of our college actd unnm aliquid elaboret, alia negli- 

library, latelv rerired hy Otho Nlcolson, gens, ut artifices, &c. > Delibare gra- 

Isqnire. » Scaliger. * Somebody in turn de quocnnque dbo, et pitisare da 

eTerything, nobody in each thing, f In quocunqne dolio jucunduxn. ^or 

Theat. < PhU. Stole, li. diff. 8. Dogma Ub.8. 

Democritus to the Evader. 2t 

oomplain, and truly, qui ubique estj nusquam est^ which 
* Greener did in modesty, that I have read many books, but 
to little purpose, for want of good method ; I have confusedly 
tumbled over divers authors in our libraries, with small profit 
for want of art, order, memory, judgment I never travelled 
but in map or card, in which my unconfined thoughts have 
freely expatiated, as having ever been especially delighted 
with the study of cosmography. 'Saturn was lord of my 
geniture, culminating, <&c., and Mars principal significator of 
manners, in partile conjunction with my ascendant ; both for- 
tunate in their houses, &c I am not poor, I am not rich ; 
fUkU est, nihil deest, I h^ve little, I want nothing: all my 
treasure is in Minerva's tower. Greater preferment as I 
could never get, so am I not in debt for it, I have a compe- 
tence (laug Deo) from my noble and munificent patrons^ 
though I live still a collegiate student, as Democritus in his 
garden, and lead a monastic life, ipse mihi thecUrum, seques- 
tered from those tumults and troubles of the world, M tan* 
qtuxm in specvkb positus {*bs he said), in some high place 
above you all, like Stoicus Sapiens, omnia scecvla, praterita 
presentiaque videnSy uno vehU intuitu, I hear and see what is 
done abroad, how others ^run, ride, turmoil, and macerate 
themselves in court and country, far from those wrangling 
lawsuits, ctuke vanitatem, fori amMtionem, ridere mecum soUo : 
I laugh at all, 'only secure lest my suit go amiss, my ships 
perish, com and cattle miscarry, trade decay, I have no wife 
nor children good or bad to provide for. A mere spectator 
of other men's fortunes and adventures, and how they act 
their parts, which methinks are diversely presented unto me 
as from a common theatre or scene. I hear new news every 
day, and those ordinary rumours of war, plagues, fires, inun* 
dations, thefts, murders, massacres, meteors, comets, speo- 

1 He that is everywhere is nowhere, strepitam, eontentlones, &c. * Cyp. 

* Prasfint. bibHothec. s Ambo fortes et ad Donat. Unioe sMurus, ne excidam in 
fortunati, Mars idem mafflBterii domiaus foro, aut in mari Indico bonis eloa, d« 
Jnxta primam Leovitm regulam. dote flliie, patrimonio fUii non ram sollel* 

* Hensias. * Calide ambientes, solicite tus. 
littfantes, ant misere exoidentes, roces, 


80 Democrttus to the Header. 

trums, prodigies, apparitions, of towns taken^ cities besieged 
in France, Germany, Turkey, Persia, Poland, &c, daily mus- 
ters and preparations, and such like; which these tempestuous 
times afford, battles fought, so many men slain, monomachies, 
shipwrecks, piracies, and sea-fights; peace, leagues, stratar 
gems, and fresh alarms. A vast confusion of tows, wishes, 
actions, edicts, petitions, lawsuits, pleas, laws, proclamations, 
complaints, grievances, are daily brought to our ears. New 
books every day, pamphlets, currantoes, stories, whole cata- 
logues of volumes of all sorts, new paradoxes, opinions, 
schisms, heresies, controversies in philosophy, religion, &c. 
Now come tidings of weddings, maskings, mummeries, enter- 
tainments, jubilees, embassies, tilts and tournaments, trophies, 
triumphs, revels, sports, plays ; then again, as in a new shifted 
scene, treasons, cheating tricks, robberies, enormous villainies 
in all kinds, funerals, burials, deaths of princes, new discov- 
eries, expeditions, now comical, then tragical matters. To- 
day we hear of new lords and officers created, to-morrow of 
some great men deposed, and then again of fresh honours 
conferred; one is let loose, another imprisoned; one pur- 
chaseth, another breaketh; he thrives, his neighbour turns 
bankrupt; now plenty, then again dearth and famine; one 
runs, another rides, wrangles, laughs, weeps, &c. Thus I 
daily hear, and such like, both private and public news, 
amidst the gallantry and miseiy of the world ; jollity, pride, 
perplexities and cares, simplicity and villainy; subtlety, 
knavery, candour, and integrity, mutually mixed and offering 
themselves; 1 rub on privtts privatus ; as I have still lived, 
so I now continue, statu quo prius, left to a solitary life, and 
mine own domestic discontents ; saving that sometimes, ne 
quid mentiar, as Diogenes went into the city, and Democritus 
to the haven to see fashions, I did for my recreation now and 
then walk abroad, look into the world, and could not choose 
but make some little obsei*vation, non tarn $agax observatory 
ac simplex recitator,^ not as they did, to scoff or laugh at all, 
but with a mixed passion. 

1 Not 80 tsgacioiu an obierfw m Bimple a narrator. 

DemocritiLs to the Reader, 31 

1 ** Bilem ssepd, jocum vestri movdre tumultus.** 

Ye wretched mimics, whose fond heats have been, 
How oft ! the objects of my mirth and spleen. 

I did sometime laugh and scoff with Lucian, and satiri- 
cally tax with Menippus, lament with Heraclitus, sometimes 
again I was ^petvkmti splene cachinno, and then again, 
^urere bilisjecur, I was much moved to see that ahuse which 
I could not mend. In which passion howsoever I may sym- 
pathize with him or them, 'tis for no such respect I shroud 
myself under his name ; but either in an unknown habit to 
assume a little more liberty and freedom of speech, or if you 
will needs know, for that reason and only respect which Hip- 
pocrates relates at large in his Epistle to Damegetus, wherein 
he doth express, how coming to visit him one day, he found 
Democritus in his garden at Abdera, in the suburbs, * under 
a shady bower, ^ with a book on his knees, busy at his study, 
sometimes writing, sometimes walking. The subject of his 
book was melancholy and madness ; about him lay the car- 
casses of many several beasts, newly by him cut up and 
anatomized ; not that he did contemn God's creatures, as he 
told Hippocrates, but to find out the seat of this aira hilisy or 
melancholy, whence it proceeds, and how it was engendered 
in men's bodies, to the intent he might better cure it in him- 
self, and by his writings and observations • teach others how 
to prevent and avoid it Which good intent of his, Hippoc- 
rates highly commended; Democritus Junior is therefore 
bold to imitate, and because he lefl it imperfect,.and it id now 
lost, qtum succenturiator Democriii, to revive again, pros- 
ecute, and finish in this treatise. 

You have had a reason of the name. If the title and in- 
scription offend your gravity, were it a sufficient justification 
to accuse others, I could produce many sober treatises, even 

1 Hor. Sp. lib. 1, ziz 20. * Per. A posite oonsidebat, super genua Yolumen 

laugher with a petulant spleen. > Hor. habens, et utoinque alia patentia parata, 

lib. 1, sat. 9. * Secundum moenia locus dissectaque animalia cumulatim strata, 

erat frondosis populis opacus, yitibusque quorum viscera rimabatur. * Ciiia 

fponte natis, tenuis prope aqua ddiuehat, mundus extra se sit, et mente oaptus sit, 

placide murmurans, ubi sedile et domus et nesciat se languere, ut medeUun adhlb* 

Democriti conspiciebatur. ^ Ipse com- eat. 




82 Democritui to the Reader, 

sennoDS themselves, which in tiheir fronts cany more fantas- 
tical names. Howsoever, it is a kind of policj in these Sajs^ 
to prefix a fantastical title to a hook which is to be sold ; for, 
as larks come down to a day-net, many vain readers will 
tarry and stand gazing like silly passengers at an antic pio- 
tixre in a painter's shop, that will not look at a judicioas 
piece. And, indeed, as ^Scaliger observes, ^nothing more 
invites a reader than an argument unlooked for, unthought 
of, and sells better than a scurrile pamphlet," turn maxime 
cum novitas excitat * palatum, " Many men," saith Grellius, 
" are very conceited in their inscriptions," " and able (as 
^ PHny quotes out of Seneca) to make him loiter by the way 
that went in haste to fetch a midwife for his daughter, now 
ready to lie down." For my part, I have Ixmourable • prece- 
dents for this which I have done: I will cite one for aD, 
Anthony Zara, Pap. Episc., his Anatomy of Wit, in four 
sections, members, subsections, &c, to be read in our libra- 

If any man except against the matter or manner of treat- 
ing of this my subject, and will demand a reason of it, I can 
allege more than one ; I write of melancholy, by being busy 
to avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melan- 
choly than idleness, '^ no better cure than business," as 
^ Rhasis holds ; and howbeit, stvUtiS labor est ineptiarum^ to 
be busy in toys is to small purpose, yet hear that divine 
Seneca, alitid agere quxem nihil, better do to no end, than 
nothing. I wrote, therefore, and busied myself in this play- 
ing labour, otiosaq. diligentid ut vitarem torporem feriandi 
with Yectius in Macrobius, atq* atium in utile verterem nego- 


* Simnl et jncnnda et idoDoa dicere Yitn, 
Lectorem deleotando Bimnl atqne monendo. 

ifloaliger, Bp. ad Patisonem. Nihil trioempartnrienttflliaBaoeenenti moram 

maglB kctonsn inyitat quam inopinatum injioere poasunt. > Anatomy of Popery, 

azgumentam, neqne TendiUlior mwx est Anatomy of Immortality, Ans^lus rnbuif 

qidun petulans liber. * lib. xx. c. 11. Anatomy of Antimony, &o. ^ Cont. 

Ifizai teqanntor inseriptionam festtritar 1. 4, o. 9. Non est cura melior qnlum 

te>. I Prao&t. Nat. Hist. Patri obste- labor. » Hor. De Arte Poet. 

Democritus to the Header, 38 

Poets would profit or delight mAnkind, 

And with the pleasing have th* instructive joinM. 

Profit and pleasure, then, to mix witii art, 
T' inform the judgment, nor offend the heart, 
Shall gain all votes. 

To this end I write, like them, saith Lucian, that " recite 
to trees, and declaim to pillars for want of auditors ; " as 

* Paulus ^gineta ingenuously confesseth, " not that anything 
was unknown or omitted, but to exercise myself," which 
course if some took, I think it would be good for their bodies, 
and much better for their souls ; or peradventure as others 
de, for fame, to show myself {Scire tuum nihil est, msi te 
scire hoc sciat alter), I might be of Thucydides's opinion, . / 

* ^ to know a thing and not to express it, is all one as if he 
knew it not." When I first took this task in hand, et quuod 
ait *iUe, impeHente genio negotium stiscepi, this I aimed at; 

* vel ut lenirem animum scribendo, to ease my mind by writ- 
ing ; for I had gravidum cor^foetum caput, a kind of impos- 
thume in my head, which I was veiy desirous to be unladen 
of, and could imagine no fitter evacuation than this. Besides, 
I might not well refrain, for ubi dolor, ibi digitus, one must 
needs scratch where it itches. I was not a little offended 
with this malady, shall I say my Mistress " melancholy," my 
^geria, or my mains genius ? and for that cause, as he that 
is stung with a scorpion, I would expel clavum clavo^ ^ com- 
fort one sorrow with another, idleness with idleness, ut ex 
viperd ITieriaewm, make an antidote out of that which was 
the prime cause of my disease. Or as he did, of whom 
•Felix Plater speaks, that thought he had some of Aris- 
tophanes's frogs in his belly, still crying Brecc, chex, coax, 
^soax, oop, oop, and for that cause studied physic seven years, 
and travelled over most part of Europe to ease himself. 
To do myself good I turned over such physicians as our 

1 Non quod de novo quid addere, ant i si neadret. * Jovias PraBf. Hist, 

veteribus prsetonnissam, md proprise ex- * JSraamus. ^ Otium otio dolorem d»- 

flfreitationis cansi. ^ Qid novit, neque lore sum solatus. * Obsenrat. L 1. 
id quod sentit ezprimit, peiinde est ac 

VOL. I. 8 


84 DemocrittM to the Reader. 

libraries would afford, or my * private friends impart, and 
have taken this pains. And why not ? Cardan professeth 
he wrote his book, " De CJonsolatione " after his son's death, 
to comfort himself; so did TuUy write of the same subject 
with like intent after his daughter's departure, if it be his at 
least, or some impostor^s put out in his name, which Lipsius 
probably suspects. Concerning myself, I can perad venture 
affirm with Marius in Sallust, * " that which others hear or 
read of, I felt and practised myself; they get their knowl- 
edge by books, I mine by melancholizing." Experto crede 
Roberto. Something I can speak out of experience, cerum^ 
nahilis experientia me docuit; and with her in the poet, 
* Haud ignara mali miseris succurrere disco ; I would help 
others out of a fellow-feeling ; and, as that virtuous lady did 
of old, *** being a leper herself, bestow all her portion to 
build an hospital for lepers," I will spend my time and 
knowledge, which are my greatest fortunes, for the common 
good of all. 

Yea, but you will infer that this is • actum agere, an un- 
necessary work, cramhen his coctam apponere, the same again 
and again in other words. To what purpose ? * " Nothing 
is omitted that may well be said," so thought Lucian in the 
like theme. How many excellent physicians have written 
just volumes and elaborate tracts of this subject ? No news 
here ; that which I have is stolen from others, ^ Didtque mihi 
mea paffina, fur es. If that severe doom of * Synesius be 
true, " it is a greater offence to steal dead men's labours, than 
their clothes," what shall become of most writers ? I hold 
up my hand at the bar among others, and am guilty of felony 
in this kind, habes confitentem reum, I am content to be 
pressed with the rest. 'Tis most true, tenet insanaUle muUos 

1 M. Joh. Rous, our Protobib. Oxon. I learn to pity them." < Cunden, Ipsa 

M. Hopper, M. Guthridge, &c. * Quae elephantiasi correpta elephantiasis hos- 

illi audire et legere solent, eorum partim plcium construxit. ^ Iliada post Home- 

yidi egomet. aTia gessi, quae illi Uteris, rum. o Nihil prsetermissum quod a 

ego militando didici, nunc vos existimate quovis did possit. 7 Martialis. 

fttcta an dicta pluris sint. 3 Dido Virg. b Magis impium mortuorum lucubia 

'* Taught by that Power that pities me, tiones, qu^ Testes forari. 

Democritus to the Reader* 35 

scfibendi cacoethes, and ^" there is no end of writing of books," 
as the Wise-man found of old, in this ^scribbling age, especial- 
ly, wherein * " the number of books is without number, (as a 
worthy man saith,) presses be oppressed," and out of an itch- 
ing humour that every man hath to show himself, * desirous 

of fame and honour (scribimus indocti doctique ), he will 

write no matter what, and scrape together it boots not whence. 
• " Bewitched with this desire of fame, etiam mediis in morUsy 
to the disparagement of their health, and scarce able to hold 
a pen, they must say something, • " and get themselves a 
name," saith Scaliger, " though it be to the downfall and ruin 
of many others." To be counted writers, scriptores ut salu- 
tentur, to be thought and held Polumathes and Polyhistors, 
aptid imperitum vvlguB oh ventosce nomen arits, to get a paper 
kingdom : nuUd spe qtuestits sed ampld farruB^ in this precip- 
itate, ambitious age, nunc ut est seeculum, inter immaturam 
eruditioneniy anUntiosum et prceceps ('tis ^ Scaliger's censure) / 
and they that are scarce auditors, vix auditores, must be mas- 
ters and teachers, before they be capable and fit hearers. 
They will rush into all learning, togcUam armatam, divine, 
human authors, rake over all indexes and pamphlets for 
notes, as our merchants do strange havens for traffic, write 
great tomes, Oum nan sint re vera doctiores, sed loquaciores, 
whereas they are not thereby better scholars, but greater 
praters. They commonly pretend public good, but as ' Ges- 
ner observes, 'tis pride and vanity that eggs them on; no 
news or aught worthy of note, but the same in other terms. 
Nie fenarentur fortasse typographic vel ideo scribendum est 
aliquid ut se viodsse testentur. As apothecaries we make new 
mixtures every day, pour out of one vessel into another ; and 
as those old Romans robbed all the cities of the world, to set 

1 Eccl. ult. s libros Bunuchi gig- Baronius. * Ex ruinis alieiue ezistima- 
nunt, steriles pariunt. < D. King prse- tionis sibi gradum ad &mam struunt. 
&t. lect. Jonas, tlie late right reverend 7 Exercit. 288. ^ Omnes sibi famam 
Lord B. of London. * Homines famelici quserunt et quovis modo in orbem spargi 
glorias ad ostentationem eruditionis an- contendunt, ut noTSB alicnjusreihabean- 
diqae congerunt. Buchananus. <^Ef- tor anctores. Prsef. biblioth. 
ftcinati etiam laudis amore, &c. Justus 

36 Democritui to the Reader. 

out their bad-sited Bome^ we skim off the cream of otheh* 
men's wits, pick the choice flowers of their tilled gardens to 
«et out our own sterile plots. Caxtrant alios ut lihros suae per 
4e gracihi alteno adipe mffarciant (so * Jovius inveighs).' 
Thej lard their lean books with the fdX of other^s works. 
Ineruditi fures^ &c. A fault that every writer finds, as I do 
now, and yet faulty themselves, ^Trium Uterarum homineg, 
all thieves : they pilfer out of old writers to stuff up their 
new comments, scrape Ennius's dunghills, and out of ' De- 
mocritus's pit, as I have done. By which means it comes to 
pass, ' ^' that not only libraries and shops are fuU of oar putrid 
papers, but every clos^««tool and jakes, ScriburU carmina qum 
legunt cacantes ; they serve to put under pies, to ^ lap spioe 
In, and keep roast-meat from burning. *^ With us in France,'* 
«aith * Scaliger, " every man hath liberty to write, but few 
Ability. ® Heretofore learning was graced by judicioos schol*^ 
ars, but now noble sciences are vilified by base and illiterate 
scribblers," that either write for vainglory, need, to get 
money, or as parasites to flatter and collogue with some 
.great men, they put out ^ hurrax^ qvisquiUasque ineptiasque, 
* Amongst so many thousand authors you shall scarce find 
<one, by reading of whom you shall be any whit better, hxA 
rather much worse, qmhus inficitur potius quam perfidtur^ 
by which he is rather infected than any way perfected. 

9 Qui talia legit, 
Quid didicit tandem, quid scit nisi somniai nugas ? 

So that oflfcentimes it falls out (which Callimachus taxed of 
old) a great book is a great mischief. ^^ Cardan finds fault 
"with Frenchmen and Grermans, for their scribbling to no 
{Mirpose, nan inquit ah edendo deterreoy tnodo novum aliquid 
inventant, he doth not bar them to write, so that it be some 

* Pm&t. hist. 1 Plautiu. > H sbrdent ob homines. ^ Axis. pac. 

Dtmooriti puteo. • Non tain refertn 8 Inter tot mille yolnmina viz nnuB a 

bibllotheeee quam cloacae. ^ Et qnic- cujus lectione quia melior eTadat, immo 

i^otd cartis amlcttnr ineptls. ^ Epist. potius non p^or. * Palingenlos. What 

«d Petas. tn regno Francite omnibus scri- does any one, who reads such works, lean 

bendi datur libertas, paucis fitcnltas. or know but dreams and trifling thing!. 

I Olim litersB ob homines in precio, nunc ^ JAh. 6, de &tp. 

DemocnHts to ^ Header^ S7 

new invention of their own ; but we weave the same web 
Btill, twist the same rope again and again ; or if it be a new 
invention, 'tis but some bauble or toy which idle fellows write^ 
for as idle fellows to read, and who so cannot invent ? * " Ha 
must have a barren wit, that in this scribbling age can forge 
nothing. 2 Princes show their armies, rich men vaunt their 
buildings, soldiers their manhood, and scholars vent their 
toys;" they must read, they must hear whether they will or no, 

< £t quodcunqae semel ehartis illeyerit, omnes 
Gestiet a furno redeuates scire lacuque, 
Et pueros et anus— . 

What once is said and writ, all men must know, 
Old wives and children as they come and go. 

^ What a company of poets hath this year brought out," as 
Pliny complains to Sossius Sinesius. * " This April every 
day some or other have recited." What a catalogue of new 
books all this year, all this age (I say), have our Frankfort 
Marts, our domestic Marts brought out? Twice a jesr^ 
* " Profenmt se nova ingenia et ostentant, we stretch our wita 
out, and set them to sale, magno canatu nihil agimus* So 
that which • Gesner much desires, if a speedy reformation 
be not had, by some Prince's Edicts and grave Supervisors, 
to restrain this liberty, it will run on in infinitum, Quis tarn 
avidus librorum heUuo, who can read them ? As already, wq 
shall have a vast chaos and confusion of books, we are ^ op** 
pressed with them, ® our eyes ache with reading, our fingers 
with turning. For my part I am one of the number nos numerus 
sttmvs (we are mere ciphers) : I do not deny it, I have only 
this of Macrobius to say for myself, Omns meum, nihil meum^ 
'tis all mine and none mine. As a good housewife out of 
divers fleeces weaves one piece of cloth, a bee gathers wax 

1 sterile oportet esse in|(enium quod in aiguautur auctorum furto et millies rep- 
hoc scripturientum pruritus, &c. etita toU&ntur, et temere scribendi 11- 
3 Cardan, prtef. ad Coosol. ^ Qor. ^b. 1, bido coerceatur, a^ter in infinitum pro- 
sat. 4. * Epist. lib. 1. Magnum poeta- gressura. 7 Oaerabuntur ingenia, nemo 
rum proTentum annus hie attulit, mense l^^ndia suf&cit. ^ Libris obruimur, 
Apriu nullus fere dies quo non aliquis re< ocuU legendo, manus volitando doient. 
eitavit. & Idem. * Princlpibus et Fam, Strada Mono, Lucretius, 
loctoribus deliberandum relinquo, ut 

S^ Democritus to the Reader. 

and honey out of many flowers, and makes a new bundle of 
all, Fhriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant, I have labori- 
ously 1 collected this Cento out of divers writers, and that 
tine injuridy I have wronged no authors, but given every 
man his own ; which * Hierom so much commends in Nepo- 
tian ; he stole not whole verses, pages, tracts, as some do 
nowadays, concealing their authors' names, but still said this 
was Cyprian's, that Lactantius, that Hillarius, so said Minu- 
tius Felix, so Victorinus, thus far Arnobius : I cite and quote 
mine authors (which, howsoever some illiterate scribblers 
account pedantical, as a cloak of ignorance, and opposite to 
their affected fine style, I must and will use) sumpsi, non 
surripui ; and what Varro, lib. 6, de re rust, speaks of bees, 
minime maleJiccB nuUitis opus veUicantes faciunt deteriusj I 
can say of myself. Whom have I injured? The matter is 
theirs most part, and yet mine, apparet unde sumptum sit 
(which Seneca approves), aliiid tamen qudm unde sumptum 
sit apparet, which nature doth with the aliment of our bodies 
incorporate, digest, assimilate, I do concoquere quod hausi, dis- 
pose of what 1 take. I make them pay tribute, to set out this 
my Maceronicon, the method only is mine own, I must usurp 
that of ' Wecker h Ter, nihil dictum qv^d non dictum prius, 
methodus sola artijicem ostendit, we can say nothing but what 
hath been said, the composition and method is ours only, and 
shows a scholar. Oribasius, JEsius, Avicenna, have all out of 
Galen, but to their own method, diverso stilo, non diversd fide. 
Our poets steal from Homer ; he spews, saith -^lian, they lick 
it up. Divines use Austin's words verbatim still, and our story- 
dressers, do as much ; he that comes last is commonly best. 

donee quid grandins setas 
Postera sorsqne ferat melior. ^ 

Though there were many giants of old in Physic and Philos- 

1 Qaicquid nbique bene dictam fkcio illud Cyp. hoc Lact. illud Hilar, est, fta 

meum, et illud nunc meis a I compendi- Victorinus, in hunc modum loquutus est 

am, nunc ad fidem et auctoritatem alienis Arnobius, J8bc. ^ Praef. ad Syntax med. 

exprimo verbis, omnes auctores meos cli- * Until a later afjje and a happier lot pro- 

entes esse arbitror, &c. Sarisburiensis duce something more truly grand, 
ad Polycrat. prol. ^ In Epitaph. Nep. 

Democritus to the Header, 39 

ophy, yet I say with * Didacus Stella, " A dwarf standing on 
the shoulders of a giant may see farther than a giant him- 
self;" I may likely add, alter, and see farther than my 
predecessors ; and it is no greater prejudice for me to indite 
after others, than for ^lianus Montaltus, that famous physi- 
cian, to write de morbis capitis after Jason Pratensis, Heur- 
nius, Hildesheim, &c., many horses to run in a race, one 
logician, one rhetorician, after another. Oppose then what 

thou wilt, 

Allatres licet usque noe et usque, 
£t Gannitibus improbis lacessas. 

I solve it thus. And for those other faults of barbarism, 
^ Doric dialect, extemporanean style, tautologies, apish imita- 
tion, a rhapsody of rags gathered together from several dung- 
hills, excrements of authors, toys and fopperies confusedly 
tumbled out, without art, invention, judgment, wit, learning, 
harsh, raw, rude, fantastical, absurd, insolent, indiscreet, ill- 
composed, indigested, vain, scurrile, idle, dull, and dry ; I 
confess all ('tis partly affected), thou canst not think worse 
of me than I do of myself. 'Tis not worth the reading, I 
yield it, I desire thee not to lose time in perusing so vain a 
subject, I should be peradventure loth myself to read him or 
thee so writing ; 'tis not operce pretium. All I say is this, 
that I have * precedents for it, which Isocrates calls "perfugium 
iis qui peccant^ others as absurd, vain, idle, illiterate, &c. 
NonnvUi alii idem fecerunt ; others have done as much, it 
may be more, and perhaps thou thyself, Novimm et qui te^ 
&C. We have all our faults ; scimus, et hanc veniam, &c. ; 
* thou censurest me, so have I done others, and may do thee, 
Cedimus inque vicemy&Cy 'tis lex taliones, quid pro quo. Go 
now, censure, criticize, scoff, and rail. 

fi Nasutus sis usque licet, sis denique nasus: 
Non potes in nugas dicere plura meas, 
Ipse ego quam dixi, &c. 

.1 In Lno. 10, torn. 2. Pigmei Gigantum apes. Lipslus adyenras dialoglst. * Uno 

hnmeris impoRiti plusquam ipsi Gijg^ntes absurdo dato mille sequuDtar. * Non 

Tident. 2 i^ee araneamm teztus Ideo dubito multos lectores hio fore stultM. 

noelior quia ex ra fila gigtiuntor, neo nos- 6 Martial, 13, 2. 
tor ideo Tiller, quia ex alienis libamus ut 

40 DemoerUtu to ike Reader, 

Wert thou all scoffs and flouts^ a very Momos, 
Than we onrselves, thou canst not say worse of as. 

Thu9, as when women soold, have I cried whore first, and 
in some men's censares I am afraid I have overshot myself, 
Laudare se vaniy mtuperare stuUi^ as I do not arrogate, I will 
not derogate. Primus vestrum non suniy nee imue^ I am none 
of the best, I am none of the meanest of you. As I am an 
inch, or so many feet, so many parasangs, afler him or him, I 
may be peradventure an ace before thee. Be it therefore as 
it is, well or ill, I have essayed, put myself upon the stage ; 
I must abide the censure, I may not escape it. It is most 
true, stylus virum arguity our style bewrays us, and as ^ hunt- 
ers find their game by the trace, so is a man's genius descried 
by his works, Mtdtd melius ex sermane quam lineaTnentis, de 
moribus hominum judicamus ; it was old Cato's rule. I 
have laid myself open (I know it) in this treatise, turned 
mine inside outward : I shall be censured, I doubt not ; for, 
to say truth with Erasmus, nihil morosius hominum judiciis^ 
there is naught so peevish as men's judgments ; yet this is 
some comfort, t^^j^otoa, sicjudicia, our censures are as van- 
ous as our palates. 

3 Tres mihi convivae prope dissentire videntur, 
Poscentes vario maltum diversa palato, &c. 

Three guests I have, dissenting at my feast, 
Bequiring each to gratify his taste 
With different food. 

Our writings are as so many dishes, our readers guests, our 
books like beauty, that which one admires another rejects ; so 
are we approved as men's fancies are inclined. Pro captu 
lectoris habent sua fata libeUi, That which is most pleasing 
to one is amaracum suiy most harsh to another. Qu^t homines, 
tot sententice, so many men, so many minds ; that which thou 
condemnest he commends. ' Quod petis, id sane est invisum 

1 Ut Tenatores fenttn A Testigio impressOf Timm seriptioncula. Lips. * Hor. 

* Hor. 

Democntus to the Beader. 41 

acidumque duohus^ He respeets matter, thou art whoUj for 
words ; he loves a loose and free stjk^ thou art all for neat 
composition, strong lines, hyperboles, allegories ; he desires a 
fine frontispiece, enticing pictures, such as * Hieron. NataU 
the Jesuit hath cut to the Dominicals, to draw on the reader^s 
attention, which thou rejectest; that which one admire?, 
another explodes as most absurd and ridiculbus. If it be noi 
point blank to his humour, his method, his conceit, ^$i quid 
forsan omissum, quod is animo conceperit, si quae dictio, &c 
If aught be omitted, or added, which he likes, or dislikes, 
thou art mancipium paucce Uctionis, an idiot, an ass, nuUus 
eSy or plagiarius, a trifler, a trivant, thou art an idle fellow ; 
or else it is a thing of mere industry, a collection without wit 
or invention, a very toy. ^ Facilia sic ptUant omnes qua jam 
facta, nee de salehns cogitant uM via strata; so men are 
valued, their labours vilified by fellows of no worth them- 
selves, as things of nought, who could not have done so much. 
JJmisquisque ahundat sensu suo, every man abounds in his 
own sense ; and whilst each particular party is so affected^ 
how should one please aU ? 

» Quid dem? quid non dem ? Renuis tu quod jubet ille. 

What courses must I choose ? 
What not ? What both would order you refuse. 

How shall I hope to express myself to each man's humour 
and ^ conceit, or to give satisfaction to all ? Some understand 
too little, some too much, qui similiter in Ugendos libros, atque 
in salutandos homines irruunt, non cogitantes qucdes, sed qui-' 
bus vestibus induti sint, as 'Austin observes, not regarding 
what, but who write, ^orexin habet auctoris celebritas, not 
valuing the metal, but stamp that is upon it, Gantharum as^ 
piciuntj non quid in eo. If he be not rich, in great place, 
polite and brave, a great doctor, or full fraught with grand 
titles, though never so well qualified, he is a dunce ; but, as 

* Antwerp. ft>I. 1607. ^ Mnretns. Mttretus. > Llb^l, de ord., cap. 11 

* lipslnB. < Bor. * Fieri non potest, * Erasmus. 
ttt quod qoisfiine c(^tat, dicat nnns. 

42 Democritus to the Reader. 

* Baronius hath it of Cardinal Caraffa's works, he is a mere 
hog that rejects any man for his poverty. Some are too par- 
tial, as friends to overween, othei's come with a prejudice to 
carp, vilify, detract, and scoff {qui de me forsan^ quicquid 
est, omni cmitemptu contemptius judicarU) ; some as bees for 
honey, some as spiders to gather poison. What shall I do in 
this case ? As a Dutch host, if you come to an inn in Grerma- 
ny, and dislike your fare, diet, lodging, &c., replies in a surly 
tone, * '* aliud tihi quaerae dwersorium" if you like not this, 
get you to another inn : I resolve, if you like not my writing, 
go read something else. I do not much esteem thy censure, 
take thy course, it is not as thou wilt, nor as I will, but when 
we have both done, that of * Plinius Secundus to Trajan will 
prove true, " Every man*s witty labour takes not, except the 
matter, subject, occasion, and some commending favourite 
happen to it." If I be taxed, exploded by thee and some 
such, I shall haply be approved and commended by others, 
and so have been (Uxpertus loquor), and may truly say with 

• Jovius in like case, (absit verba jactantid) heroum quorun- 
dam, pontificum, et virorum nobiltum familiaritatem et amtci- 
tiam, gratasqtie grcUidS, et multorum ^ bene lavdatorum lavdes 
gum inde promeritus, as I have been honoured by some wor- 
thy men, so have I been vilifie4 by others, and shall be. At 
the first publishing of this book, (which * Probus of Persius's 
satires), editum librum continuo miran homines, atque avide 
deripere cceperunt, I may in some sort apply to this my work. 
The first, second, and third editions were suddenly gone, 
eagerly read, and, as I have said, not so much approved by 
some, as scornfully rejected by others. But it was Democ- 
ritus his fortune. Idem admirationi et f irrisioni habitus. 
*Twas Seneca's fate, that superintendent of wit, learning, 
judgment, ' ad stuporem doctus, the best of Greek and Latin 
writers, in Plutarch's opinion ; " that renowned corrector of 

• Annal. Tom. 8, ad annum 360. Est faator, ocoado, commendatorque contin- 

Dorcus ille qui sacerdofcem examplitudine gat. « Preef. hist. * Laudari a laudato 

redituum sordide demetitur. i Erasm. laus est. 6Vit. Persli. t Minuet 

dial * Bpist. lib. 6. Cujusque inge- pnesentia &mam. • Lipaiufl Judic. de 

nium non statim emergit, nisi matexias Seneca. 



Democritus to the Reader. 43 

vice/' as ^ Fabius terms him, ^ and painful omniscioas philos- 
opher, that writ so excellently and admirably well," could not 
please all parties, or escape censure. How is he vilified by 
^ Caligula, Agellius, Fabius, and Lipsius himself, his chief 
propugner ? In eo pUraque pemitiosa, saith the same Fabius, 
many childish tracts and sentences he hath sermo tllaboratuSy 
too negligent often and remiss, as Agellius observes, oratio 
vulffaris et protritay dicaces et ineptcs sentential eruditio ple^ 
heioy an homely shallow writer as he is. In partibus spinas 
et foMidia habet, saith * Lipsius ; and, as in all his other 
works, so especially in his epistles, alta in argutiis et ineptiis 
occupantur, intricatuLS aliculn, et parum compositus, sine copid 
rerum hoc fecit, he jumbles up many things together imme- 
thodically, after, the Stoics' fashion, parum ordinavit, multa 
accumidavit, &c. If Seneca be thus lashed, and many famous 
men that I could name, what shall I expect ? How shall I 
that am vix umbra tanti philosophic hope to please ? ** No 
man so absolute (' Erasmus holds) to satisfy all, except an- 
tiquity, prescription, &c., set a bar." But as I have proved in 
Seneca, this will not always take place, how shall I evade ? 
'Tis the common doom of all writers, I must (I say) abide it; 
I seek not applause ; ^Non ego ventosce venor suffragia plebis ; 
again, non sum adeo informis, I would not be ^vilified. 

laudatus abunde, 
Non fastiditus si tibi, lector, ero. 

I fear good men's censures, and to their favourable acceptance 
I submit my labours, 

7 et lingoas mancipiomm 

As the barking of a dog, I securely contemn those malicious 

1 Lib. 10. Plnrimum stndii, multam temporis prsescriptio, semota jndicand] 

remm cognitionem, omnem studiorum libertate, religione quadam animos occu- 

materiam, &c., multa in eo probanda, p2lrit. < Hor. £p. 1, lib. 19. ^ Mqni 

mnlta admiranda. ^ Suet. Arena sine turpe Mgid^ laudari ac insectanter vitu- 

salce. * Introduct. ad Sen. ^ Judic. perari. Phavorinus A.Gel. lib. 19, cap 2. 

de Sen. Vix aliquis tarn absolutus, ut o Oyid. trust. 11, eleg. 6. ^Juren. 8at.5 
alteri per omnia satisfiuiiat, nisi longa 


44 Democritui to the Reader, 

and scurrile obloquies, flouts, calumnies of railers and de- 
tractors ; I scorn the rest. What therefiu^ I have said, pro 
tenuitcUe med, I have said. 

One or two things yet I was desirous to have amended if 
I could, concerning the manner of handling this mj subject, 
for which I must apologize, deprecariy and upon better advice 
give the friendly reader notice : it was not mine intent to 
prostitute my muse in English, or to divulge secreta Jdinerv€e, 
but to have exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could 
have got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome to 
our mercenary stationers in English ; they print all, 

cudnntque llbellos 
In quorum foliis vix simia nuda cacarat; 

But in Latin they will not deal ; which is one of the reasons 
^Nicholas Gar, in his oration of the paucity of English writ* 
ers, gives, that so many flourishing wits are smothered in 
oblivion, lie dead and buried in this our nation. Another 
main fault is, that I have not revised the copy, and amended 
the style, which now flows remissly, as it was first conceived ; 
but my leisure would not permit ; Feci nee quod potut, nee 
quod volui, I confess it is neither as I would, nor as it should 

* Gtim relego scripsisse pudet, quia plurima oemo 
Me quoque qu89 fueraat judice digna lini. 

When I peruse this tract which I have writ, 
I am abashed, and much I hold unfit. 

JSt quod gravtsstmum, in the matter itself, many things I dis- 
allow at this present, which, when I writ, • Non eadem est 
atas, nan mens ; I would willingly retract much, &c., but 'tis 
too late, I can only crave pardon now for what is amiss. 
I might indeed, (had I wisely done) observed that precept 

of the poet, nonumque prematur in annumy and have 

taken more CAre : or, as Alexander the physician would have 

1 Ant artis InscU aut qnasfitui ina^s Lond. Bxoub. 1676. > Orid. de pout, 

loam Uteris student, hab. Cantab, et Eleg. 1, 6. 9 Hor. 

Democritus to the Reader. 45 

done by lapis lazuli, fifty times washed before it be used I 
should have revised, corrected, and amended this tract ; but I 
had not (as I said) that happy leisure, no amanuenses or as- 
sistants. Pancrates in ^Lucian, wanting a servant as he 
went from Memphis to Coptus in Egypt, took a door-bar, and 
after some superstitious words pronounced (Eucrates the re- 
lator was then present) made it stand up like a serving-man, 
fetch him water, turn the spit, serve in supper, and what work 
he would besides; and when he had done that service he 
desired, turned his man to a stick again. I have no such 
ekill to make new men at my pleasure, or means to hire 
them ; no whistle to call like the master of a ship, and bid 
them run, &c. I have no such authority, no such benefac- 
tors, as that noble * Ambrosius was to Origen, allowing him 
isix or seven amanuenses to write out his dictates ; I must for 
that cause do my business myself, and was therefore enforced, 
as a bear doth her whelps, to bring forth this confused lump ; 
I had not time to lick it into tbrm, as she doth her young 
ones, but even so to publish it, as it was first written, quic- 
quid in buccam venity in an extemporean style, as ^ I do 
commonly all other exercises, effadi quicqrdd dictavit genius 
mens, out of a confused company of notes, and writ with as 
•^Ball deliberation as I do ordinarily speak, without all affec- 
tation of big words, fustian phrases, jingling terms, tropes, 
strong lines, that like f Acestes' arrows caught fire as they 
flew, strains of wit, brave heats, elogies, hyperbolical exoma- 
tions, elegances, <&c., which many so much affect. I am 
^aqtuB potor, drink no wine at all, which so much improves 
our modem wits, a loose, plain, rude writer, j^mw voco Jicum, 
et ligonem Uqonem, and as free, as loose, idem calamo quod in 
mente, ^ I call a spade a spade, animis Jubc scriho, non cmribus, 
I respect matter, not words ; remembering that of Cardan, 
verba propter res, non res propter verba: and seeking with 

1 Tom. 8. Philopsend. aooepto pe»- nno, as he made renes. t Virg. 

salo. qunm carmen quoddam dixisaet, > Non eadem 4 snmmo expectos, miiu- 

eflecit ut ambnlaret, aquam hauriret, moque poeta. * Qtylva hio nuUoa, 

nmam pararet, &c. * Eusebius, pneter panliefiiam. 
eeeles. hist. Ub. 6. * Staos pede ia 


46 Democritus to the Reader, 

Seneca, quid scribam, nan quemadmodum, rather what than 
how to write : for as Philo thinks, " ^ He that is conversant 
about matter, neglects words, and those that excel in this art 
of speaking, have no profound learning, 

3 Verba nitent phaleris, at nullas verba medullas 
Intus habent — 

Besides, it was the observation of that wise Seneca, " • when 
you see a fellow careful about his words, and neat in his 
speech, know this for a certainty that man's mind is busied 
about toys, there's no solidity in him. Non est omamentum 
virile condnniias: as he said of a nightingale, vox es, preeterea 
nihil, &c. I am therefore in this point a professed disciple 
of * Apollonius a scholar of Socrates, I neglect phrases, and 
labour wholly to inform my reader's understanding, not to 
please his ear ; 'tis not my study or intent to compose neatly, 
which an orator requires, but to express myself readily and 
plainly as it happens. So that as a river runs sometimes pre- 
cipitate and swift, then dull and slow ; now direct, then per 
ambages; now deep, then shallow; now muddy, then clear; 
now broad, then narrow ; doth my style flow : now serious, 
then light ; now comical, then satirical ; now more elaborate, 
then remiss, as the present subject required, or as at that 
time I was affected. And if thou vouchsafe to read this 
treatise, it shall seem no otherwise to thee, than the way to 
an ordinary traveller, sometimes fair, sometimes foul ; here 
champaign, there inclosed ; barren in one place, better soil in 
another: by woods, groves, hills, dales, plains, &c. I shall 
lead thee per ardua montium, et luhrica vaUium, et roscida 
cespitum, et * glebosa ca?nporum, through variety of objects 
that which thou shalt like and surely dislike. 

1 Qui rebus se exercet. verba negligit, dum. Epist. lib. 1, 21. * Philostra- 

et qui callet artem dicendl, nullam dia- tus, lib. 8, Tit. Apol. Negligebat orato- 

cipllnam habet recognitam. s Pallia- riainfiicalt»tem,et penitus aspemabatur 

genius. Words may be resplendent with ejus professores, quod linguam duntaxat, 

ornament, but they contain no marrow non autem mentem redderent eruditio- 

within. 8 Cujuscunque orationem rem. * Hie enim, quod Seneca de 

▼ides poHtam et soUcitam, scito animnm Ponto, bos herbam, ciconia larisam, canis 

m pusillls occupatum, in scriptis nU soli> leporem, Tirgo florem legat. 

Democritus to the Reader. 47 

For the matter itself or method^ if it be faulty, consider I 
pray you, that of ColumeUa, Nihil perfectum, aut d singtdari 
consummatum indttstrid, no man can observe all, much is de- 
fective no doubt, may be justly taxed, altered, and avoided 
in Galen, Aristotle, those great masters. Bani venataris 
Q one holds) plures /eras capere, non omnes ; he is a good 
huntsman, can catch some, not all ; I have done my endeav- 
our. Besides, I dwell not in this study, Non hie sulcos duct- 
mus, non hoc pulvere desudamus, I am but a smatterer, I con- 
fess, a stranger, ^ here and there I pull a flower ; I do easily 
grant, if a rigid censurer should criticize on this which I have 
writ, he should not find three sole faults, as Scaliger in Te- 
rence, but three hundred. So many as he hath done in 
Cardan's subtleties, as many notable errors as ^ Gul. Laurem- 
bergius, a late professor of Rostocke, discovers in that anat- 
omy of Laurentius, or Barocius the Venetian in Sacro boscus. 
And although this be a sixth edition, in which I should have 
been more accurate, corrected all those former escapes, yet 
it was magni laboris opus, so difficult and tedious, that as 
carpenters do find out of experience, 'tis much better build 
a new sometimes, than repair an old house ; I could as soon 
write as much more, as alter that which is written. If aught 
therefore be amiss (as I grant there is), I require a friendly 
admonition, no bitter invective, * Sint musis socii Cfharites, 
Furia omnis ahesto, otherwise, as in ordinary controversies 
Junem contentionis nectamus, sed cui bono f We may con- 
tend, and likely misuse each other, but to what purpose ? We 
are both scholars, say, 

6 Arcades ambo, 
Et cantare pares, et respondere parati. 

Both young Arcadians, both alike inspired 
To sing and answer as the song reqnirM. 

If we do wrangle what shall we get by it? Trouble and 

t Pet. Nannias not. in Hor. « Non ut canis Nilum lambens. » Sapra bis 
hie colonus domicilium babeo, sed topi- mille notabiles errores Laurentii demon- 
arii in morem, hino inde floram Tellico, strayi, &c. * Philo de Con. > Tirg. 

48 Democritus to the lUader. 

wrong oarselves, make sport to others. If I be oonvict of 
an error, I will yield, I will amend. Si quid hanit morihusj 
si quid veritcUi disserUaneum^ in tacris vel humanis Uteris a 
me dictum sit, id nee dictum esto. In the mean time I re- 
quire a favourable censure of all faults omitted, harsh com- 
positions, pleonasms of words, tautological repetitions (though 
Seneca bear me out, nwnquam nimis dicitur, quod nunqucan 
satis dicitur) perturbations of tenses, numbers, printers' 
faults, &)C. My translations are sometimes rather paraphrases 
than interpretations, nan ad verbum, but as an author, I use 
more liberty, and that's only taken which was to my purpose. 
Quotations are often inserted in the text, which makes the 
style more harsh, or in the margin as it happened. Greek 
authors, Plato, Plutarch, Athenaeus, dec, I have cited out of 
their intei*preters, because the original was not so ready. I 
have mingled s<icra prophanis,hnt 1 hope not profaned, and 
in repetition of authors' names, ranked them per acddens, not 
according to chronology; sometimes Neoterics before An 
dents, as my memory suggested. Some things are here al- 
tered, expunged in this sixth edition, others amended, much 
added, because many good « authors in aU kinds are come 
to my hands since, and 'tis no prejudice, no such indecorum^ 
or oversight. 

^ Nunquam ita qaicquam bene subdactH ratione ad vltam fult, 
Quin res, setas, usus, semper aliquid apportent novi, 
Aliquid moneant, lit ilia qas scire te credas, nescias, 
Et qu8B tibi putHris prima, in exercendo ut repndiis. 

Ne'er was aught yet at first contrived so fit, 
But nse, age, or something would alter it; 
Advise thee better, and, upon peruse. 
Make thee not say, and what thou takest refuse. 

But I am now resolved never to put this treatise out again, 
N(B quid nimis, I will not hereafter add, alter, or retract ; I 
have done. The last and greatest exception is, that I, being 
a divine, have meddled with physic, 

* Fiambesarius, Sennertw, Ferandus, &e. ^ Ter. Atelph. 

Democritus to the Header. 49 

1 Tantamne est ab re tu& otii tibi, 
Aliena ut cures, eaque nihil quae ad te attinent ? 

Which Menedemus objected to Chremes ; have I so much 
leisure, or little business of mine own, as to look after other 
men's matters which concern me not ? What have I to do 
with physic ? Qiiod medicorum est prormttant medici. The 
* liacedemonians were once in counsel aboat state matters, a 
debauched fellow spake excellent well, and to the purpose, 
his speech was generally approved : a grave senator steps I 
up, and by all means would have it repealed, though good, I 
because dehanestabatur pessimo auctore, it had no better an 
author; let some good man relate the same, and then it 
should pass. This counsel was embraced, ^ac^m est, and it 
was registered forthwith. jEt sic bona sententia mansit, mor 
his aucior mutattis esi» Thou say est as much of me, stoma- 
chosus as thou art, and grantest, peradventure, this which I 
have written in physic, not to be amiss, had another done it^ 
a professed physician, or so ; but why should I meddle with 
this tract ? Hear me speak. There be many other subjects, 
I do easily grant, both in humanity and divinity, fit to be 
treated of, of which had I written ad ostentaiionem only, to 
dhow myself, I should have rather chosen, and in which I 
have been more conversant, I could have more willingly lux- 
uriated, and better satisfied myself and others ; bat that at 
this time I was fatally driven upon this rock of melancholy, 
and carried away by this by-stream, which, as a rilletj is de- 
ducted from the main channel of my studies, in which I have 
pleased and busied myself at idle hours, as a subject most 
necessary and commodious. Not that I prefer it before divin- 
ity, which I do acknowledge to be the queen of professions, 
and to which all the rest are as handmaids, but that in divin- 
ity I saw no such great need. For had I written positively, 
there be so many books in that kind, so many commentators, 
treatises, pamphlets, expositions, sermons, that whole teams 
of oxen cannot draw them ; and had I been as forward and 

1 Heaut. Act 1, seen. 1. * Qellius, lib. 18, cap. 8. 
VOL. I. 4 

50 Democritus to the Reader, 

ambitious as some others, I might have haply printed a ser- 
mon at PauFs Cross, a sermon in St. Marie's Oxon, a sermon 
in Christ-Church, or a sermon before the right honourable, 
right reverend, a sermon before the right worshipful, a ser- 
mon in Latin, in English, a sermon with a name, a sermon 
without, a sermon, a sermon, &c. But I have been ever as 
desirous to suppress my labours in this kind, as others have 
been to press and publish theirs. To have written in contro- 
versy had been to cut off an hydra's head, ^lis litem generat, one 
begets another, so many duplications, triplications, and swarms 
of questions. In sacro hello hoc quod stilt mucrone agitur^ 
that having once begun, I should never make an end. One 
had much better, as ^Alexander, the sixth pope, long since 
observed, provoke a great prince than a begging friar, a 
Jesuit, or a seminary priest, I will add, for inexpugnahile 
genus hoc hominum, they are an irrefi'agable society, they 
must and will have the last word ; and that with such eager- 
ness, impudence, abominable lying, falsifying, and bitterness 
in their questions they plx)ceed, that, as he ' said, furome 
ccBcus, an rapit vis acrioTy an culpa, responsum date f Blind 
fury, or error, or rashness, or what it is that eggs them, I 
know not, I am sure many times, which * Austin perceived 
long since, tempestate contenttonis serenitas charitatis obnubi' 
latur, with this tempest of contention, the serenity of charity 
is overclouded, and there be too many spirits conjured up 
already in this kind in all sciences, and more than we can 
tell how to lay, which do so furiously rage, and keep such a 
racket, that as *^ Fabius said, " It had been much better for 
some of them to have been bom dumb, and altogether illit- 
erate, than so far to dote to their own destruction." 

At melias fuerat non scribere, namque tacere * 
Tutum semper erit,— * 

1 Et inde catena qusedam fit, quae hse- ^ Lib. 12, cap. 1. Mntos naaci, et onini 

redes etiam ligat. Cardan. Hensius. scientia egere satius fuisset, qu&m sic in 

% Malle se bellum cum magno principe propriam perniciem insanire. * But it 

gerere, qaam cum udo ex fratrum men- would be better not to write, Ibr silence 

licantium ordine. 3 Hor. epod. lib. is the safer course. 
^J. 4 Epist. 86, ad-Casulam presb. 

Democritus to the Header. 51 

'Tis a general fault, so Severinus the Dane complains *m 
physic, " unhappy men as we are, we spend our days in 
unprofitable questions and disputations," intricate subtleties, 
de land caprind, about moonshine in the water, " leaving in 
the mean time those chiefest treasures of nature untouched, 
wherein the best medicines for all manner of diseases are to 
be found, and do not only neglect them ourselves, but hinder, 
condemn, forbid, and scoiF at others, ttiat are willing to in- 
quire after them." These motives at this present have 
induced me to make choice of this medicinal subject. 

If any physician in the mean time shall infer, Ne sutor 
uUra crepidam, and find himself grieved that I have intruded 
into his profession, I will tell him in brief, I do not otherwise 
by them, than they do by us. If it be for their advantage, I 
know many of their sect which have taken orders, in hope 
of a benefice, 'tis a common transition ; and why may not a 
melancholy divine, that can get nothing but by simony, pro- 
fess physic ? Drusianus an Italian (Crusianus, but corruptly, 
Trithemius calls him) ^ '* because he was not fortunate in his 
practice, forsook his profession, and writ afterwards in divin- 
ity." Marcilius Ficinus was semel et simul; a priest and a 
physician at once, and * T. Linacer, in his old age, took orders. 
The Jesuits profess both at this time, divers of them permissu 
superiorum, chirurgeons, panders, bawds, and midwives, &c. 
Many poor country vicars, for want of other means, are 
driven to their shifts ; to turn mountebanks, quacksalvers, 
empirics, and if our greedy patrons hold us to such hard 
conditions, as commonly they do, they will make most of us 
work at some trade, as Paul did, at last turn taskers, malt- 
sters, costermongers, graziers, sell ale as some have done, or 
worse. Howsoever in undertaking this task, I hope I shall 
commit no gi'eat error or indecorum, if all be considered 

1 Infelix mortalitas inntilibus quaes- et alios prohibemus, impedimus, con- 

tionib us ,ac disceptationibufl vi tarn trad u- demnaaius, ludibriisque afflcimus. 

drnus, naturae principes thesauros, ia ^ Quod in praxi minime fortunatus esset, 

quibus gravissimaB morborum medicinae medicinam reliquit, et ordinibus initiatus 

collocatae sunt, interim intactos relinqui- in Theolo(i^ postmodum scripsit. Ges- 

laus. Nee ipsi solum relinquimus, sed ner Bibliotheca. ^ P. Joyius. 

52 DemocritUB to the Reader. 

aright, I can vindicate myself with Greorgius Braunus, and 
Hieronjmus Hemingius, those two leanied divines ; who (to 
borrow a line or two of mine ^ elder brother) drawn bj a 
''natural love, the one of pictures and maps, prospectives 
and chorographical delights, writ that ample theatre of cities ; 
the other to the study of genealogies, penned theatrum ge- 
nealogicumJ* Or else I can excuse my studies with ' Lessius 
the Jesuit in like case. It is a disease of the soul on which I 
am to treat, and as much appertaining to a divine as to a phy- 
sician, and who knows not what an agreement there is betwixt 
these two professions ? A good divine either is or ought to 
be a good physician, a spiritual physician at least, as our Sa- 
viour calls himself, and was indeed. Mat. iv. 23 ; Luke, v. 
18 ; Luke, vii. 8. They differ but in object, the one of the 
body, the other of the soul, and use divers medicines to cure ; 
one amends animam per corpus, the other corpus per ant- 
mam^ as our Regius Professor of physic well informed us in a 
learned lecture of his not long since. One helps the vices 
and passions of the soul, anger, lust, desperation, pride, pre- 
sumption, &C., by applying that spiritual physic ; as the other 
uses proper remedies in bodily diseases. Now this being a 
common infirmity of body and soul, and such a one that hath 
as much need of spiritual as a corporal cure, I could not find 
a fitter task to busy myself about, a more apposite theme, so 
necessary, so commodious, and generally concerning all sorts 
of men, that should so equally participate of both, and re- 
quire a whole physician. A divine in this compound mixed 
malady can do little alone, a physician in some kinds of mel- 
ancholy much less, both make an absolute cure. 

4 Alterias sic altera poscit opem. 

when in friendship join*d 
A mutual succour in each other find. 

1 H. W. Burton, praftce to his deserip- alienarideri debet k theologo, frc, agltnr 

tion of LeicMtenhire, printed at London de morbo animn. > D. Clayton in co- 

by W. Jaggard, for J. White, 1622. > In mitUs, anno 162L < Hor. 
Hygiasticon, neque enim nine traetatio 

Democritus to the Reader. 53 

And 'tis proper to them both, and I hope not unbeseeming 
me, who am by my profession a divine, and by mine inclina- 
tion a physician. I had Jupiter in my sixth house ; I say 
with * Beroaldus, non sum mediciis, nee medicince prorsus ex- 
pers, in the theory of physic I have taken some pains, not 
with an intent to practice, but to satisfy myself, which was a 
cause likewise of the first undertaking of this subject. 

If these reasons do not satisfy thee, good reader, as Alex- 
ander Munificus, that bountiful prelate, sometimes bishop of 
Lincoln, when he had built six castles, ad invidiam operis 
eluendam, saith ^ Mr Cambden, to take away the envy of his 
work (which very words Nubrigensis hath of Roger the rich 
bishop of Salisbury, who in king Stephen's time built Shir- 
burn castle, and that of Devizes), to divert the scandal or 
imputation, which might be thence inferred, built so many 
religious houses. If this my discourse be over-medicinal, or 
savour too much of humanity, I promise thee that I will 
hereafter make thee amends in some treatise of divinity. 
But this I hope shall suffice, when you have more fully con- 
sidered of the matter of this my subject, rem substratam, mel- 
ancholy, madness, and of the reasons following, which were 
my chief motives : the generality of the disease, the necessity 
of the cure, and the commodity or common good that will 
arise to all men by the knowledge of it, as shall at large ap- 
pear in the ensuing preface. And I doubt not but that in 
the end you will say with me, that to anatomize this humour 
aright, through all the members of this our Microcosmus, is 
as great a task, as to reconcile those chronological errors in 
the Assyrian monarchy, find out the quadrature of a circle, 
the creeks and sounds of the northeast, or northwest pas- 
sages, and all but as good a discovery as that hungry * Span- 
iard's of Terra Australis Incognita, as great trouble as to 
perfect the motion of Mars and Mercury, which so crucifies 

1 Lib. depestil. * In Newark, in coenobia, et collegia rellgiosig impleyife. 

Nottinghamshire. Gam duo ediflc2lMet ^ Ferdinando de Quir. anno 1612. Am- 

sastella, ad tollendam structionis invidi- sterdami impress. 
MD, etezpiandam maculam, duo instituit 

54 Democritus to the Reader, 

our astronomers, or to rectify the Gregorian Kcdender. I am 
60 affected for mj part, and hope as ^ Theophrastus did by 
his characters, " That our posterity, O friend Policies, shall 
be the better for this which we have written, by correcting 
and rectifying what is amiss in themselves by our examples, 
and applying our precepts and cautions to their own use." 
And as that great captain Zisca would have a drum made of 
his skin when he was dead, because he thought the very 
noise of it would put his enemies to flight, I doubt not but 
that these following lines, when they shall be recited, or 
hereafter read, will drive away melancholy, (though I be 
gone) as much as Ztsca's drum could terrify his foes. Yet 
one caution let me give by the way to my present, or my 
future reader, who is actually melancholy, that he read not 
the ^ symptoms or prognostics in this following tract, lest by 
applying that which he reads to himself, aggravating, appro* 
priating things generally spoken, to his own person (as mel 
ancholy men for the most part do), he trouble or hurt him- 
self, and get in conclusion more harm than good. I advise 
them therefore warily to peruse that tract, Lapides loquitur 
(so said * Agrippa de occ. Phil.) et caveant lectores ne cere- 
brum lis excutiat. The rest I doubt not they may securely 
read, and to their benefit But I am over-tedious, I pro- 

Of the necessity and generality of this which I have said, 
if any man doubt, I shall desire him to make a brief survey 
of the world, as * Cyprian adviseth Donat, " supposing him- 
self to be transported to the top of some high mountain, and 
thence to behold the tumults and chances of this wavering 
world, he cannot choose but either laugh at, or pity it." S. 
Hierom, out of a strong imagination, being in the wilderness, 
conceived with himself, that he then saw them dancing in 

1 Prsefiit. ad Characteres : Spero enim turn. Paulisper te crede subduci in ardoi 

(0 Policies) libros nostras meliores inde montisverticem celsiorem,speculareinde 

fdturos, qaod istiusmodi memoriae man- rerum jacentium fiix:ies, et ocalis in dl- 

data reliquerimus, ex preceptis et exem- versa porrectis, fluctaantis mnndi tur- 

{^lis nostria ad vitam accommodatis, ut se bines intueii, jam simul aut ridebis aut 

nde corrigant. ^ Part 1, sect. 3. misereberis, &c. 
> Praef. lectori. * Ep. 2. 1, 2, ad ]>ona- 

Democritus to the Reader. o5 

Rome ; and if thou shalt either conceive, or climb to see. 
thou shalt soon perceive that all the world is mad, that it is 
melancholy, dotes ; that it is (which Epichthonius Cosmopo- 
lites expressed not many years since in a map) made like a 
fool's head (with that motto, Caput heUehoro dignum) a 
crazed head, cavea stuUorum, a fool's paradise, or as ApoUo- 
nius, a common prison of gulls, cheaters, flatterers, &c., and 
needs to be reformed. Strabo, in the ninth book of his geog- 
raphy, compares Greece to the picture of a man, which com- 
parison of his, Nic. Gerbelius, in his exposition of Sophia- 
nus's map, approves ; the breast lies open from those Acroce- 
raunian hills in Epirus, to the Sunian promontory in Attica ; 
Pagae and Magaera are the two shoulders; that Isthmus of 
Corinth the neck ; and Peloponnesus the head. If this allu- 
sion holds 'tis sure a mad head ; Morea may be Moria, and 
to speak what I think, the inhabitants of modern Greece 
swerve as much from reason and true religion at this day, as 
that Morea doth from the picture of a man. Examine the 
rest in like sort, and you shall find that kingdoms and prov- 
inces are melancholy, cities and families, all creatures, veg- 
etal, sensible, and rational, that all sorts, sects, ages, condi- 
tions, are out of tune, as in Cebes's table, omnes errorem 
bi&unty before they come into the world, they are intoxicated 
by error's cup, from the highest to the lowest have need of 
physic, and those particular actions in ^ Seneca, where father 
and son prove one another mad, may be general ; Porcius 
Latro shall plead against us all. For indeed who is not a 
fool, melancholy, mad ? — ^ Qui nil molitur inepte, who is not 
bi-ain-sick ? Folly, melancholy, madness, are but one disease. 
Delirium is a common name to all. Alexander, Gordonius, 
Jason Pratensis, Savanarola, Guianerius, Montaltus, confound 
them as differing secundum magis et minus ; so doth David, 
Psal. xxxvii. 5. " I said unto the fools, deal not so madly," 
and 'twas an old stoical paradox, omnes stuUos insanire, * all 

1 ControT. 1, 2, cont. 7, & 1, 6, cont. Damasippus Stoicus probat omnes stultoe 
Horatius. ^ Idem, Hor. 1, 2. Satjra 3. insanire. 

56 Democritus to the Header, 

fools are mad, though some madder than others. And who 
is not a fool, who is free from melancholy? Who is not 
touched more or less in habit or disposition ? If in disposi- 
tion, '^ ill dispositions beget habits, if they persevere," saith 
^ Plutarch, habits either are, or turn to diseases. Tis the 
same which TuUy maintains in the second of his Tusculans, 
omnium iimpimtum animi in morbo sunt, et perturbatorum, 
fools are sick, and all that are troubled in mind ; for what is 
sickness, but as ^ Gregory Tholosanus defines it, ^^ A dissolution 
or perturbation of the bodily league, which health com-> 
bines ; " and who is not sick, or ill-disposed ? in whom doth 
not passion, anger, envy, discontent, fear and sorrow reigu ? 
Who labours not of this disease ? Give me but a little leave, 
and you shall see by what testimonies, confessions, argu- 
ments, I will evince it, that most men are mad, that they 
had as much need to go a pilgrimage to the Anticyrse (as in 
• Strabo's time they did) as in our days they run to Compos* 
tella, our Lady of Sichem, or Lauretta, to seek for help ; that 
it is like to be as prosperous a voyage as that of Guiana, and 
that there is much more need of hellebore than of tobacco. 

That men are so misaffected, melancholy, mad, giddy- 
headed, hear the testimony of Solomon, Eccl. ii. 12. ** And 
I turned to behold wisdom, madness and folly," &c And 
ver. 23 : " All his days are sorrow, his travel grief, and his 
heart taketh no rest in the night." So that take mehincholy 
in what sense you will, properly or improperly, in disposition 
or habit, for pleasure or for pain, dotage, discontent, fear, sor- 
row, madness, for part, or all, truly, or metaphorically, 'tis all 
one. Laughter itself is madness according to Solomon, and 
as St. Paul hath it, " Worldly sorrow brings death." ** The 
hearts of the sons of men are evil, and madness is in their 
hearts while they live," Eccl. ix. 3. " Wise men themselves 
are no better," Eccl. i. 18. "In the multitude of wisdom is 

1 Tom. 2, Sympos. lib. 6, c. 6- Anlmi ibederis in corpore exifltentis, sicut et 

affectiones, si diutius inhsereant, prayos sanitas est consentientis bene corporis 

Senerant habitus. s Lib. 28, cap. 1, consummatio qusedam. ' Lib. 9, 

ynt. art. mir. Morbus nihil est aliud Geogr. Plures oUm gentes navigabant 

foam dissolutio qusedam ac perturbatio illuc sanitatiB caus&. 

Democritm to the Reader. 57 

much grief, and he that increaseth wisdom increaseth sorrow," 
chap. ii. 17. He hated life itself, nothing pleased him ; he 
hated his labour, all, as ihe concludes, is "sorrow, grief, 
vanity, vexation of spirit** And though he were the wisest 
man in the world, sanctuarium sapientice, and had wisdom in 
abundance, he will not vindicate himself, or justify his own 
actions. " Surely I am more foolish than any man, and have 
not the understanding of a man in me,'* Prov. xxx. 2. Be 
they Solomon's words, or the words of Agur, the son of 
Jakeh, they are canonical. David, a man after Grod's own 
heart, confesseth as much of himself, Fsal. xxxvii. 21, 22. 
^ So foolish was I and ignorant, I was even as a beast before 
thee." And condemns all for fools, Psal. liii. ; xxxii. 9 ; 
xlix. 20. He compares them to " beasts, horses, and mules, 
in which there is no understanding." The Apostle Paul 
accuseth himself in like sort, 2 Cor. xi. 21. "I would you 
would suffer a little my foolishness, I speak foolishly." " The 
whole head is sick," saith Esay, " and the heart is heavy," 
cap. i. 5. And makes lighter of them than of oxen and 
asses, " the ox knows his owner," &c. : read Deut. xxxii. 6 ; 
Jer. iv. ; Amos, iii. 1 ; Ephes. v. 6. " Be not mad, be not 
deceived, foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you ? " 
How often are they branded with this epithet of madness and 
folly ? No word so frequent amongst the fathers of the 
Church and divines ; you may see what an opinion they had 
of the world, and how they valued men's action. 

I know that we think far otherwise, and hold them most 
part wise men that are in authority, princes, magistrates, 
^rich men, they are wise men bom, all politicians and 
statesmen must needs be so, for who dare speak against 
them ? And on the other, so corrupt is our judgment, we 
esteem wise and honest men fools. Which Democritus well 
Bignified in an epistle of his to Hippocrates : • the ** Abde- 
rites account virtue madness," and so do most men living. 

1 EccIm. i. 24. 9 Jure haereditario > Apnd quos Tirtvu, insania et fUror esM 

tftpexe jubentur. Euphonnio Satyr. dicitur. 

58 DemocrituM to the Reader, 

Shall I tell you the reason of it? ' Fortune and Virtue, 
Wisdom and Folly, their seconds, upon a time contended in 
the Olympics ; every man thought that Fortune and Folly 
would have the worst, and pitied their cases ; but it fell out 
otherwise. Fortune was blind and cared not where she 
stroke, nor whom, without laws, Andabatarum instar, &c. 
Folly, rash and inconsiderate, esteemed as little what she 
said or did. Virtue and Wisdom gave * place, were hissed 
out, and exploded by the common people ; Folly and For- 
tune admired, and so are all their followers ever since; 
knaves and fools commonly fare and deserve best in world- 
lings' eyes and opinions. Many good men have no better 
fate in their ages ; Achish, 1 Sam. xxi. 14, held David for a 
madman. ' Elisha and the rest were no otherwise esteemed. 
David was derided of the common people, Ps. ix. 7, " I am 
become a monster to many." And generally we are ac- 
counted fools for Christ, 1 Cor. xiv. " We fools thought his 
life madness, and his end without honour," Wisd. v. 4. 
Christ and his Apostles were censured in like sort, John x. ; 
Mark iii. ; Acts xxvi. And so were all Christians in 
* Pliny's time, fuerunt et alii similis dementia, &c And 
called not long after, * Vesanice sectatoreSy eversores haminum, 
poUuti novatores, fanatici, canes, malefici, venefici, Galilcei 
homunciones, &c 'Tis an ordinary thing with us, to ac- 
count honest, devout, orthodox, divine, religious, plaindealing 
men, idiots, asses, that cannot, or will not lie and dissemble, 
shift, flatter, aecommodare se ad eum locum ubi nati sunt, 
make good bargains, supplant, thrive, patronis inservire ; 
solennes ascendendi modos apprekendere, leges, mores, consve- 
iudines rede observare, candide laudare, fortiter defendere, 
serUentias amplecti, dubitare de nullis, credere omnia, accip- 
ere omnia, nihil reprehendere, cceteraque quts promottonem 
^erunt et securitatem, quce sine amhage fodicem reddunt homi' 

1 Caleagninufl Apol. omnes mirabantnr, risa, et plures hinc habet sectatores stul- 

putantes illisum iri gtultitiam. Sed titia. s Non est respondendum stulto 

praeter expectationem res evenit, Andax secundum stultitiam. > 2 Reg. 7. 

itultitia in earn irruit, &c., ilia cedit ir- ^ Lib. 10, ep. 97. ^ Aug. ep. 178 

uxi jpi m ^jm'^^'^i^^^KK^mmmmim^m^m^f^ _ ^.. _ 

Democritus to the Readei\ 59 

nem^ et vere sapientem apud nos ; that cannot temporize as 
other men do, ^ hand and take bribes, &c,, but fear God, and 
make a conscience of their doings. But the Holy Ghost that 
knows better how to judge, he calls them fools. " The fool 
hath said in his heart," Psal. liii. 1. " And their ways utter 
their folly," Psal. xlix, 14. ^"For what can be more mad, 
than for a little worldly pleasure to procure unto themselves 
eternal punishment?" As Gregory and others inculcate 
unto us. 

Yea even all those great philosophers the world hath ever 
had in admiration, whose works we do so much esteem, that 
gave precepts of wisdom to others, inventors of Arts and 
Sciences, Socrates the wisest man of his time by the Oracle 
of Apollo, whom his two scholars, * Plato and * Xenophon, 
80 much extol and magnify with those honourable titles, 
" best and wisest of all mortal men, the happiest and most 
just ; " and as * Alcibiades incomparably commends him ; 
Achilles was a worthy man, but Bracides and others were as 
worthy as himself; Antenor and Nestor were as good as 
Pericles, and so of the rest; but none present, before, or 
after Socrates, nemo veterum neque eorum qui nunc sunt, 
were ever such, will match, or come near him. Those seven 
wise men of Greece, those Britain Druids, Indian Brach- 
manni, ^Ethiopian Gymnosophists, Magi of the Persians, 
Apollonius, of whom Philostratus, Non doctus, sed natua 
sapiens^ wise from his cradle, Epicurus so much admired by 
his scholar Lucretius : 

Qui genus humanum ingenio superavit, et omnes 
Perstrinxtt stellas exortus ut aetherlus sol. 

Whose wit excelPd the wits of men as far, 
As the sun rising doth obscure a star, 
Or that so much renowned Empedocles. 

t Ut vix humana videatur stirpe creatus. 

1 Qais nisi mentis inops, &c. s Quid apprime sapientissimi, et justissimi . 

insanius quam pro momentanea ftelici- < Xenop. 1, 4, de dictis Socratis ad finem, 

tate SBternis te mancipare suppHciiR? talis fuit Socrates quem omnium opti- 

' Tn fine Phsedonis. Hie finis fuit amici mumetfoelicissimum statuam. * Lib. 

nostri, 6 Eucrates, nostro quidem judicio 25, Platonis Conyivio. f Lucretius, 
mnium quos experti sumus optimi et 

60 Democritus to the Reader. 

All those of whom we read such ^ hyperbolical eulogiams, 

as of Aristotle, that he was wisdom itself in the abstract, ^ a 

miracle of nature, breathing libraries, as Eunapius of Lon- 

ginus, lights of nature, giants for wit, quintessence of wit, 

divine spirits, eagles in the clouds, fallen from heaven, gods, 

spirits, lamps of the world, dictators. Nulla ferani talem secla 

futura vtrum: monarchs, miracles, superintendents of wit 

and learning, oceanus, phoenix, atlas, monstrum, partentum 

hominis, orbis universt miisceum, uUimus humance naiurce 

conatus, natures maritus, 

merits cut doctior orbis 
Subraissis defert fascibas imperiam. 

As JElian writ of Protagoras and Gorgias, we may say of 
them ail, tantum a sapientibiLs abftierunt, quantum a vtris 
ptieri, they were children in respect, infants, not eagles but 
kites ; novices, illiterate, EuntLchi sapientia. And although 
they were the wisest, and most admired in their age, as 
he censured Alexander, I do them, there were 10,000 in his 
army as worthy captains (had they been in place of com- 
mand), as valiant as himself; there were myriads of men 
wiser in those days, and yet all short of what they ought to 
be. * Lactantius, in his book of wisdom, proves them to be 
dizzards, fools, asses, madmen, so full of absurd and ridicu- 
lous tenets, and brain-sick positions, that to his thinking never 
any old woman or sick person doted worse. * Democritus 
took all from Leucippus, and left, saith he, " the inheritance 
of his folly to Epicurus," '^ insanienti dum sapientice, S^c. 
The like he holds of Plato, Aristfppus, and the rest, making 
no difference, * " betwixt them and beasts, saving that they 
could speak." ' Theodoret in his tract, De cur, grec, affect, 
manifestly evinces as much of Socrates, whom though that 

1 Anazagoras olim mens dlctus ab de sap. c. 17 et 20, omnes Philosophif 

antiqais. s R^ula naturae, naturas aut stulti, aut insani; nulla anus, 

miraculum, ipsa eruditio, daemonium nuUus aeger inepti^ks deliravit. * De- 

hominis, sol scientiarum, mare, sophia, mocritus 4 Leucippo doctus, haeredita- 

antiatea literarum et aapientias, ut Sci- tern stultitiae reliquit Epic. & Hor. 

oppiuH olim de Seal, et Heinfiius. Aquila car. lib. 1, od. 84, 1, epicur. o Nihil in- 

in nubibus, Imperator literatorum, col- tereat inter hos et bestiaa niai quod lo> 

nmen literarum, abyasus eruditionis, quantur. de aa. 1, 26, c. 8. ' Cap. d* 

•oeUus Europae, Scaliger. 8 ijb. 8, yirt. 

Democritus to the Header. 61 

Oracle of Apollo confirmed to be the wisest man then living, 
and saved him from plagae, whom 2000 years have admired, 
of whom some will as soon speak evil as of Christ, yet revera, 
he was an illiterate idiot, as i Aristophanes calls him, irrisor 
el amlntiosus, as his master Aristotle terms him, scurra Atti- 
cusy as Zeno, an ^ enemy to all arts and sciences, as Athse- 
neus, to philosophers and travellers, an opinionative ass, a 
caviller, a kind of pedant ; for his manners, as Theod. Cy* 
rensis describes him, a * Sodomite, an atheist, (so convict by 
Anytus,) tracundus et ebnus, dicax^ S^c, a pot-companion, by 
Plato's own confession, a sturdy drinker; and that of all 
others he was most sottish, a very madman in his actions and 
opinions. Pythagoras was part philosopher, part magician, 
or part witch. If you desire to hear more of Apollonius, a 
great wise man, sometime paralleled by Julian the apostate to 
Christ, I refer you to that learned tract of Eusebius against 
Hierocles, and for them all to Lucian*s Piscatory Icaromenip- 
pus, Necyomantia : their actions, opinions in general were so 
prodigious, absurd, ridiculous, which they broached and main- 
tained, their books and elaborate treatises were full of dotage, 
which TuUy ad Atticum long since observed, delirant ple- 
rumq, ; scnptores in lihris suis, their lives being opposite to 
their words, they commended poverty to others, and were 
most covetous themselves, extolled love and peace, and yet 
persecuted one another with virulent hate and malice. They 
could give precepts for verse and prose, but not a man of 
them (as t Seneca tells them home) could moderate his affec- 
tions. Their music did show us flehihs modos, SfC, how to 
rise and fall, but they could not so contain themselves as in 
adversity not to make a lamentable tone. They will measure 
ground by geometry, set down limits, divide and subdivide, 
but cannot yet prescribe quantum homini satis, or keep 
within compass of reason and discretion. They can square 
circles, but understand not the state of their own souls, de- 

1 Neb. et Ranis. a Omnium disci- nm obibat, &o. t Seneca. Sds zotun- 

plinaram ignarus. * Pulchrorum da metiri| led non tuum aniiuum. 

idolesoentum cauad freq^iMnter gTmnasi- 

62 DemocrittLS to the Render, 

scribe right lines and crooked, &c., but know not what is right 
in this Ufe, quid in vitd rectum sit, ignorant ; so that as he 
said, Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destinet omnem, I think 
all the Anticjrae will not restore them to their wits, * if these 
men now, that held ^Xenodotus heart, Crates liver, Epic- 
tetus lantern, were so sottish, and had no more brains than 
so many beetles, what shall we think of the commonalty? 
what of the rest ? 

Yea, but will you infer, that is true of heathens, if they be 
conferred with Christians, 1 Cor. iii. 19. " The wisdom of 
this world is foolishness with Grod, earthly and devilish," as 
James calls it, iii. 15. "They were vain in their imagina- 
tions, and their foolish heart was full of darkness,' Rom. i. 21, 
22. " When they professed themselves wise, became fools." 
Their witty works are admired here on earth, whilst their 
souls are tormented in hell fire. In some sense, Christiani 
Orassiani, Christians are Crassians, and if compared to that 
wisdom, no better than fools. Quis est sapiens f Solus Detis, 
* Pythagoras replies, " God is only wise," Rom. xvi. Paul 
determines, " only good," as Austin well contends, " and no 
man living can be justified in his sight," " God looked down 
from heaven upon the children of men, to see if any did un- 
derstand," Psalm liii. 2, 3, but all are corrupt, err. Rom. iii. 
12, "None doth good, no not one." Job aggravates this, iv. 
18, " Behold he found no steadfastness in his servants, and 
laid folly upon his angels," 19. "How much more on them 
that dwell in houses of clay ? " In this sense we are all fools, 
and the ® Scripture alone is arx Minerva, we and our writ- 
ings are shallow and imperfect. But I do not so mean ; even 
in our ordinary dealings we are no better than fools. " All 
our actions," as * Pliny told Trajan, "upbraid us of folly," our 
whole course of life is but matter of laughter ; we are not 
soberly wise ; and the world itself, which ought at least to be 
wise by reason of his antiquity, as * Hugo de Prato Florido 

1 Ab nberibns sapientia lactati caecu- > Hio profundiMiinsB Sophin fodinas. 
tiie non poiwunt. > Cor Xenodoti et * Panegyr. Trajano omnes actiones ex- 

lecor Gratetis. * Lib. de nat. boni. probrare stoltitiam yideatur. 6 Ser. 4, 

Democritus to the Beader. 63 

will have it, semper stuUizat, " is every day more foolish than)^ 
other ; the more it is whipped, the worse it is, and as a childf 
will still be crowned with roses and flowers." We are apish 
in it, asini bipedes, and ^very place is full inversorum Apule- 
lorum, of metamorphosed and two-legged asses, inversorum 
Silenorum, childish, pueri instar bimuli, tremuld patris dor- 
mientis in tclnd, Jovianus Pontanus, Antonio Dial, brings 
in some laughing at an old man, that by reason of his age 
was a little fond, but as he admonisheth there, Ne 7nireris mi 
hospes de hoc sene, marvel not at him only, for tota hcec civ^ 
itas delirat, all our town dotes in like sort, ^ we are a com- 
pany of fools. Ask not with him in the poet, ^ Larvce hunc 
intemperice insaniceque agitarU senem 1 What madness ghosts 
this old man, but what madness ghosts us all ? For we are 
ad unum omnes, all mad, semel insanivimus omnes, not once, 
but always so, et semel, et simtd, et semper, ever and altogether 
as bad as he ; and not senex bis puer, delira anus, but say it 
of us all, semper pueri, young and old, all dote, as Lactantius 
proves out of Seneca ; and no difference betwixt us and chil- 
dren, saving that, majora ludimus, et grandioribus pupis, they 
play with babies of clouts and such toys, we sport with 
greater baubles. We cannot accuse or condemn one another, 
being faulty ourselves, deliramenta loqueris, you talk idly, or 
as • Initio upbraided Demea, insanis, auferte, for we are as 
mad our ownselves, and it is hard to say which is the worst. 
Nay, 'tis universally so, * Vitam regit fortuna, non sapi- 

When ^ Socrates had taken great pains to find out a wise 
man, and to that purpose had consulted with philosophers, 
poets, artificers, he concludes all men were fools ; and though 
it procured him both anger and much envy, yet in all com- 
panies he would openly profess it When • Supputius in Pon- 
tanus had travelled all over Europe to confer with a wise 

in domi Pal. Mnndns qui ob antiquita- puellae. Hor. < Plantus Aubular. 

tern deberet efl8e sapiens, semper stultizat, * Adelph. act 6, seen. 8. < Tully 

ttnullis flagellis alteratur, sed ut puer Tusc. 6, fortune, not wisdom, governs 

Tult rosis et floribus coronarl. our lives. ^ Plato Apologia Socratis. 

1 Insannm te omnes pueri, clamantque ^ Ant. dial. 

64 Demoeritus to the Recider. 

man, he returned at last without his errand, and could find 
none. ^ Cardan concurs with him, ^ Few there are (for 
aught I can perceive) well in their wits." So doth * Tully, 
"I see everything to be done foolishly and unadvisedly." 

Ille sinistronam, hie dextrorsum, unas atrique 
Error, sed variis illudit partibua omnes. 

One reels to this, another to that wall ; 
'Tis the same error that deludes them all. 

* They dote all, but not alike, VLavia yap nwnv 6fwta^ not in 
the same kind, " One is covetous, a second lascivious, a third 
ambitious, a fourth envious," &c. as Damasippus the Stoic 
hath well illustrated in the poet, 

^ Desipiant omnes seque ac tu. 

And they who call you fool, with equal claim 
May plead an ample title to the name. 

Tis an inbred malady in every one of us, there is seminar 
rium siuUitttBy a seminary of folly, " which if it be stirred up, 
or get ahead, will run in infinitum, and infinitely varies as 
we ourselves are severally addicted," saith * Balthazar Cas- 
tillo ; and cannot so easily be rooted out, it takes such fast 
hold, as Tully holds, altce radices stuliiti^e, •so we are bred, 
and so we continue. Some say there be two main defects of 
wit, error, and ignorance, to which all others are reduced ; 
by ignorance we know not things necessary, by error we 
luiow them falsely. Ignorance is a privation, error a positive 
act. From ignorance comes vice, from error, heresy, &c* 
But make how many kinds you will, divide and subdivide, 
fow men are free, or that do not impinge on some one kind 
or other. ' Sic plerumque agitat stitUos insdtia, as he that 
examines his own and other men's actions shall find. 

i Lib. 3, de sap. pauci nt video sann Est in tinoquoq. ; nostmm semlnarlam 

mentifl sunt. * Stuiti et incaute omnia aliquod staltitiae, quod si quando exeite- 

Bgi video. > Insania non omnibus tur. in infinitum fiu;il& excrescit. * Prt- 

eadpm, Erasm. cbil. 8, cent. 10, nemo maque lux Titee prima erroris erat. ^ Ti- 

mortalium qui non aliqua in re desipit, bullus, stulti pretasreunt dies, their wits 

licet alius alio morbo laboret, hie libid- are a wool-gathering. So fools eommonlj 

Inis, ille avariUaB, ambitionis, invidias. dote. 
« Hor. 1. 2, sat. 8. ^ Lib. 1, de aulico. 

Democritus to the Reader, 65 

* Charon in Lucian, as he wittily feigns, was conducted by 
Mercury to such a place, where he might see all the world at 
once; after he had sufSiciently viewed^ and looked about, 
Mercury would needs know of him what he had observed ; 
He told him that he saw a vast multitude and a promiscuous, 
their habitations like molehills, the men as emmets, "he 
could discern cities like so many hives of bees, wherein every 
bee had a sting, and they did nought else but sting one 
another, some domineering like hornets bigger than the rest, 
Bome like filching wasps, others as drones." Over their 
beads were hovering a confused company of perturbations, 
hope, fear, anger, avarice, ignorance, &c, and a multitude of 
diseases hanging, which they still pulled on their pates. 
Some were brawling, some fighting, riding, running, soUidt^ 
ambientea, caUide litigantes, for toys and trifles, and such 
momentary things. Their 'towns and provinces mere fac- 
tions, rich against poor, poor against rich, nobles against 
artificers, they against nobles, and so the rest In conclusion, 
he condemned them all for madmen, fools, idiots, asses, O 
gtuUi^ qvujenam hcec est amentia'^ O fools, O madmen, he 
exclaims, insana studia, insani lahores, Sfc. Mad endeav- 
ours, mad actions, mad, mad, mad, ^ seclum tnsipiens et 
infacetum, a giddy-headed age. Heraclitus the philosopher, 
CHit of a serious meditation of men's lives, fell a weeping, and 
with continual tears bewailed their misery, madness, and 
folly. Democritus on the other side, burst out a laughing, 
their whole life seemed to him so ridiculous, and he was so 
far carried with this ironical passion, that the citizens of 
Abdera took him to be mad, and sent therefore ambassadors 
to Hippocrates, the physician, that he would exercise his skill 
upon him. But the story is set down at large by Hippocra- 
tes, in his epistle to Damogetus, which because it is not 
impertinent to this discourse, I will insert verbatim almost as 
it is delivered by Hippocrates himself, with all the circum- 
stances belonging unto it. ' 

* Dial, eontemplantefl, Tom. 2. ^ Oatulliu. 
VOL. I. 6 

66 Demoeritui to the Header. 

When Hippocrates was now come to Abdera, the people 
of the citj came flocking about him, some weeping, some 
entreating of him, that he would do hia best Ailer some 
little repast, he went to see Democritus, the people foUowing 
him, whom he found (as before) in his garden in the suburbs 
all alone, ' " silting upon a atone under a plane tree, without 
hose or shoes, with a book on his knees, cutting up eeveral 
beasts, and busy at his study." The multitude stood gazing 
round about to see the congress. Hippocrates, after a little 
pause, saluted him by his name, whom he resnluted, ashamed 
almost that he could not call him likewise by his, or that he 
had forgot it. Hippocrates demanded of him what he was 
doing; he told him that he was '"busy in cutting up several 
beasts, to find out the cause of madness and melancholy." 
Hippocrates commended his work, admiring his happiness 
and leisure. And why, quoth Democritus, have not you 
that leisure ? Because, replied Hippocrates, domestic affairs 
hinder, necessary to be done for ourselves, neighbours, 
friends ; expenses, diseases, frailties and mortalities which 
happen ; wife, children, servants, and such businesses which 
deprive us of our time. At this speech Democritus profusely 
laughed (bis friends and the people standing by, weeping in 
the mean time, and lamenting his madness). Hippocrates 
asked the reason why he laughed. He told him, at the vani- 
ties and the fopperies of the time, to see men so empty of all 
virtuous actions, to bunt so far after gold, having no end of 
ambition ; to take such infinite pains for a little glory, and to 
be favoured of men ; to make such deep mines into the earth 
for gold, and many times to find nothing, with loss of their 
lives and fortunes. Some to love dogs, others horses, some to 
desire to be obeyed in many provinces,' and yet themselves 
will know no obedience. * Some to love their wives dearly 

lam, dlBCh1c«fttuiD, AdpflT lapidem, -rtiAt noD Dd opam p«r«iufl, ml ^llia Mlln. 
fnron, idhdU, meLanehDUl fcribo, ut ritflde pontulu, «t tv nuUuiD pmtai 

Democritus to the Reotder. 67 

at first, and after awhile to forsake and hate them ; beget- 
ting children, with much care and cost for their education, 
yet when they grow to man's estate, ^ to despise, neglect, and 
leave them naked to the world's mercy. * Do not these be- 
haviours express their intolerable folly ? When men live in 
peace, they covet war, detesting quietness, * deposing kings, 
and advancing others in their stead, murdering some men to 
beget children of their wives. How many strange humours 
are in men 1 When they are poor and needy, they seek 
riches, and when they have them, they do not enjoy them, 
but hide them under ground, or else wastefully spend them. 
wise Hippocrates, I laugh at such things being done, but 
much more when no good comes of them, and when they are 
done to so ill purpose. There is no truth or justice found 
amongst them, for they daily plead one against another, * the 
son against the father and the mother, brother against 
brother, kindred and friends of the same quality ; and all 
this for riches, whereof after death they cannot be possessors. 
And yet, notwithstanding, they will defame and kill one 
another, commit all unlawful actions, contemning God and 
men, friends and country. They make great account of 
many senseless things, esteeming them as a great part of 
their treasure, statues, pictures, and such like movables, dear 
bought, and so cunningly wrought, as nothing but speech 
wanteth in them, * and yet they hate living persons speaking 
to them.* Others affect difficult things ; if they dwell on 
firm land they will remove^ to an island, and thence to land 
again, being no way constant to their desires. They com- 
mend courage and strength in wars, and let themselves be 
conquered by lust and avarice; they are, in brief, as dis- 
ordered in their minds, as Thersites was in his body. And 
now, methinks, O most worthy Hippocrates, you should not 
reprehend my laughing, perceiving so many fooleries in men ; 

1 Pneros amant, mox Ikstidiunt. cittas agunt. ^ Idola inanlmata amant, 

* Quid hoe ab insaniSL deest? < Reges animata odio habent, sic pontiflcii. 

eligunt, deponunt. « Contra parentes, * Credo eqoidem Tiros dncent k marmorf 

ftiUres, ciTes perpetao rixantur, et iniioi- Toltus. 

68 Democrthu to the Reader. 

^for no man will mock his own folly, but that which he seeth 
in a second, and so they justly mock one another. The 
drunkard calls him a glutton whom he knows to be sober. 
Many men love the sea, others husbandry ; briefly, they can- 
not agree in their own trades and professions, much less in 

their lives and actions. 


When Hippocrates heard these words so readily uttered, 
without premeditation, to declare the world's vanity, full of 
ridiculous contrariety, he made answer, that necessity com- 
pelled men to many such actions, and divers wills ensuing 
from divine permission, that we might not be idle, being noth- 
ing is so odious to them as sloth and negligence. Besides^ 
men cannot foresee future events, in this uncertainty of 
human affairs ; they would not so marry, if they could fore- 
tell the causes of their dislike and separation ; or parents, if 
they knew the hour of their children's death, so tenderly 
provide for them ; or an husbandman sow, if he thought there 
would be no increase ; or a merchant adventure to sea, if he 
foresaw shipwreck ; or be a magistrate, if presently to be 
deposed^ Alas, worthy Democritus, every man hopes the 
best, and to that end he doth it, and therefore no such cause, 
nJ or ridiculous occasion of laughter. 

Democritus hearing this poor excuse, laughed again aloud, 
perceiving he wholly mistook him, and did not well under- 
stand what he had said concerning perturbations and tran- 
quillity of the mind. Insomuch, that if men would govern 
their actions by discretion and providence, they would not 
declare themselves fools as now they do, and he should have 
no cause of laughter ; but (quoth he) they swell in this life 
as if they were immortal, and demigods, for want of under- 
standing. It were enough to make them wise, if they would 
but consider the mutability of this world, and how it wheels 
about, nothing being firm and sure. He that is now above, 
to-moiTow is beneath ; he that sate on this side to-day, to-mor- 
row is hurled on the other ; and not considering these nu^ 

1 Saam stultitiain persfiiolt nemo, Md alter alteram deiidBt. 


Democritus to the Reader, 69 

ters, they fall into many inconveniences and troubles, covet- 
ing things of no profit, and thirsting after them, tumbling 
headlong into many calamities. So that if men would attempt \ 
no more than what they can bear, they should lead contented ^ 
lives, and learning to know themselves, would limit their 
ambition, ^ they would perceive then that nature hath enough 
without seeking such superfluities, and unprofitable things, 
which bring nothing with them but grief and molestation.^ 
As a fat body is more subject to diseases, so are rich men to 
absurdities and fooleries, to many casualties and cross incon- 
veniences. There are many that take no heed what hap- 
peneth to others by bad conversation, and therefore over- 
throw themselves in the same manner through their own 
fiskult, not foreseeing dangers manifest These are things (0 
more than mad, quoth he,) that give me matter of laughter, 
by suffering the pains of your impieties, as your avarice, 
envy, malice, enormous villanies, mutinies, unsatiable desires, 
conspiracies, and other incurable vices; besides your "dis- 
simulation and hypocrisy, bearing deadly hatred one to the 
other, and yet shadowing it with a good face, flying out into 
all filthy lusts, and transgressions of all laws, both of nature 
and civility. Many things which they have left off*, after a 
while they fall to again, husbandry, navigation ; and leave 
again, fickle and inconstant as they are. When they are 
young, they would be old ; and old, young. * Princes com- 
mend a private life ; private men itch after honour ; a magis- 
trate commends a quiet life ; a quiet man would be in his 
office, and obeyed as he is ; and what is the cause of all this, 
but that they know not themselves? Some delight to de- 
stroy, ^ one to build, another to spoil one country to enrich 
another and himself. ^In all these things they are like 

1 Deniqae sit finis qnerendi, cnmque dederit, sen son objeoerit, iUft contentiu 

habeas plus, panperiem metuas minus, yivat, &c. Hor. * Diroit, aedificat, 

et finire laborem incipias, partis quod mutat quadrata rotnndis. TrajanuB 

arebas, utere. Hor. > Astntam yap- pontem struxit snper Danubinm, quern 

Ido senraa sub pectore Tulpem. Et eum successor c^us Adrianns statim demolivit. 

mlpe positus pariter Tulpinarler. Cret- > Qu9l quid in re ab infantibns diflSerunt, 

Ixandnm cum Crete. > Qui fit MecsB- quibus mens et sensus sine ratione inest, 

Das ut nemo quam sibi sortem, Seu ratio quicquid sese his oflert Tolupe est? 

70 Democritm to the Reader. 

children, in whom is no judgment or counsel, and resemble 
beasts, saving that beasts are better than thej, as being con- 
tented with nature. ^ When shall you see a lion hide gold 
in the ground, or a bull contend for better pasture ? When 
a boar is thirsty, he drinks what will serve him, and no 
more ; and when his belly is full, ceaseth to eat ; but men 
are immoderate in both, as in lust — ^they covet carnal copula- 
tion at set times ; men always, ruinating thereby the health 
of their bodies. And doth it not deserve laughter to see an 
amorous fool torment himself for a wench ; weep, howl for a 
misshapen slut, a dowdy sometimes, that might have his 
choice of the finest beauties ? Is there any Remedy for this 
in physic? I do anatomize and cut up these poor beasts, 
^ to see these distempers, vanities, and follies, yet such proof 
were better made on man's body, if my kind nature would 
endure it ; ' who from the hour of his birth is most miserable, 
weak, and sickly; when he sucks, he is guided by others, 
when he is grown great, practiseth unhappiness ^and is 
sturdy, and when old, a child again, and repenteth him of his 
life past And here being interrupted by one that brought 
books, he fell to it again, that all were mad, careless, stupid* 
To prove my former speeches, look into courts, or private 
houses. * Judges give judgment according to their own ad- 
vantage, doing manifest wrong to poor innocents to please 
others. Notaries alter sentences, and for money lose their 
deeds. Some make false moneys ; others counterfeit false 
weights. Some abuse their parents, yea, corrupt their own 
sisters ; others make long libels and pasquils, defaming men 
of good life, and extol such as are lewd and vicious. Some 
rob one, some another ; ^ magistrates make laws against 
thieves, and are the veriest thieves themselves. Some kill 
themselves, others despair, not obtaining their desires. Some 

1 Idem Plut. s Ut inaaniae causam Qui sedet crlmlna jndicatanifl, ftc. 

disquiram bnita macto et aeco, cum hoc * Tu pessimus omnium latro es, asa thlei 

potiu8 in hominibus inrestigandum esset. told Alexander in Curtius. Damnal 

8 Totus jk nativitate morbus est. * In Ibras judex, quod intus opexatur. Cy 

Tigore ftiribundus, quum decrescit in- prian. 
lanabilifl. <> Cyprian, ad Donatum. 

Democritus to the Reader, 71 

dance, sing, laugh, feast, and banquet, whilst others sigh, 
languish, mourn, and lament, having neither meat, drink, nor 
clothes. ^ Some prank up their bodies, and have their minds 
full of execrable vices. Some trot about *to bear false 
witness, and say anything for money ; and though judges 
know of it, yet for a bribe they wink at it, and suffer false 
contracts to prevail against equity. "Women are all day 
a dressing, to pleasure other men abroad, and go like sluts at 
home, not caring to please their own husbands whom they 
should. Seeing men are so fickle, so sottish, so intemperate, 
why should not I laugh at those to whom * folly seems wis- 
dom, will not be cured, and perceive it not ? 

It grew late ; Hippocrates left him ; and no sooner was he 
come away, but all the citizens came about flocking, to know 
how he liked him. He told them in brief, that notwithstand- 
ing those small neglects of his attire, body, diet, * the world 
had not a wiser, a more learned, a more honest man, and 
they were much deceived to say that he was mad. 

Thus Democritus esteemed of the world in his time, and 
this was the cause of his laughter; and good cause he 

^ Olim jure qaidem, nanc plus Democrite ride; 
Quin rides ? vita hsBc nunc mag^ ridicula est. 

Democritus did well to laugh of old, 
Good cause he had, but now much more; 

This life of ours is more ridiculous 
Than that of his, or long before. 

Never so much cause of laughter as now, never so many 
fools and madmen. *Tis not one * Democritus will serve turn 
to laugh in these days ; we have now need of a " Democritus 
to laugh at Democritus ; " one jester to flout at another, one 
fool to flare at another ; a great stentorian Democritus, as big 

1 VnltAs magna cura, mAfn^i animi in- esse dicunt. ^ Siquidem sapientisB 

earia. Am. Marcel. ^ Horrenda res suao admiratione me compleyit, offondi 

est, rix duo rerba sine mendacio profe- sapientissimam yirum, qui salYon potest 

mntur: etqaamyissolenniter homines ad omnes homines reddere. ^ E Grseo. 

Teritatem dioendam iayitentur, pcgerare epiji;. > Plures Democriti nunc non 

tamen non dubitant, ut ex decern testi- snfficiunt, opus Democrito qui Demoori- 

bus yix unus yernm dicat. Caly. in 8 tum rideat. Eras. Moria. 
John, Senn 1. ^ Sapientiam Insaniam 

72 Democritui to the Reader* 

as that Bhodian Colossus. For now, as ^ Salisburiensis said in 
his time, totue mundva histrionem agit, the whole world plajs 
the fool ; we have a new theatre, a new scene, a new comedy 
of errors, a new company of personate actors, volupuB sctcra 
(as Calcagninus willingly feigns in his Apologues) are cele- 
brated all the world over, *where all the actors were madmen 
and fools, and every hour changed habits, or took that which 
came next. He that was a mariner to-day, is an apothecary 
to-morrow ; a smith one while, a philosopher another, in hie 
volupia Itidis ; a king now with his crown, robes, sceptre, 
attendants, by and by drove a loaded ass before him like a 
carter, &c If Democritus wei*e alive now, he should see 
strange alterations, a new company of counterfeit vizards, 
whifflers, Cumane asses, maskers, mummers, painted puppets, 
outsides, fantastic shadows, gulls, monsters, giddy-heads, but* 
terflies. And so many of them are indeed (' if all be true 
that I have read). For when Jupiter and Juno's wedding 
was solemnized of old, the gods were all invited to the feast, 
and many noble men besides : Amongst the rest came Chrys- 
alus, a Persian prince, bravely attended, rich in golden at- 
tires, in gay robes, with a majestical presence, but otherwise 
an ass. The gods seeing him come in such pomp and state, 
rose up to give him place, ex habitu hominem metientes ; ' but 
Jupiter perceiving what he was, a light, fantastic, idle fellow, 
turned him and his proud followers into butterflies ; and so 
they continue still (for aught I know to the contrary) roving 
about in pied coats, and are called chrysalides by the wiser 
sort of men ; that is, golden outsides, drones, flies, and things 
of no worth. Multitudes of such, &c. 

" nbique invenies 
Stultos avaros, sycophantas prodigos." t 

1 Polycrat. lib. 8, cap. 8, e Petron. spicuns, levia alioquin et nixlliug consilii, 
• Ubi omnes delirabant. omnes Insani, &o., magno Ikatu ingrediend amargunt 
he. , hodie nauta. eras philosophus ; hodie dil, &o. * Bed homlnls levitatem Jupt- 
Ikber, eras pharmacopeia; hie modo re- ter penpiciens, at tu (inquit)98to bom- 
gem agebat mnlto satellitio, tiara, et bilio, &c., protinusq. Testis ilia manicata 
■oeptro ornatus, nunc vlii amictus oen- in alas yersa est, et mortalee inde Ghry- 
ticulo, asinum clltellarlam impellit. salidee Yocant hi^usmodi hominea. 
^ Calcagninus Apol. Orysalus h cseteris t You will meet eovetous fools and prodl* 
anzo dires, manicato poplo et tiata con- gal syoophaDts eyery where. 

Democriiw to the Beader. 7B 

Many additions, much increase of madness, follj, vanity, 
Bhoald Democritus observe, were he now to travel, or could 
get leave of Pluto to come and see fashions, as Charon did 
in Lucian to visit our cities of Moronia Pia, and Moronia 
Foelix ; sure I think he would break the rim of his belly 
with laughing. ^ Si forel in terris rideret Democritus^ 

A satirical Boman in his time, thought all vice, folly, and 
madness were all at full sea, ^ Omne in prcecipiti vitium stetit. 

* Josephus the historian taxeth his countrymen Jews for 
bragging of their vices, publishing their follies, and that they 
did contend amongst themselves who should be most notori- 
ous in villanies ; but we flow higher in madness, far beyond 

* ** Mox datnri progeniem vitiosiorem,'* 

And yet with crimes to tis unknown, 

Our sons shall mark the coming age their own, 

and the latter end (you know whose oracle it is) is like to be 
worse. 'Tis not to be denied, the world alters every day, 
Muunt urbes, regna transferuntur, ^<?., variantur hcibittAS, leges 
innovantur, as * Petrarch observes, we change language, hab- 
its, laws, customs, manners, but not vices, not diseases, not 
the symptoms of folly and madness, they are still the same. 
And as a river, we see, keeps the like name and place, but 
not water, and yet ever runs, f Lahitur et labetur in omne 
voluhilis cBvum ; our times and persons alter, vices are the 
same, and ever will be ; look how nightingales sang of old, 
cocks crowed, kine lowed, sheep bleated, sparrows chirped, 
dogs barked, so they do still ; we keep our madness still, play 
the fools still, nee dum finitus Orestes ; we are of the same 
humours and inclinations as our predecessors were ; you shall 
find us all alike, much at one, we and our sons, et nati nato^ 
rum, et qui nascuntur ah iUis' And so shall our posterity 
continue to the last But to speak of times present. 

1 JuTen. s jQTen. * De bello tamen habetis qnia pcjor sit. & Hor 

Jnd. I. 8. c. 11. Iniquitates yestm ^ Lib 6, Epist. 8. f Hor. 
Demiaeia latent, inque cUes singolos e«r- 

74 Democritas to the Reader. 

If Democritus were alive now, and should but see the su« 
perstition of our age, our ^ religious madness, as ^ Meteran 
calls it, Religiosam insaniam, so many professed Christians, 
yet so few imitators of Christ ; so much talk of religion, so 
much science, so little conscience; so much knowledge, so 
many preachers, so little practice ; such variety of sects, such 

have and hold of all sides,* obma signis Signa, &c., such 

absurd and ridiculous traditions and ceremonies : If he should 
meet a ^ Capuchin, a Franciscan, a Pharisaical Jesuit, a man- 
serpent, a shave-crowned Monk in his robes, a begging Friar, 
or see their three-crowned Sovereign Lord the Pope, poor 
Peter's successor, servus servorum Dei, to depose kings with 
his foot, to tread on emperors' necks, make them stand bare- 
foot and bare-legged at his gates, hold his bridle and stirrup, 
&c. (O that Peter and Paul were alive to see this !) If he 
should observe a * Prince creep so devoutly to kiss his toe, 
and those Red-cap Cardinals, poor parish priests of old, now 
Princes' companions; what would he say? CoBlum ipsum 
petitur stuUiticu Had he met some of our devout pilgrims 
going barefoot to Jerusalem, our Lady of Lauretto, Rome, S. 
lago, S. Thomas's Shrine, to creep to those counterfeit and 
maggot-eaten relics ; had he been present at a mass, and 
seen such kissing of Paxes, crucifixes, cringes, duckings, their 
Beveral attires and ceremonies, pictures of saints, * indul- 
gences, pardons, vigils, fasting, feasts, crossing, knocking, 

kneeling at Ave-Marias, bells, with many such ; -jucunda 

rudi spectacida plebis, 'praying in gibberish, and mumbling 
of beads. Had he heard an old woman say her prayers in 
Latin, their sprinkling of holy-water, and going a proces- 

1 Snperstitio est insantis error. * Lib. oblationibus, votis, solutionibus, jejunite, 

8, hist. Belg. * Luean. 8 Father oosnobiis, somoiis, horis, organis, cantile- 

Angelo, the Duke of Joyeux, going bare- nis, campanis, simulachris, missis, pur- 

fbot oyer the Alps to Rome, &c. « Si gatoriis, mitris, breviariis, builis, iastrali- 

cai intueri yacet quae patiuntur supersti- bus, aquis, rasuris, unctionibus, candelis, 

tiosi, inyenies tarn indecora honestis, tarn ealicibus, crucibus, mappis, cereis, thu- 

Indigna liberis, tam dissimilia sanis, ut libulis, incantationibus, exorcismis, spu- 

nemo fuerit dubitaturns furere eos, si tis, legendis, &c. Baleus de actis Rom. 

cam paucioribus fUrerent. Senec. Pont. > Pleasing spectacles to the ig- 

> Quid dicam de eorom indolgentiis, norantpoor. 


Democritus to the Header. 75 

* " incednnt monachomm agmina miUe ; 
Quid memorem vexillai cruces, idolaqae culta, &c.*' 

Their breviaries, bulls, hallowed beans, exorcisms, pictures, 
curious crosses, fables, and baubles. Had he read the Grolden 
L/egend, the Turks' Alcoran, or Jews* Talmud, the Rabbins' 
Comments, what would he have thought ? How dost thoa 
think he might have been affected ? Had he more particu- 
larly examined a Jesuit's life amongst the rest, he should 
have seen an hypocrite profess poverty, ^and yet possess 
more goods and lands than many princes, to have infinite 
treasures and revenues ; teach others to fast, and play the 
gluttons themselves ; like the watermen that row one way 
and look another. * Vow virginity, talk of holiness, and yet 
indeed a notorious bawd, and famous fornicator, lascivumpecusj 
a very goat. Monks by profession, * such as give over the 
world and the vanities of it, and yet a Machiavelian rout 
* interested in all manner of state ; holy men, peacemakers, 
and yet composed of envy, lust, ambition, hatred, and malice ; 
firebrands, aduUa patriae pestis, traitors, assassinats, hdc itur 
ad astrOy and this is to supererogate, and merit heaven for 
themselves and others. Had he seen on the adverse side, 
some of our nice and curious 'Schismatics in another extreme, 
abhor all ceremonies, and rather lose their lives and livings, 
than do or admit anything Papists have formerly used, 
though in things indifferent., (they alone are the true Church, 
scd terrcB cum sint omnium insulstssimi). Formalists, out of 
fear and base flattery, like so many weathercocks turn 
round, a rout of temporizers, ready to embrace and maintain 
all that is or shall be proposed in hope of preferment; 
another Epicurean company, lying at lurch like so many 
vultures, watching for a prey of Church goods, and ready to 
rise by the downfall of any ; as ^ Lucian said in like case, 

* Th. Neageor. i Dam shnnlant longer, their madnesg shall be known to 

sperDere, acquisiyerunt sibi 80 annorum all men. * Benignitatis sinus solebat 

spatio bis centena millia librarum annua, esse, nunc litium ofllcina curia Ilomana. 

Arnold. * £t quum interdiu de Tirtute Budseus. ^ Quid tibi yidetur fkctunu 

loqnuti sunt, sero in latibulis clunes agi- Democritus, si homm spectator contigii- 

tant labore noctumo, Agryppa. ^ 1 set ? 

Tim. Hi. 18. But they shall prsTail no 

76 Democritus to the Reader. 

what dost thou think Democritus would have done, had he 
been spectator of these things ? 

Or had he but observed the common people follow like so 
many sheep one of their fellows drawn by the horns over 
the gap, some for zeal, some for fear, quo se cunque rapU 
tempestas, to credit all, examine nothing, and yet ready to 
die befbi*e they will abjure any of those ceremonies to which 
they have been accustomed? othera out of hypocrisy fre- 
quent sermons, knock their breasts, turn up their eyes, pre- 
tend zeal, desire reformation, and yet professed usurers^ 
gripei*s, monsters of men, harpies, devils in their lives, to 
express nothing less. 

What would he have said to see, hear, and read so many 
bloody battles, so many thousands slain at once, such streams 
of blood able to turn mills; unius oh naxam furictsque, or to 
make sport for princes, without any just cause, * " for vain 
titles (saith Austin), precedency, some wench, or such like 
toy, or out of desire of domineering, vainglory, malice, 
revenge, folly, madness," (goodly causes all, ob qucus uni-- 
versus orhis helUs et cadibus misceatur,) whilst statesmen 
themselves in the mean time are secure at home pam* 
pered with all delights and pleasures, take their ease, and 
follow their lusts, not considering what intolerable misery 
poor soldiers endure, their often wounds, hunger, thirst, &c, 
the lamentable cares, torments, calamities, and oppressions 
that accompany such proceedings, they feel not, take no 
notice of it. So wars are begun, by the persuasion of a few 
debauched, hair-brain, poor, dissolute, hungry captains, par- 
asitical fawners, unquiet Hotspurs, restless innovators, green 
heads, to satisfy one man's private spleen, lust, ambition, 
avarice, &c. ; tales rapiunt scelerata in prcelia causa. Flos 
hominumj proper men, well proportioned, carefully brought 
up, able both in body and mind, sound, led like so many 
^ beasts to the slaughter in the flower of their years, pride, 

• Ob inaoM ditionum titulos, ob pre- malitia. quod onpido domioandi, libido 
reptum locum, ob interoeptam mulier- nocendi, &e. i Bellum rem plane 

sulam, Tel quod e stultitia natum, yel e belloaB nam Tocat Morus. TJtop. lib. 2. 


Democritus to the Reader. 77 

and full strength, without all remorse and pity, sacrificed to 
Pluto, killed up as so many sheep, for devils' food, 40,000 at 
(Hice. At once, said I, that were tolerable, but these wars 
last always, and for many ages ; nothing so familiar as this 
hacking and hewing, massacres, murders, desolations — ignoto 
codvim clangore remugity they care not what mischief they 
procure, so that they may enrich themselves for the present ; 
they will so long blow the coals of contention, till all the 
world be consumed with fire. The ^ siege of Troy lasted 
ten years, eight months, there died 870,000 Grecians, 
670,000 Trojans, at the taking of the dty, and after were 
slain, 276,000 men, women, and children of all sorts. 
Caesar killed a million, ^ Mahomet the second Turk, 300,000 
persons; Sicinius Dentatus fought in a hundred battles, 
eight times in single combat he overcame, had forty wounds 
before, was rewarded with 140 crowns, triumphed nine 
times for his good service. M. Sergius had 32 wounds; 
Scseva, the Centurion, I know not how many ; every nation 
had their Hectors, Scipios, Caesars, and Alexanders ! Our 
' Edwai*d the Fourth was in 26 battles afoot ; and as they 
do all, he glories in it, 'tis related to his honour. At the 
siege of Hierusalem, 1,100,000 died with sword and famine. 
At the battle of Cannas, 70,000 men were slain, as * Polyb- 
ius records, and as many at Battle Abbey with us; ,and 
'tis no news to fight from sun to sun, as they did, as Con- 
stantine and Licinius, &c. At the siege of Ostend (the 
devil's academy) a poor town in respect, a small fort, but a 
great grave, 120,000 men lost their lives, besides whole 
towns, dorpes, and hospitals full of maimed soldiers ; there 
were engines, fire-works, and whatsoever the devil could 
invent to do mischief with 2,500,000 iron bullets shot of 40 
pounds' weight, three or four millions of gold consumed. 
*"Who (saith mine author) can be sufficiently amazed at 
their flinty hearts, obstinacy, fury, blindness, who without 

iHungter. Cosmog. L 5, c. 8. B sComineiu. *Lib.8. AHist. of 

Diet. CietoDB. sjOTiuB idt. ^110. tbe aiege of Oatead, ftL 2& 

78 Democritus to the Beader, 

any likelihood of good saccess, hazard poor soldiers, and lead 
them without pity to the slaughter, which may justly be 
called the rage of furious beasts, that run without reason 
upon their own deaths ; " * quiz malus genitu, qtue faria, 
qtuB pestis, Sfc. ; what plague, what fury brought so devilish, 
so brutish a thing as war first into men's minds? Who 
made so sofl and peaceable a creature, bom to love, mercy, 
meekness, so to rave, rage like beasts, and run on to their 
own destruction ? how may nature expostulate with mankind. 
Ego te divinum animal jinxiy S^c. f I made thee an harm- 
less, quiet, a divine creature ; how may Grod expostulate, and 
all good men ? yet, horum facta (as f one condoles) tantum 
admirantur, et heroum numero hdhent : these are the brave 
spirits, the gallants of the world, these admired alone, tri- 
umph alone, have statues, crowns, pyramids, obelisks to their 
eternal fame, that immortal genius attends on them, hoc 
itur ad' astra. When Rhodes was besieged, ^fossae urbis 
cadaverihus repletce sunt, the ditches were full of dead car- 
casses ; and as when the said Solyman, great Turk, belea- 
guered Vienna, they lay level with the top of the walls. 
This they make a sport of, and will do it to their friends and 
confederates, against oaths, vows, promises, by treachery or 

otherwise ; ^ dolus an virtus f quis in hoste requirat ? 

leagues and laws of arms, (' silent leges inter arma), for their 
advantage, omnia jura, divina, humana, proculvata plerum- 
que sunt; God's and men's laws are trampled under foot, the 
sword alone determines all ; to satisfy their lust and spleen, 
they care not what they attempt, say, or do, * Eara JldeSy 
prohitasque viris qui castra sequuntur. Nothing so com- 
mon as to have *" father fight against the son, brother 
against brother, kinsman against kinsman, kingdom against 
kingdom, province against province, Christians against Chris- 

* Erasmus de bello. Ut placidum illud 8 Tullj. < Lucan. > Pater in filium, 

animal beneyolentisB natum tarn ferina afBnis in affloem, amicus in amicum.&o. 

TecordiSl in mutuam rueret pemiciem. Regio cum regione, r^num regno collidi< 

t Rich. Dinoth. prae&t. Belli civilis Gal. tur. Populus populo in mutuam per- 

1 Jorius. s Dolus, asperitas, in jus- niciem, belluarum instar sanguinolente 

litia propria bellonun negotia. Tertul. ruentiom. 

Democritus to the Header, 79 

tians ;" a quthts nee unquam cogitcUione fuerunt laesi, of 
whom they never had offence in thought, word or deed. 
Infinite treasures consumed, towns burned, flourishing cities 
sacked and ruinated, quodque animus meminisse horret, 
goodly countries depopulated and left desolate, old inhabitants 
expelled, trade and trafl&c decayed, maids deflowered, Vtr- 
gines nondum thalamis jtigatce, et comis nondum positis 
ephcebi ; chaste matrons cry out with Andromache, * Con- 
cuhitum max cogar pati efus, qui interemit Ifectorem, they 
shall be compelled perad venture to lie with them that erst 
killed their husbands ; to see rich, poor, sick, sound, lords, 
servants, eodem omnes incommode macti, consumed all or 
maimed, &c. JSt quicquid gaudens scehre animus audet, et 
perversa mens, saith Cyprian, and whatsoever torment, 
misery, mischief, hell itself, the devil, ^fury and rage can 
invent to their own ruin and destruction; so abominable a 
thing is ^ war, as Gerbelius concludes, adeo fceda et ahom- 
inanda res est helium^ ex qu^ hominum ccedes, vastationes, SfC,, 
the scourge of God, cause, effect, fruit and punishment of sin, 
and not tonsura humani generis, as Tertullian calls it, but 
ruina. Had Democritus been present at the late civil wars 

in France, those abominable wars bellaque matrihus detes- 

taia, ' " where, in less than ten years, ten thousand men were 
consumed, saith CoUignius, twenty thousand churches over- 
thrown ; nay, the whole kingdom subverted (as * Richard 
Dinoth adds). So many myriads of the commons were 
butchered up, with sword, famine, war, tanto odio lUrinque 
ut harhari ad abhorrendam lanienam obstupescerent, with 
such feral hatred, the world was amazed at it ; or at our late 
Fharsalian fields in the time of Henry the Sixth, betwixt the 
houses of Lancaster and York, a hundred thousand men 
slain, tone writes; * another, ten thousand families were 

* Libanii deolam. i Iraenim et furor tis excisa. ^ Belli ciyilis Gal. 1. 1, hoc 

Bellonsa consultores, &c., dementes feralibello et csedibus omnia repleyerunt, 

aaoerdotes sunt. > Bellum quasi bellua et regnum amplissimum it fundamentia 

et ad omnia scelera furor immissus. pene everterunt, plebis tot myriades gla- 

> Oallorum decies centum millia oecide- dio, bello, fome miserabiliter perierunt. 

runt. Ecclesiarum 20 millia fundamen- t Pont. Hnterus. & Comineus. Ut 

80 DemocrUu9 to the Reader. 

rooted out, ^ That no man can bat marvel, saith Comineus, 
at that barbarous unmanity, feral madness, committed betwixt 
men of the same nation, ' language, and religion/' ^ Quis 
furor, ctves f " Why do the Gentiles so iuriously rage," 
saith the Prophet David, Psal. iL 1. But we may ask, why 
do the Christians so furiously rage ? * Arma volant, quart 
poscunt, rapiuntque juventusf Unfit for Gentiles, much 
less for us so to tyrannize, as the Spaniard in the West 
Indies, that killed up in forty-two years (if we may believe 
' Bartholomaeus k Casa, their own bishop) twelve millions of 
men, with stupend and exquisite torments ; neither should I 
lie (said he) if I said fifty millions. I omit those French mas* 
sacres, Sicilian even-songs, 'the Duke of Alva's tyrannies, 
our gunpowder machinations, and that fourth fury, as ^ one 
calls it, the Spanish inquisition, which quite obscures those 

ten persecutions, * s^evit toto Mars tmpius orbe» Is not 

this ^ mundus furiosus, a mad world, as he terms it, tnsanum 
helium f are not these mad men, as f Scaliger concludes, 
qui %n prcdio acerhd morte, insanice suce memoriam pro per^ 
petuo teste rdinquunt posteritaii ; which leave so frequent 
battles, as perpetual memorials of their madness to all suc- 
ceeding ages? Would this, think you, have enforced our 
Democritus to laughter, or rather made him turn his tune, 
alter his tone, and weep with ^ Heraclitus, or rather howl, 
' roar, and tear his hair in commiseration, stand amazed ; or 
as the poets feign, that Niobe was for grief quite stupefied, 
and turned to a stone ? I have not yet said the worst, that 
which is more absurd and ' mad, in their tumults, seditions, 
civil and unjust wars, *° quod stidte suscipitur, impie geritur, 
misere Jlnitur, Such wars I mean ; for all are not to be 
condemned, as those fantastical anabaptists vainly conceive. 

nnllas non execretur et admiretur cru- " Impious war rages throughout the 

delitaton, et barbaram insaniam, quae whole world." ^ Jansenias Gallobelgi- 

Inter homines eodem sub coelo xiatos, cas 1596. Mandus fariosos, inscriptio 

ejusdem linguae, sanguinis, reli^onis, ex- libri. t Exercitat. 260, serm. 4. 

ercebatur. i Lucan. *Vlrg. ^ Bish- 7 Fleat Heraclitus an rideat Democritus. 

a» of Cuseo, an eye-witness. >Bead s Curse leve8loquuntur,ingente8Stupent. 

eteran of his stnpend cruelties. ^ Arma amens capio, neo sat rationis in 

*Hensius Austriaco. ^Viig. Oeoxg. armis. lOBraamus 

Democritus to the Reader. 81 

Our Christian tactics are all out as necessary as the Boman 
acies, or Grecian phalanx ; to be a soldier is a most noble 
and honourable profession (as the world is), not to be spared, 
they are our best walls and bulwarks, and I do therefore 
acknowledge that of * Tully to be most true, " All our civil 
affairs, all our studies, all our pleading, industry, and com- 
mendation lies under the protection of warlike virtues, and 
whensoever there is any suspicion of tumult, all our arts 
cease ; " wars are most behoveful, et bellatores agricolis 
civitati sunt utiliores^ as f Tyrius defends ; and valour is 
much to be commended in a wise man ; but they mistake 
most part, auferre, trucidare, rapere, falsis nominihus vir- 
tutem vocanty &c. ('Twas Galgacus's observation in Tacitus) 
they term theft, murder and rapine, virtue, by a wrong 
name, rapes, slaughters, massacres, &c, jocus et ludus, are 
pretty pastimes, as Ludovicus Vives notes. ^"They com- 
monly call the most harebrain blood-suckers, strongest 
thieves, the most desperate villains, treacherous rogues, 
inhuman murderers, rash, cruel and dissolute caitiffs, courage- 
ous and generous spirits, heroical and worthy captains, 
* brave men at arms, valiant and renowned soldiers, pos- 
sessed with a brute persuasion of false honour," as Pontus 
Huter in his Burgundian history complains. By means of 
which it comes to pass that daily so many voluntaries offer 
themselves, leaving their sweet wives, children, friends, for 
sixpence (if they can get it) a day, prostitute their lives and 
limbs, desire to enter upon breaches, lie sentinel, perdue, 
give the first onset, stand in the fore-front of the battle, 
marching bravely on, with a cheerful noise of drums and 
trumpets, such vigour and alacrity, so many banners stream- 
ing in the air, glittering armours, motions of plumes, woods 
of pikes, and swords, variety of colours, cost and magnifi- 

* Pro Murena. Omnes urbanse res. simos haberi propugnatores, fldissimos 

omnia studia, omnis forensis lans et duces ^abent, bruta persuasibne donatt. 

indnstria latet in tutela et prsesidio bel- > Eobanus Hessus. Quibus omnis in ar- 

liciB yirtatis, et simui atqne increpuit misvitaplacet, nonullajuvat nisi morte, 

snspicio tumaltils artes illico nostrae nee ullam esse putant vitam, qun non 

conticescunt. f Ser. 18. ^ Crude- assueverit armis. 
Isfimos sceyissimosque latrones, fortia- 

yoL. I. 6 

82 Democritus to the Reader. 

cence, as if thej went in triumph, now victors to the Capitol, 
and with such pomp, as when Darius's armj marched to 
meet Alexander at Issus. Void of all fear thej run into 
imminent dangers, cannon's mouth, &c., ut vtUneribus suis 
ferrum kostium hebetenty saith ^ Barletius, to get a name of 
valour, honour and applause, which lasts not neither, for it is 
but a mere flash this fame, and like a rose, intra diem unum 
extinguitur, 'tis gone in an instant. Of 15,000 proletaries 
slain in a battle, scarce fifteen are recorded in history, or one 
alone, the General perhaps, and after awhile his and their 
names are likewise blotted out, the whole battle itself is for- 
gotten. Those Grecian orators, iumma vi ingenii et elo- 
guenticB, set out the renowned overthrows at TheremopyUe^ 
Salamis, Marathon, MiccUe, Mantinea, Cheroncea, Plattea. 
The Romans record their battle at Cannas, and Fharsalian 
fields, but thej do but record, and we scarce hear of them. 
And yet this supposed honour, popular applause, desire of 
immortality by this means, pride and vainglory spur them on 
many times rashly and unadvisedly, to make away them- 
selves and multitudes of others. Alexander was sorry, be- 
cause there were no more worlds for him to conquer, he is 
admired by some for it, animosa vox videtur, et regia, 'twas 
spoken like a Prince ; but as wise • Seneca censures him, 
'twas vox iniquissima et sttdtissima, 'twas spoken like a Bed- 
lam fool ; and that sentence which the same ' Seneca ap- 
propriates to his father Philip and him, I apply to them all, 
Nbn minores fuere pestes mortalium quam inundatio, qudm 
conjlagratio quibus, &c., they did as much mischief to mortal 
men as fire and water, those merciless elements when they 
rage. * Which is yet more to be lamented, they persuade 
them this hellish course of life is holy, they promise heaven 
to such as venture their lives bello sacro, and that by these 

1 Lib. 10, Tit. Scanperb^. > NnlU eos, qui in proello fiiderit animun. De 
beatiores habiti, quim qui in proeliis ceci- Benef. lib. 2,c. 1. !* Nat. qusest. lib. 8. 
dissent. Brisonius de rep. Persanim. 1. * Boterus Amphitridion. Bnsbequius 
8. fol. 8, 44. Idem Lactantiusde Romanis Tui«. hist. Per csdes et sangniinom pa- 
st Qraecis. Idem Ammianus, lib. 28, de rare hominibus ascensam in ooelum pu- 
^rthis. Judicatur is solus beatus apud tant, Lactao. de lUsa relig. 1. 1, cap. 8. 

Democnttis to the JReader, SB 

bloody wars, as Persians, Greeks and Romans of old, as 
modern Turks do now their commons, to encourage them to 
fight, tU cadant infeliciter, " If they die in the field, they 
go directly to heaven, and shall be canonized for saints." 
(O diabolical invention !) put in the Chronicles, in perpetuam 
ret memoriam, to their eternal memory ; when as in truth, 
as ^ some hold, it were much better (since wars are the 
scourge of God for sin, by which he punisheth mortal men's 
peevishness and folly) such brutish stories were suppressed, 
because ad morum institiUionem nihil habent, they conduce 
not at all to manners, or good life. But they will have it 
thus nevertheless, and so they put note of ^ " divinity upon 
the most cruel and pernicious plague of human kind," adore 
such men with grand titles, degrees, statues, images, ' honour, 
applaud, and highly reward them for their good service, no 
greater glory than to die in the field. So Africanus is ex- 
tolled by Ennius ; Mars, and * Hercules, and I know not 
how many besides of old, were deified; went this way to 
heaven, that were indeed bloody butchers, wicked destroyers, 
and troublers of the world, prodigious monsters, hell-hounds, 
feral plagues, devourers, common executioners of human 
kind, as Lactantius truly proves, and Cyprian to Donat, such 
as were desperate in wars, and precipitately made away 
themselves, (like those Celtes in Damascen, with ridiculous 
valour, u£ dedecorosum putarent muro ruenti se subducere, a 
disgrace to run away for a rotten wall, now ready to fall on 
their heads,) such as will not rush on a sword's point, or 
seek to shun a cannon's shot, are base cowards, and no 
valiant men. By which means, Madet orUs mutuo sanguine, 
the earth wallows in her own blood, ^Scevit amor ferri et 
scelerati insania belli ; and for that, which if it be done in 
private, a man shall be rigorously executed, * ** and which is 

1 Quoniam bella acerbiflsima Dei fla- signiunt. > Et quod dolendum, ap- 

gella sunt quibus hominum pertinaciam puiusum habent et occursum Tiri tales, 

panit, ea perpetui oblivione sepelienda * Herculi eadem porta ad coelum patuit 

potius quam memorisB mandanda pie- qui magnam generis humani partem per- 

riquejudicant. Rich. Dinoth. prsef. hist, didit. 6 Virg. -ffilneid. 7. « Homi- 

Gall. > Cruentam humani generis cidium quum com mittuntsinguli, crimen 

peetem et perniciem, diyinitatis noti in- est, quum public^ flceritur, virtus ▼oca> 

84 Democritus to the Reader. 

no less than murder itself; if the same fact be done in pub- 
lic wars it is called manhood, and the party is honoured for 

it" ^Prosperwn etftxMx scelus, virtus vacatur. 

We measure all as Turks do, bj the event, and most part, 
as Cyprian notes, in all ages, countries, places, sceviticR mag^ 
nitudo impunitatem sceUris acguirtty the foulness of the fact 
vindicates the offender. ^ One is crowned for that for which 
another is tormented : Ille crucem sceleris prettum ttdit, hie 
diadema ; made a knight, a lord, an earl, a great duke, (as 

* Agrippa notes) for which another should have hung in gib- 
bets, as a terror to the rest, 

* ** et tamen alter, 
Si fecisset idem, caderet sab judice morum.** 

A poor sheep-stealer is hanged for stealing of victuals, com- 
pelled peradventure by necessity of that intolerable cold, 
hunger, and thirst, to save himself from starving ; but a 

• great man in office may securely rob whole provinces, undo 
thousands, pill and poll, oppress ad libitum^ flea, grind, tyran- 
nize, enrich himself by spoils of the commons, be uncontrol- 
lable in his actions, and afler all, be repompensed with tur- 
gent titles, honoured for his good service, and no man dare 
find fault, or * mutter at it. 

How would our Democritus have been affected to see a 
wicked caitiff, or "^ " fool, a very idiot, a funge, a golden ass, a 
monster of men, to have many good men, wise men, learned 
men to attend upon him with all submission, as an appendix 
to his riches, for that respect alone, because he hath more 
wealth and money, *and to honour him with divine titles, and 
bombast epithets," to smother him with fumes and eulogies, 

tnr. Gyprianus. i Seneca. Success- in serritntem habentem, ob id dnntaxat 

fal vice is called virtue. * Juven. quod ei contingat aureorum numisma- 

* De ranit. scient. de princip. nobilita- turn cumulus, ut appendices, et addita- 

tis. ^ Juven. Sat. 4. ^Pausarapit, menta numismatum. Morus, Utopia, 

quod Natta reliquit. Tu pessimus om- ^ Eorumque det^tantur Utopienses in- 

nitun latro es, as Demetrius the Pirate saniam, qui divinos honores iis imperti- 

told Alexander in Curtius. * Non ausi unt, quos sordidos et avaros agnoscunt : 

mutire, &c. .Ssop. 7 Improbum et non alio respectu honorantes quam quod 

ttultum, si divitem multos bonos Tiros dites sint. Idem, bb. 2. 

Democnttis to the Reader. 85 

whom they know to be a dizzard, a fool, a covetous wretch, 
a beast, &c., "because he is rich?" To see sub exuviis 
leonis onagrum, a filthy loathsome carcass, a Grorgon's head 
puffed up by parasites, assume this unto himself, glorious 
titles, in worth an infant, a Cuman ass, a painted sepulchre, 
an Egyptian temple ? To see a withered face, a diseased, 
deformed, cankered complexion, a rotten carcass, a viperous 
mind, and Epicurean soul set out with orient pearls, jewels, 
diadems, perfumes, curious elaborate works, as proud of his 
clothes as a child of his new coats ; and a goodly person, of 
an angel-like divine countenance, a saint, an humble mind, a 
meek spirit clothed in rags, beg, and now ready to be starved ? 
To see a silly contemptible sloven in apparel, ragged in his 
coat, polite in speech, of a divine spirit, wise ? another neat 
in clothes, spruce, full of courtesy, empty of grace, wit, talk 
nonsense ? 

To see so many lawyers, advocates, so many tribunals, so 
little justice ; so many magistrates, so little care of common 
good ; so many laws, yet never more disorders ; IVibunal 
litium segetem, the Tribunal a labyrinth, so many thousand 
suits in one court sometimes, so violently followed ? To see 
injustissimum sape juri prcesidentem, impium reltgiom, im-' 
peritissimum eruditioni, otiosissimum labor i, monstrosum hu- 
manitati f to see a lamb ^ executed, a wolf pronounce sen- 
tence, kUro arraigned, and fur sit on the bench, the judge 
severely punish others, and do worse himself, ^ eundem fur^ 
turn facere et punire, * rapinam plectere, quum sit ipse raptor f 
Laws altered, misconstrued, interpreted pro and con, as the 
*Judge is made by friends, bribed, or otherwise affected as a 
nose of wax, good to-day, none to-morrow ; or firm in his 
opinion, cast in his ? Sentence prolonged, changed, ad ar- 
bitrium judicis, still the same case, * " one thrust out of his 
inheritance, another falsely put in by favour, false forged 

1 Cyp. 2, ad Donat. ep. Ut reus inno- merces. Petronius. Quid faciant leges 

oens pereat, sit nocens. Judex damnat ubi sola pecuuia regnat? Idem. ^ Hio 

fonts, quod intus operatnr. 2 Sidonius arcentur hsereditatibus liberi, hie dona- 

Apo. 8 S.ilTianus 1. 3, de providen. tur bonis alienis, falsum consullt, alter 

* Ergo judicinm nihil est nisi publica testamentum corrumpit, &c. Idem. 

86 DemoerituB to the Reader, 

deeds or wills." Inciste leges negUgurUur, laws are made and 
not kept; or if pat in execution, ^they be some silly onea 
that are punished. As put case it be fornication, the father 
will disinherit or abdicate his child, quite cashier him (out» 
villain, begone, come no more in my sight) ; a poor man is 
miserably tormented with loss of his estate perhaps, goods, 
fortunes, good name, forever disgraced, forsaken, and must 
do penance to the utmost ; a mortal sin, and yet make the 
worst of it, nunquid aliud fecity saith Tranio in the ^ poet, 
nisi quod faciunt summis ncUi generibus f he hath done no 
more than what gentlemen usually do. ' Neque novum, neque 
mirum, neque secus quam alii solent. For in a great person, 
right worshipful Sir, a right honourable Grandy, 'tis not a 
venial sin, no, not a peccadillo, 'tis no offence at all, a common 
and ordinary thing, no man takes notice of it ; he justifies it 
in public, and peradventure brags of it, 

* << Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio, Seloque, decebat 
Griapinum " 

For what would be base in good men, Titias, and Seius, became Crispinns. 

* Many poor men, younger brothers, &c, by reason of bad 
policy and idle education (for they are likely brought up in 
no calling), are compelled to beg or steal, and then hanged 
for thefl; than \^hich, what can be more ignominious, non 
minus enim turpe principi muUa supplicia, quam medico 
multa funera, 'tis the governor's fault. lAbentiUs verberant 
quam docent, as schoolmasters do rather correct their pupils, 
than teach them when they do amiss. *"They had more 
need provide there should be no more thieves and beggars, 
as they ought with good policy, and take away the occasions, 
than let them run on, as they do to their own destruction ; root 
out likewise those causes of wrangling, a multitude of law- 

1 Vexat censurft columbas. s Plaut. 1. « Decernuntur fiirl grayia et hor- 

moatel. * Idem. * JuTen. Sat. 4. renda supplicia, quum potiuB providen- 

K Quod tot sint fures et mendici, magis- dam inult6 foret ne fliree sint, ne cuiquam 

tratuum eu1p3L fit, qui malos imitantur tam dira flinmdi aut pereundi sit nece»* 

pneceptores, qui discipulos libentius yer- sitas. Idem. 
Derapt quam dooeut. Morus, Utop. lib. 


Democritus to the Header, 87 

yers, and compose controversies, lites lustrales et seculareSy bj 
some more compendious means," Whereas now for every 
toy and trifle they go to law, \ mugit Utihus insanum forumy 
et siBvit invicem discordantium rabies^ they are ready to pull 
out one another's throats ; and for commodity ^ ^^ to squeeze 
blood," saith Hierom, " out of their brother's heart," defame, 
lie, disgrace, backbite, rail, bear false witness, swear, forswear, 
fight and wrangle, spend their goods, lives, fortunes, friends, 
undo one another, to enrich an harpy advocate, that preys 
upon them both, and cries Eia Socrates, Eia Xantippe ; or 
some corrupt Judge, that like the ^Kite in ^sop, while 
the mouse and frog fought, carried both away. Generally 
they prey one upon another as so many ravenous birds, brute 
beasts, devouring fishes, no medium, ^ omnes hie atU captantur 
aut capiant ; avi cadavera qiue Ictceraniur, aut corvi qui lace-' 
rant, either deceive or be deceived ; tear others or be torn 
in pieces themselves ; like so many buckets in a well, as one 
riseth another falleth, one's empty, another's full ; his ruin is 
a ladder to the third ; such are our ordinary proceedings. 
What's the market? A place, according to ^Anacharsis, 
wherein they cozen one another, a trap ; nay, what's the 
world itself? ®A vast chaos, a confusion of manners, as 
fickle as the air, domicilium insanorum, a turbulent troop full 
of impurities, a mart of walking spirits, goblins, the theatre 
of hypocrisy, a shop of knavery, flattery, a nursery of villainy, 
the scene of babbling, the school of giddiness, the academy 
of vice ; a warfare, ubi velis nclis pugnandum, aut vincas aut 
succumhaSy in which kill or be killed ; wherein every man is 
for himself, his private ends, and stands upon his own guard. 
No charity, ' love, friendship, fear of God, alliance, affinity, 
consanguinity, Christianity, can contain them, but if they be 
any ways offended, or that string of commodity be touched, 

1 BoteroB de angment. urb. lib. 8, emporium, theatrum hypocridos, &o. 

cap. 8. s E fratemo corde sanguinem ' Nemo coelum, nemo ju^urandnm, 

eliciunt. 3 Milvus rapit ac deglubit. nemo Joyem pluris &cit, sed omnei 

* Petronias de Crotone civit. & Quid apertis oculis bona sua computant. Po" 

forum? locus quo alius alium clrcum- tron. 
renit. * Vastum chaos, larrarum 

88 Bemoeritms io ike Reader. 

ihej fidl fboL Old fiienda become bitter enemies od a sod- 
den for toys and small offeDoes, and they thai erst were will- 
ing to do all mutual offices of lore and kindness, now reyile 
and persecute one another to death, with more than Yatinian 
hatred, and will not be reconciled. So long as thej are be- 
boveful, thev love, or may bestead each other, but when there 
is no more good to be expected, as thej do bj an old dog, 
hang him up or cashier him ; which ^ Gato counts a great 
indecorum, to use men like old shoes or broken glasses, which 
are flung to the dunghill ; he could not find in his heart to 
sell an old ox, much less to turn awaj an old servant ; but 
thej, instead of recompense, revile him, and when they have 
made him an instrument of their villaioy, as ^ Bajazet the 
second Emperor of the TudLs did by Aoomethes Bassa, make 
him away, or instead of 'reward, hate him to death, as SUius 
was served by Tiberius. In a word every man for his own 
ends. Our summum honum is commodity, and the goddess 
we adore Dea moneta. Queen money, to whom we daily offer 
sacrifice, which steers our hearts, hands, ^ affections, all ; that 
most powerfiil goddess, by whom we are reared, depressed, 
elevated, ^ esteemed the sole conmiandress of our actions, for 
which we pray, run, ride, go, come, labour, and contend as 
fishes do for a crumb that falleth into the water. It's not 
worth, virtue, (that's honum theatrale,) wisdom, valour, learn- 
ing, honesty, religion, or any sufficiency for which we are 
respected, but •money, greatness, office, honour, auth6rity; 
honesty is accounted folly ; knavery, policy ; '' men admired 
out of opinion, not as they are, but as they seem to be ; such 
shifting, lying, cogging, plotting, counterplotting, temporizing, 
flattering, cozening, dissembling, ® " that of necessity one must 

1 Plutarch, vit. ejus. Indecorum ani- odium redditur. Tac. * Taucis cha- 

matis ut calceis uti aut ritris, quae ubi rior est fides quam pecnnia. Salust. 

fracta abjicimus, nam ut de meipso ^ Prima fere vota et cunctis, &c. 

dicam, nee bovem senem vendideram, * Et genus et formam r^na pecunia 

nedum hominem natn grandem iaboris donat. Quantum quisque sua nummo- 

focium 2 Jovius. Cum innumera rum aervat in area, tantum habet et fidtd. 

illius beneficla rependere non poRset f Non ji periti3L sed ab omatu et Tulgi 

aliter, interfici jussit. s Beneficia vocibus habemur exnellentes. Cardan. I. 

ao usque laeta sunt dum videntur solvi 2, de cons. ^ Peigurata suo postponit 

posse, ubi multum anteyenere pro gratia numina lucro, Mercator. Ut neoessaiium 

Democritus to the' Recder. 89 

highly offend God if he be conformable to the world," Oreti- 
zare cum Crete, " or else live in contempt, disgrace, and mis- 
ery." One takes upon him temperance, holiness, another 
austerity, a third an affected kind of simplicity, when as in- 
deed he, and he, and he, and the rest are ^ " hypocrites, ambi- 
dexters," outsides, so many turning pictures, a lion on the 
one side, a lamb on the other.^ How would Democritus have 
been affected to see these tilings I 

To see a man turn himself into all shapes like a chameleon, 
or as Proteus, omnia transformans sese in miracula rerum, 
to act twenty parts and persons at once, for his advantage, to 
temporize and vary like Mercury the Planet, good with good ; 
bad with bad ; having a several face, garb, and character for 
every one he meets ; of all religions, humours, inclinations ; 
to fawn like a spaniel, mentitis et mimicis ohsequiis, rage like 
a lion, bark like a cur, fight like a dragon, sting like a serpent, 
as meek as a lamb, and yet again grin like a tiger, weep like 
a crocodile, insult over some, and yet others domineer over 
him, here command, there crouch, tyrannize in one place, be 
baffled in another, a wise man at home, a fool abroad to make 
others merry. 

To see so much difference betwixt words and deeds, so 
many parasangs betwixt tongue and heart, men like stage- 
players, act variety of parts, *give good precepts to others, 
soar aloft, whilst they themselves grovel on the ground. 

To 'see a man protest friendship, kiss his hand, ^queni mal-' 
let truncatum videre, * smile with an intent to do mischief, or 
cozen him whom he salutes, ♦magnify his friend unworthy 
with hyperbolical eulogiums ; his enemy albeit a good man, 
to vilify and disgrace him, yea all his actions, with the ut- 
most that livor and malice can invent. 

To see a •servant able to buy out his master, him that 

git Tel Beo dlsplioere, vel ab homlnibua Silr. & Arridere homines tit sseyiant, 

contemni, vexari, negligi. i Qui Curios blandiri ut fiillant. Gyp. ad Bonatum. 

timulant et Bacchanalia Tirunt. 8 Tra- * Love and hate are like the two ends of 

gelapho similes vel centauris, sursum a perspective glass, the one multiplies, 

homines, deorsum equi. 8 Prseceptis the other makes less. ^ Ministri locu- 

snis coelum promittunt, ipsi interim pul- pletiores lis quibus ministratur, serrus 

veiis terreni yUia mancipia. * Maeaa majores opes habens quam patronus. 

90 Demoeritut to the Reader^ 

carries the mace more worth than the magistrate, which 
Plato, lib. 11, de leg., absolutely forbids, £pictetus abhoi& 
A horse that tills the ^land fed with chaff, an idle jade have 
provender in abundance ; him that makes shoes go barefoot 
himself, him that sells meat almost pined ; a toiling drudge 
starve, a drone flourish. 

To see men buy smoke for wares, castles built with fools' 
heads, men like apes follow the fashions in tires, gestures, 
actions ; if the king laugh, all laugh ; 

2 " Rides ? majore chachinno 

Goncutitur, fiet si lachrymas conspexit amici. 


•Alexander stooped, so did his courtiers; Alphonsus turned 
his head, and so did his parasites. ^ Sabina Poppea, Nero's 
wife, wore amber-coloured hair, so did all the Roman ladies 
in an instant, her fashion was theirs. 

To see men wholly led by affection, admired and censured 
out of opinion without judgment ; an inconsiderate multitude, 
like so many dogs in a village, if one bark all bark without a 
cause*; as fortune's fan turns, if a man be in favour, or com- 
manded by some great one, all the world applauds him ; ^ if 
in disgrace in an instant all hate him, and as at the sun when 
he is eclipsed, that erst took no notice, now gaze and stare 
upon him. 

To see a man * wear his brains in his belly, his guts in his 
head, an hundred oaks on his back, to devour a hundred ozen 
at a meal, nay more, to devour houses and towns, or as those 
anthropophagi, ' to eat one another. 

To see a man roll himself up Hke a snowball, from base 
beggary to right worshipful and right honourable titles, un- 
justly to screw himself into honours and offices ; another to 
starve his genius, damn his soul to gather wealth, which he 

1 Qui terrain colunt equi palels pascan- cap. 6. ^ Plinius, 1. 87, cap. 8, capillofl 

tor, qui otiantur cabalU avenSi saginan- babuit sucdneos, exinde &ctum ut om- 

tur, dificalceatuB diacurrit qui calces fdlis nea puellas Bomanss colorem ilium afiEbc- 

fiusit. sjuven. Do jou laugh ? he ia tarent. s Odit damnatos. Jut. 

shaken by still greater laughter ; he ^ Agrippa ep. 28, 1. 7. Quorum cerebrum 

weeps also when he has beheld the tears est in ventre, ingenium in patinis. 

of his firiend. > Bodin. Ub. 4, de repub. 7 pgal. They eat up my people aa broad. 

Democritus to the Reader, 91 

shall not enjoy, which his prodigal son melts and consumes 
in an instant.^ 

To see the KaM^'Uav of our times, a man bend all his 
forces, means, time, fortunes, to be a favourite's favourite's 
favourite, &c., a parasite's parasite's parasite, that may scorn 
the servile world as having enough already. 

To see an hirsute beggar's brat, that lately fed on scraps, 
crept and whined, crying to all, and for an old jerkin ran of 
errands, now ruffle in silk and satin, bravely mounted, jovial 
and polite, now scorn his old friends and familiars, neglect his 
kindred, insult over his betters, domineer over all. 

To see a scholar crouch and creep to an illiterate peasant 
for a meal's meat ; a scrivener better paid for an obligation ; 
a falconer receive greater wages than a student ; a lawyer 
get more in a day than a philosopher in a year, better reward 
for an hour, than a scholar for a twelvemonth's study ; him 
that can * paint Thais, play on a fiddle, curl hair, &c., sooner 
get preferment than a philologer or a poet. 

To see a fond mother, like -3Esop's ape, hug her child to 
death, a ^ wittol wink at his wife's honesty, and too perspic- 
uous in all other affairs ; one stumble at a straw, and leap 
over a block ; rob Peter, and pay Paul ; scrape unjust sums 
with one hand, purchase great manors by corruption, fraud 
and cozenage, and liberally to distribute to the poor with the 
other, give a remnant to pious uses, &c. Pennywise, pound- 
foolish ; bUnd men judge of colours ; wise men silent, fools 
talk ; * find fault with others, and do worse themselves ; f de- 
nounce that in public which he doth in secret; and which 
Aurelius Victor gives out of Augustus, severely censure that 
in a third, of which he is most guilty himself. 

To see a poor fellow, or an hired servant venture his life 
for his new master that will scarce give him his wages at 

1 Absnmit haeres casouba dignior ser- oblivisci suorum. Ictem Aristippas Chari- 

Tata centum olavibus, et mero distinguet demo apud Luclanum. Omnino stultitisa 

pavimentif* superbo, pontificum potiore cujasdam esse puto, &c. t Execraxl 

eoenis . Hor. * Qui Thaidem pingere, publico quod occulta agat. Salrianus lib. 

Inflare tibiam, crispare crines. s Doctus de pro- acres ulciscendis vitiis quibus ipsi 

ipeotare lacunar. ^ Tulllus. Est enim vehementer indulgent, 
proprium s^oltitite aliorum cemere yitia, 

92 JDemocriius to the Reader. 

gear's end ; A country colone toil and moil, till and drudge 
for a prodigal idle drone, that devours all the gain, or lasciv- 
iously consumes with fantastical expenses ; A noble man in 
a bravado to encounter death, and for a small flash of honour 
to cast away himself; A worldling tremble at an executor, 
and yet not fear hell-fire ; To wish and hope for immortality, 
desire to be happy, and yet by all means avoid death, a neces- 
sary passage to bring him to it 

To see a foolhardy fellow like those old Danes, qui decol- 
lari malunt quam verberari, die rather than be punished, in a 
sottish humour embrace death vrith alacrity, yet * scorn to 
lament his own sins and miseries, or his dearest friends' 

To see wise men degraded, fools preferred, one govern 
towns and cities, and yet a silly woman overrules him at 
home ; * Command a province, and yet his own servants or 
children prescribe laws to him, as Themistocles's son did in 
Greece ; * " What I will (said he) my mother will, and what 
my mother will, my father doth." To see horses ride in a 
coach, men draw it ; dogs devour their masters ; towers build 
masons ; children rule ; old men go to school ; women wear 
the breeches ; * sheep demolish towns, devour men, &c And 
in a woi*d, the world turned upside downward. O viveret 
Democntiis / 

*To insist in every particular were one of Hercules's 
labours, there's so many ridiculous instances, as motes in the 
sun. Quantum est in rebus inane/ (How much vanity 
there is in things !) And who can speak of all ? Crimine 
ah uno disce omnes, take this for a taste. 

But these are obvious to sen^e, trivial and well known, 
easy to be discerned. How would Democritus have been 
moved, had he seen f the secrets of their hearts ? If every 

1 Adamns eccl. hist. cap. 212. Siquis fltmulum regit sine strepitu domi. 

damnatus fueiit, Isetus esse gloria est; > Quicquid ego yoIo hoc vult mater mea, 

nam lachrymas et pianctum caeteraque et quod mater vult, facit pater, s Oyes. 

compunctionum genera quae nos salubria olim mite pecus, nunc tarn indomitum et 

eensemus, ita abominantur Dani, ut neo edax ut homines devorent, &c. Morua 

pro peccatis nee pro defunctis amicis ulli Utop. lib. 1. * Diversos variia tribuit 

Sero Uceat. * Orbi dat leges foras, tIz natura furores, f I>emocrit. ep. prsed 

Democritus to the Reader, 93 

man had a window in his breast, which Momus would have 
had in Vulcan's man, or that which TuUy so much wished it 
were written in every man's forehead, Quid quisque de rc- 
publtcd sentiretf what he thought ; or that it could be effected 
in an instant, which Mercury did by Charon in Lucian, by 
touching of his eyes, to make him discern semel et simul ru- 
mores et susurros, 

" Spes hominum caecas, morbos, votumque labores, 
£t passim toto volitontes sethere curas/' 

** Blind hopes and wishes, their thoughts and affairs, 
Whispers and rumours, and those flying cares.'* 

That he could cuMcidorum obductas for as recludere et secreta 
cordium penetrare, which ^ Cyprian desired, open doors and 
locks, shoot bolts, as Lucian's Gallus did with a feather of 
his tail ; or Gyges's invisible ring, or some rare perspective 
glass, or Otacousticon, which would so multiply species, that 
a man might hear and see all at once (as ^ Martianus Capel- 
la's Jupiter did in a spear which he held in his hand, which 
did present unto him all that was daily done upon the face of 
the earth), observe cuckolds' horns, forgeries of alchemists, 
the philosopher's stone, new projectors, &c, and all those 
works of darkness, foolish vows, hopes, fears, and wishes, 
what a deal of laughter would it have afforded ? He should 
have seen windmills in one man's head, an hornet's nest in 
another. Or had he been present with Icaromenippus in 
Lucian at Jupiter's whispering place, ' and heard one pray 
for rain, another for fair weather ; one for his wife's, another 
for his father's death, &c. ; '^ to ask that at God's hand which 
they are abashed any man should hear ; " How would he 
have been confounded ? Would he, think you, or any man 

Hos dc^jerantes et potantes deprehendet, quotidianis motibns agitarentf relncebat 

hos Tomentes, illos lltigantes, insidias * Jupiter contingat mihi aurum haered- 

molientes, saffiragantee, yenena mis- itas, &c. Multos da, Jupiter, annos, 

oentes, in amicoram accusationem sub- Dementia quanta est hominum, turpissi- 

Bcribentes, hos gloria, iUos ambitione, cu- ma yota diis inausurrant, si qui? admov- 

piditate, mentecaptoe, &c. lAdDonat. eritanrem, conticescunt ; et quod scire 

ep. 2, 1. 1. O si posses in specula sublimi homines nolujit, Deo narrant. Senec. ep. 

eonstitutus, &c. > Lib. 1, de nup. Philol. 10, 1. 1. 
In qua quid singuli nationnm populi 

94 Democritus to the Reader. 

else, say that these men were well in their wits ? Scec san% 
esse homims guts sanusjuret Orestes f Can all the hellebore 
in the Anticyrae cure these men ? No sure, ♦ " an acre of 
hellebore will not do it." 

That which is more to be lamented, they are mad like 
Seneca's blind woman, and wiU not acknowledge, or ^ seek 
for any cure of it, for pauci vident rnorbum suum omne$ 
amant. If our leg or arm offend us, we covet by all means 
possible to redress it ; ■ and if we labour of a bodily disease, 
we send for a physician ; but for the diseases of the mind 
we take no notice of them ; ' Lust harrows us on the oen 
side ; envy, anger, ambition on the other. We are torn in 
pieces by our passions, as so many wild horses, one in dispo^ 
sition, another in habit; one is melancholy, another mad| 
* and which of us all seeks for help, doth acknowledge his 
error, or knows he is sick ? As that stupid fellow put out 
the candle because the biting fleas should not find him ; he 
shrouds himself in an^ unknown habit, borrowed titles, be* 
cause nobody should discern him. Every man thinks with 
himself, Egomet videor mihi santts, I am well, I am wise, and 
laughs at others. And 'tis a general fault amongst them all, 
that * which our forefathers have approved, diet, apparel, 
opinions, humours, customs, manners, we deride and reject in 
our time as absurd. Old men account juniors all fools, when 
they are mere di^zards ; and as to sailors, — ^-^errcBgtie ur* 

besque recedunt they move, the land stands still, the world 

hath much more wit, they dote themselves. Turks deride us, 
we them ; Italians, Frenchmen, accounting them light-headed 
fellows ; the French scoff again at Italians, and at their sev- 
eral customs; Greeks have condemned all the world but 

* Plautus Menech. non potest hsec hum. affec. morbommque cura. * Et 

res Hellebori jugere obtinerier. quotusquisqne tamen est qui contra tot 

1 Eoque gravior morbus quo ignotior pe- pestes medicum requirat yel segrotare ee 

riclitanti. s Queo laedunt oculos, festi- agnoscat? ebullit ira, &c. Et nog tamen 

nas demere ; si quid est animum, differs segros esse negamus. Incolumes medi 

curandi tempus in annum. Hor. ^ gi cum recusant. Prsesens setas stnltitiam 

saput, crus dolet, brachium, &c., medi- priscis exprobrat. Bud. deaffiac^ lib. 5 

oum accersimus, recte et honeste, si par ^ Senes pro stnltlfl habent juvenefl. Balth 

etiam industria in animi morbis ponere* Oast, 
tur. Joli. PelenuB Jesuita. lib. 2, de 

Democriim to the Header* 95 

themselves of barbarism, the world as much vilifies them 
now ; we account Germans heavy, dull fellows, explode many 
of their fashions ; they as contemptibly think of us ; Span- 
iards laugh at all, and all again at them. So are we fools 
and ridiculous, absurd in our actions, carriages, diet, apparel, 
customs, and consultations ; we ^ scoff and point one at 
another, when as in conclusion all are fools, * " and they the 
veriest asses that hide their ears most." A private man if 
he be resolved with himself, or set on an opinion, accounts 

all idiots and asses that are not affected as he is, ^ nil 

rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducit, that are not so minded, 

• (jquodque volunt homines se bene veUe putant,) all fools that 
think not as he doth ; he will not say with Atticus, Suam 
quisque sponsam^ mihi msam, let every man enjoy his own 
spouse ; but his alone is fair, sutis amor^ Sfc, and scorns all 
in respect of himself, * will imitate none, hear none * but him- 
self, as Pliny said, a law and example to himself. And that 
which Hippocrates, in his epistle to Dionysius, reprehended 
of old, is verified in our times, Quisque in alio superjluum 
esse censet, ipse quod non hahet nee curat, that which he hath 
not himself, or doth not esteem, he accounts superfluity, an 
idle quality, a mere foppery in another; like -ZEsop's fox, 
when he had lost his tail, would have all his fellow foxes cut 
off theirs. The Chinese say, that we Europeans have one 
eye, they themselves two, all the world else is blind ; (though 
t Scaliger accounts them brutes too, merum pecus,) so thou 
and thy sectaries are only wise, others indifferent, the rest 
beside themselves, mere idiots and asses. Thus not ac- 
knowledging our own errors and imperfections, we securely 
deride others, as if we alone were free, and spectators of the 
rest, accounting it an excellent thing, as indeed it is, Aliend 
optimum frui insanid, to make ourselves merry with other 
men's obliquities, when as he himself is more faulty than the 

1 Cloditus accusat moechos. * Om- imitantur, Ipsi sibi exemplo. Plin. epist. 

nium gtaltissirai qui anricalai stadlosd lib. 8. b Nulli alter! sapere concedit, 

tegpant. Sat. Menip. s Hor. Bplst. 2. ne deeipere Tideatnr. Agrip. f Omnia 

* Prosper. * Statim sapiunt, Btatim orbis persechio a Persli ad Lusitaniam. 
•ciunt, neminem reyerenturi neminem 

96 Democrittu to the Reader, 

rest, mutato nomine, de tefabula narratur, he may take him- 
Belf by the nose for a fool ; and which one calls maximum 
stuUiticB specimen, to be ridiculous to others, and not to per- 
ceive or take notice of it, as Marsjas was when he contended 
with Apollo, non inteUigens se deridicuh haheri, saith * Apu- 
leius; 'tis his own cause, he is a convicted madman, as 
* Austin well infers " in the eyes of wise men and angels he 
seems like one, that to our thinking walks with his heels 
upwards." So thou laughest at me, and I at thee, both at a 
third ; and he returns that of the poet upon us again, ^ Hei 
mihi, insanire me aiunt, quum ipsi uUro insaniant. We 
accuse others of madness, of folly, and are the veriest diz- 
zards ourselves. For it is a great sign and property of a 
fool (which £ccl. x. 3, points at) out of pride and self-conceit 
to insult, vilify, condemn, censure, and call other men fools 
(Non videmus manticce quod a tergo est) to tax that in others 
of which we are most faulty ; teach that which we follow not 
ourselves ; For an inconstant man to write of constancy ; a 
profane liver prescribe rules of sanctity and piety ; a dizzard 
himself make a treatise of wisdom; or with Sallust to rail 
downright at spoilers of countries, and yet in f office to be a 
most grievous . poller himself. This argues weakness, and is 
an evident sign of such parties' indiscretion. ^ Peccat uter 
nostrum cruce dignius f " Who is the fool now ? " Or else 
peradventure in some places we are all mad for company, 
and so 'tis not seen, Satietas erroris et dementice, pariter 
ghsurditatem et admirationem toUiU 'Tis with us, as it was 
of old (in * Tully's censure at least) with C. Fimbria in Rome, 
a bold, hairbrain, mad fellow, and so esteemed of all, such 
only excepted, that were as mad as himself; now in such a 
case there is '^ no notice taken of it. 

* 2 Florid. ^ August. Quails in ocnlis um est insanientium tnrba. Sen. 

hominum qui inrersis pecUbus ambulat, ^ Pro Boscio Amerino, et quod inter om- 

talis in oculis sapientum et angelorum nes constat insanissimus, nisi inter eofl, 

qui sibi placet, aut cui passiones domi- qui ipsi quoque insaniunt. & Necesso 

nantur. ^ Plautus Menechmi. est cum insanientibus farere, nisi solus 

t Governor of Asnich by Caesar's ap- relinqueris. Fetronius. 
pointment. < Nunc sanitatis patrocinl- 

Democritm to the Reader. 97 

** Niminun msanus pancis videatnr; e6 quod 
Maxima pars hominnm morbo jactatnr eodem.'* 

" When all are mad, where all are like opprest 
Who can discern one mad man from the rest? " 

Bat put case they do perceive it, and some one be mani* 
festly convicted of madness, ^ he now takes notice of his follj, 
be it in action, gesture, speech, a vain humour he hath in 
buUding, bragging, jangling, spending, gaming, courting, smb- 
bliBg, prating, for which he is ridiculous to others, ^ on which 
be dotes, he doth acknowledge as much; jet with all the 
rhetoric tliou hast, thou canst not so recall him, but to the 
contrary notwithstanding, he will persevere in his dotage* 
'Tis amabilis insamci, et mentis gratissimus error ^ so pleasing 
8o delicious, that be 'cannot leave it. He knows his errotr, 
bat will not seek to decline it, tell him what the event will be, 
b^gary, sorrow, sickness, disgrace, shame^ loss, madness, yet 
^'^an angry man will prefer vengeance, a lascivious hia 
whore, a thief his booty^ a glutton his belly, before his wel- 
£ire." Tell an epicure, a covetcMis man, an ambitious man, 
of his irregular course, wean him from it a little, pol me ocd^ 
distis amid, he cries anon, you have undone him, and as * a 
^ dog to his vomit," he returns to it again ; no persuasion will 
take place, no counsel, say what thou canst, 

^ Clames licet et mare coelo 

Confdndas, snrdo narras/* * 

demonstrate as Ulysses did to * Elpenor and Gryllus, and the 
rest of his companimis, ^ those swinish men," he is irrefraga- 
ble in his humour, he will be a hog still ; bray him in a mor- 
tar, he will be the same* K he be in an heresy, or some 
perverse opinion, settled as some of our rgnonmt Papists are, 

1 Qnoniam non est geniu nnnm stulti- (n^lam. ambitioeiu honoree, aTams op«8, 

tiflB qua me ituanire putu. * Stnltmn Ibc, odimus haoc et accerBimas. Cardan. 

me fliteor, liceat conoedere Temm. At- I. 2, de como. & Pror. xzri. 11. 

que etiam insannm. Har. ^ Odi nee * Although jou call out, and conlbund 

poesum eupiens nee esse quod odi. Otld. the sea and sky, jon still address a deaf 

Ibnore grato Ubenter onuies innnlmus. man. Plutarch^ QT7i]o.8uiUiliominM 

4 Amator scortum Titn prasponlt, iraenn- slo Clem. Alex. to. 
dus Tindictam; fiir pnedam, parasitus 

VOL. I. 7 

98 Democritus to the Reader, 

convince his understanding, show him the several follies and 
absurd fopperies of that sect, force him to saj, veri$ vincoTy 
make it as dear as the sun, ^ he will err still, peevish and ob- 
stinate as he is ; and as he said ^ si in hoc erro, libenter erro, nee 
hunc errorem auferri mihi volo ; I will do as I have done, as 
mj predecessors have done, ' and as my friends now do ; I 
will dote for company. Say now, are these men ^ mad or 
no, ^ Heus age responds f are they ridiculous ? cedo quemvis 
arhitruMj are they sofUB mentis, sober, wise, and discreet? 

have they common sense ? • uter est insanior horum f 

I am of Democritus'B opinion for my part, I hold them 
worthy to be laughed at ; a company of brainsick dizzards, 
as mad as ^ Orestes and Athamas, that they may go " ride 
the ass," and all sail along to the Anticyrse, in the ^ ship of 
fools'* for company together. I need not much labour to 
prove this which I say otherwise than thus, make any sol- 
emn protestation, or swear, I think you will believe me with- 
out an oath ; say at a word, are they fools ? I refer it to 
you, though you be likewise fools and madmen yourselves, 
and I as mad to ask the question ; for what said our comical 

8 *^ Justnm ab injustis petere insipientia est. 

I'll stand to your censnre yet, what think you ? ** 

But forasmuch as I undertook at first, that kingdoms, 
provinces, families, were melancholy as well as private men, 
I will examine them in particular, and that which I have 
hitherto dilated at random^ in more general terms, I will par- 
ticularly insist in, prove with more special and evident argu- 
ments, testimonies, illustrations, and that in brief. ^ Nunc 
accipe quare desipiarU omnes asqtie ac tu» "My first argu- 
ment is borrowed from Solomon, an arrow drawn out of his 

1 Non penuadebis, etianud pennaseris. Is the more mad. 7 Vemxmrn ezagitat 

* Tullj s Malo cum illis insanire, qnam pueri, innuptseque puellse. ^ Plautus. 

enm aliis bene sentire. * Qui inter hos * Hor. 1. 2, sat. 2. Snperbam stoltitiam 

•nntriuntnr, non magiB aapere poesnnt, Plinius rocat. 7, epist. 21, quod iemel dlx^ 

?aim qui in culinft l^ne olere. Petxon. fixum ratumque sit. 
Feniufl. « Hor. 2, ser. which of these 

Democritus to the Header » ' 99 

fiententious quiver, Pro. iii. 7, "Be not wise in thine own 
eyes." And xxvi. 12, " Seest thou a man wise in his own 
conceit ? more hope is of a fool than of him." Isaiah pro- 
nounceth a woe against such men, chap. v. 21, " that are wise 
in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight." For 
hence we may gather, that it is a great offence, and men are 
much deceived that think too well of themselves, an especial 
argument to convince them of folly. Many men (saith 

* Seneca) " had been without question wise, had they not had 
an opinion that they had attained to perfection of knowledge 
already, even before they had gone half-way," too forward, 
too ripe, prceproperi^ too quick and ready, ^cito prudentes, 
cito pii, cito mariti^ citd patresy citd sacerdotes, cito omnes 
officii capaces et curiosi^ they had too good a conceit of them- 
selves, and that marred all ; of tlieir worth, valour, skill, art, 
learning, judgment, eloquence, their good parts ; all their 
geese are swans, and that manifestly proves them to be no 
better than fools. In former times they had but seven wise 
men, now you can scarce find so many fools. Thales sent 
the golden Tripos, which the fishermen found, and the oracle 
commanded to be *" given to the wisest, to Bias, Bias to 
Solon," &c If such a thing were now found, we should all 
fight for it, as the three goddesses did for the golden apple, 
we are so wise ; we have women politicians, children meta- 
physicians; every silly fellow can square a circle, make 
perpetual motions, find the philosopher's stone, interpret 
Apocalypses, make new Theories, a new system of the world, 
new logic, new Philosophy, &c. Nostra vJtique regio, saith 

• Petronius, " our country is so full of deified spirits, divine 
souls, that you may sooner find a god than a man amongst 
us," we think so well of ourselves, and that is an ample testi- 
mony of much folly. 

My second argument is grounded upon the like place of 

1 Multi sapientes procnl dubio ftdsBent, prassentibns plena est nnminibng, nt 

li ae non put&ssent ad sapientiae summtim fiicQius posslfl deiipn qnam hommem 

penrenisse. >Idem. * Plutarchaa inyenire. 
Bolone. Detnr sapientiorl. > Tarn 

100 Demoeritm to the Beader. 

Scripture, which though before mentioned in ^ect, jet for 
some reasons is to be repeated (and bj Plato's good leave, I 
may do it, ^(X«f rd woXdv pn^kv obStv pXamei) " Fools (saith David) 
hy reason of their transgressions," &c Psal. cvii. 17* Hence 
Musculus infers all transgressors must needs be fools. So 
we read Rom. ii. " Tribulation and anguish on the soul of 
every man that doeth evil ; " but all do evil. And Isaiah, 
bcv. 14, " My servants shall sing for joy, and *ye shall cry 
for sorrow of heart, and vexation of mind." Tis ratified by 
the common consent of all philosophers. ^ Dishonesty (saith 
Cardan) is nothing else but folly and madness." ' Prohus quU 
nobiscum vivit f Show me an honest man, Nemo malus gui 
Hon etuUus, 'tis Fabius's aphorism to the same end. If none 
honest, none wise, then all fools. And well may they be so 
accounted ; for who wilL account him otherwise. Qui iter 
wiomcU in oecidentem, quum properoaret in orientemf that 
goes backward all his life, westward, when he is bound to the 
east ? or hold him a wise man (saith ^ Musculus) ^ that pre- 
fers momentary pleasures to eternity, that spends his master's 
goods in his absence, forthwith to be condemned for it?** 
Nequicqucem s(xpit qui siH non sapity who will say that a 
sick man is wise, that eats and drinks to overthrow the tem- 
perature of his body ? Can you account him wise or discreet 
that would willingly have his health, and yet wiU do nothing 
that should procure or continue it ? * Theodoret, out of Plo- 
tinus the Platonist, ^ holds it a ridiculous thing for a man to 
live after his own laws, to do that which is offensive to God, 
and yet to hope that he should save him ; and when he vol- 
untarily neglects his own safety, and contemns the means, to 
think to be delivered by another ; " who will say these men 
are wise ? 

A third argument may be derived from the precedent, • all 

1 PHtohmm bis dicere son nooet. mi sententia Titoro, et quse dSis ingratn 

* Male&ctors. > Who can find a sunt exeqtd, et tamen di solia diis Telle 
fldthfal man ? Prov. xx. 6. ' ^ In salTOS fieri, qnum proprise salutig cnram 
F«al. xUx. Qnl nu)mentaiiea sempiterw altjecerint. Theod. o. 6, de provid. lib. de 
nie, qui dilapidat hen absentis bona, mox curat, gnee. afisct. « Saptons ribi qnt 
in jus Tocandus et damnandus. imperioBiifl, &c. Hor. 2, eer. 7. 

* Perqnam ridicolum est homines ex ani- 

DemoerUus to the Reader. 101 

men are carried away with passion, discontent, lust, pleas- 
ures, &c ; they generally hate those virtues they should love, 
and love such vices they should hate. Therefore more than 
melancholy, quite mad, brute beasts, and void of reason, so 
Chrysostom contends ; " or rather dead and buried alive," as 
1 Philo Judeus concludes it for a certainty, " of all such that 
are carried away with passions, or labor of any disease of 
the mind." " Where is fear and sorrow," there * Lactantiiis 
stiffly maintains, '^ wisdom cannot dwell. 

* qui cupiet, metuet quoque porr6, 
Qui metuens vivit, liber mihi non erit unquam/ " * 

Seneca and the rest of the stoics are of opinion, that where is 
any the least perturbation, wisdom may not be found. 
" What more ridiculous," as ' Lactantius urges, " than to hear 
how Xerxes whipped the Hellespont," threatened the Moun- 
tain Athos, and the like ? To speak ad rem, who is free from 
passion ? * Mortalis nemo est quern non attingat dolor, mar- 
husve, as * Tully determines out of an old poem, no mortal 
men can avoid sorrow and sickness, and sorrow is an insep- 
arable companion from melancholy. • Chrysostom pleads far- 
ther yet, that they are more than mad, very beasts, stupefied, 
and void of common sense : " For how (saith he) shall I know 
thee to be a man, when thou kickest like an ass, neighest like a 
horse after women, ravest in lust like a bull, ravenest like a 
bear, stingest like a scorpion, rakest like a wolf, as subtle as a 
fox, as impudent as a dog ? Shall I say thou art a man, that 
hast all the symptoms of a beast ? How shall I know thee to 
be a man ? by thy shape ? That alFrights me more, when 
I see a beast in likeness of a man." 

1 Gonelus. lib. de tIc. offer, oertnm est in sapientem non eadit. ^ Horn. 6, in 2 

snimi morbis laborantee pro mortnis oen- Epist. ad Cor. Hominem te i^noscere ne- 

sendos. s Lib. de sap. Ubi timor adest, queo, cum tanquam asinus recaldtres, 

sapientla adesse nequit. * He who is lasciyias ut taurus, hinnias ut equus post 

desirous, is also fearful, and he who lives mulieres, ut ursus Tentri indulgeas. 

In fear nerer can be free. s Quid insa- quum rapiafl ut lupus, &o., at, inquis, 

nius Xerxe Hellespontum verberante? formam hominis habeo, Id magis terret, 

fto. « Bcol. xxi. 12. Where is bitterness, quum feram humaoA specie videre me 

there is no understanding. ProT. xtt. 16. putem. 
iLn angry man is a fool. ^STusc. Ii^uria 

102 Democritus to the Recider, 

} Seneca calls that of Epicurus, magnificam vocem^ an he- 
roical speech, ^ A fool still begins to live," and accounts it a 
filthy lightness in men, every day to lay new foundations of 
their life, but who doth otherwise ? One travels, another 
builds ; one for this, another for that business, and old folks 
are as far out as the rest ; demeniem senectutem, Tully ex- 
claims. Therefore young, old, middle age, all are stupid, 
and dote. 

*-^neas Sylvius, amongst many other, sets down three 
special ways to find a fool by. He is a fool that seeks that 
he cannot find ; he is a fool that seeks that, which being 
found will do him more harm than good ; he is a fool, that 
having variety of ways to bring him to his joume/s end, 
takes that which is worst If so, methinks most men are 
fools ; examine their courses, and you shall soon perceive 
what dizzards and mad men the major part are. 

Beroaldus will have drunkards, afternoon men, and such 
as more than ordinarily delight in drink, to be mad. The 
first pot quencheth thirst, so Panyasis the poet determines in 
AthencBus, secunda ffratns, horis et Dionysio ; the second 
makes merry, the third for pleasure, quarta ad tnsantamy 
the fourth makes them mad. If this position be true, what 
a catalogue of mad men shall we have ? what shall they be 
that drink four times four ? Nonne supra omnem furorem^ 
supra omnem insamam reddunt insantsstmas f I am of his 
opinion, they are more than mad, much worse than mad. 

The ^Abderites condemned Democritus for a mad man, 
because he was sometimes sad, and sometimes again pro- 
fusely merry, ffdc Patrid (saith Hippocrates) oh risum 
furere et insamre dicunt, his countrymen hold him mad 
because he laughs; *and therefore "he desires him to ad- 
vise all his friends at Rhodes, that they do not laugh too 

1 Epist. lib. 2, 18. Stoltus ramper inoi- qni cum plnres habet calles, deteriorem 

pit viyere, foeda hominmn lefvitas, nova deligit. Mihi Tidentur omnos deliil, 

qnotidie fundamenta yitas ponexe, novas amentes, &c. * Ep. Damageto. 

spes, &c. * De cnrial. miser. Stultus, s Amicis nostria Rhodi dicito. ne n^Tninin 

qui queerit quod neqnit invenire, stultus rideant, aut nimium laristes sint. 
qui quserit quod nooet inyentum, stultus 

Democrttus to the Header. 103 

much, or be over sad." Had those Abderites been con- 
versant with us, and but seen what ^fleering and grinning 
there is in this age, thej would certainly have concluded, 
we had been all out of our wits. 

Aristotle in his ethics holds foelix idemque sapiens, to be 
wise and happy, are reciprocal terms, hontis idemque sapiens 
hoTiestus. ^Tis ^ Tully's paradox, " wise men are free, but 
fools are slaves," liberty is a power to live according to his 
own laws, as we will ourselves ; who hath this liberty ? who 
is free? 

s " sapiens sibiqne imperioeus, 
Quern neqne pauperis, neque mors, neque vincula terrent, 
Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores 
Fortis, et in seipso totus teres atque rotundus." 

" He is wise that can command his own will, 
Valiant and constant to himself still, 
Whom poverty nor death, nor bauds can fright, 
Checks his desires, scorns honours, just and right/' 

But where shall such a man be found ? If nowhere, then 
e diametro, we are all slaves, senseless, or worse. Nemo 
mahis foelix. But no man is happy in this life, none good, 

therefore no man \nse. * Rari quippe honi For one 

virtue you shall find ten vices in the same party ; pauci 
Promeiheiy mtdti Epimethei. We may peradventure usurp 
the name, or attribute it to others for favour, as Garolus 
Sapiens, Fhilippus Bonus, Lodovicus Pius, &c., and describe 
the properties of a wise man, as TuUy doth an orator, Xeno- 
phon Cyrus, Castilio a courtier, Galen temperament^ an aris- 
tocracy is described by politicians. But where shall such a 
man be found ? 

" '* Vir bonus et sapiens, qualem viz repperit unum 

Millibus k multis hominum qpnsultus Apollo/' 

" A wise, a good man in a million, 
Apollo consulted could scarce find one." 

A man is a miracle of himself, but Trismegistus adds, Maxi- 

1 Per multum rlsum potexis cognoice- &c. > Hor. 2, ser. 7. * Jnven. 

re stnltom. Offlc. 8, c. 9. > Sapientes " Good people are scaioe." 
libwi, stolti Bervi, libertaa est potestas. 

104 Demoeritus to th$ Reader, 

mum mtraculum hcmo eapiem, a wise man is a wonder ; 
muki Thirstgert, pauci Baecki. 

Alexander when he was presented with that rich and oostlj 
casket of king Darius, and every man advised him what to 
put in it, he reserved it to keep Homer's works, as the most 
precious jewel of human wit, and yet ^Scaliger upbraids 
Homer^s muse, Nuiricem insante sc^neniia, a nursery of 
madness, ^impudent as a court lady, that blushes at nothing. 
Jacobus Mycillus, Gilbertus Cognatus, Erasmus, and almost 
all posterity admire Lucian's luxuriant wit, yet Scaiiger 
rejects him in his censure, and calls him the Cerberus of 
the muses. Socrates, whom all the world so much magni- 
fied, is by Lactantius and Theodoret condemned for a fooL 
Plutarch extols Seneca's wit beyond all the Greeks, ntdli 
secundus, yet ' Seneca saith of himself, ^ when I would solace 
myself with a fool, I reflect upon myself, and there I have 
him." Cardan, in his Sixteenth Book of Subtilties, reckons 
up twelve supereminent acute philosophers, for worth, sub- 
tlety, and wisdom : Archimedes, Galen, Vitruvius, Architas 
Tarentinus, Euclid, Geber, that first inventor of Algebra, 
Alkindus the Mathematician, both Arabians, with others. 
But his triumviri terrarum far beyond the rest, are Ptolo- 
msBus, PlotinuB, Hippocrates. Scaiiger, exercitat. 224, scoffs at 
this censure of his, calls some of them carpenters and mech- 
anicians, he makes Galen Jimhriam Hippocraiis, a skirt of 
Hippocrates ; and the said ^ Cardan himself elsewhere con- 
demns both Gralen and Hippocrates for tediousness, obscurity, 
confusion. Paracelsus will have them both mere idiots, in- 
fants in physic and philosophy. Scaiiger and Cardan admire 
Suisset the Calculator, qui pene modum excessit humani in- 
genii, and yet '^Lod. Vives calls them nugcu Suisseticas; 
and Cardan, opposite to himself in another place, contemns 
those ancients in respect of times present, * Majoresqvs nostras 

1 Hypoorit. s Ut muUer aalica centtiim. * Ub. de caiuls corrupt 

nuniuB pudens. > Epist. 88. Qoando arttnm. • Aetione sd inbtil. in Soal. 

(ktno delectari toIo, n(m est longe qiue- Ibl. 1226. 
rendiu, me video. ^ Primo contradi- 

Democritus to the Reader, 105 

ud presentes coUcUos juste pueroe appeUan. In conclusion, 
the said ^ Cardan and Saint Bernard will admit none into this 
catalogue of wise men, ^ but only prophets and apostles ; how 
they esteem themselves, you have heard before. We are 
worldly-wise, admire ourselves, and seek for applause ; but 
hear Saint ^Bernard, quanto magis faros es sapiens, tanto 
magis intus sttdtus efficeris, S^c, in omnibus es prudens, circa 
teipsum insipiens ; the more wise thou ait to others, the more 
fool to thyself. I may not deny but that there is some folly 
approved, a divine fury, a holy madness, even a spiritual 
drunkenness in the saints of God themselves ; sanctam in- 
saniam Bernard calls it, (though not as blaspheming ^ Yors- 
tius would infer it, as a passion incident to God himself, but) 
familiar to good men, as that of Paul, 2 Cor. " he was a fool,** 
<&c., and Eom. ix. he wisheth himself to be anathematized for 
them. Such is that drunkenness which Ficinus speaks of, 
when the soul is elevated and ravished with a divine taste 
of that heavenly nectar, which poets deciphered by the sac- 
rifice of Dionysius, and in this sense with the poet, ^insanire 
hibet, as Austin exhorts us, ad ehrietatem se quisque paret, 
let's all be mad and ^ drunk. But we commonly mistake, 
and go beyond our commission, we reel to the opposite part, 
^ we are not capable of it, ® and as he said of the Greeks, Vos 
Greed semper pueri, vos Britanni, GaUiy Germani, Italij ^c, 
you are a company of fools. 

Proceed now d partihus ad totum, or from the whole to 
parts, and you shall find no other issue, the parts shall be 
sufficiently dilated in this following Preface. The whole 
must needs follow by a sorites or induction. Every multi- 
tude is mad, ^beUtia muUorum capitum, (a many-headed 
beast,) precipitate and rash without judgment, stuUum ani- 
mal, a roaring rout. ^* Eoger Bacon proves it out of Aristotle, 

1 ISb. 1, de sap. 9 Vide miser homo, iram et odium in Deo rerera ponit. 

quia totum est Tanitas, totnm stultltia, (^ Virg. 1, Eol. 8. < Ps. inebriabuntur 

totum dementia, qulcquid fiids in boo ab ubertate domfls. 7 in psal. cir. 

mundo, prseter noc solum quod prop- Austin. 8 in Platonis Tim. sacerdos 

ter Deum fiuds. Ser. de miser, bom. iBgyptius. ® Hor. yulg^s insanum. 

sln2 Platonis dial. l,deju8to. ^Dum lo Patet ea divislo probabilis, &e., ex 


106 Democritus to the deader, 

Vtdffus dividi in oppotUutn contra tapientet^ quod mdgo vide^ 
tur verum, fahum est ; that which the oommonaltj aoooonts 
true, is most part false, they are still opposite to wise men, 
but all the world is of this humour (vulgtu)^ and thou thyself 
art de viUgOy one of the commonalty ; and he, and he, and so 
are all the rest ; and therefore, as Phocion concludes, to be 
approved in nought you say or do, mere idiots and asses. 
Begin then where you will, go backward or forward, choose 
out of the whole pack, wink and choose, you shall find them 
all alike, " never a barrel better herring." 

Copernicus, Atlas his successor, is of opinion, the earth is 
a planet, moves and shines to others, as the moon doth to us. 
I^igg^s, Gilbert, Keplerus, Origanus, and others, defend this 
hypothesis of his in sober sadness, and that the moon is in- 
habited ; if it be so that the earth is a moon, then are we 
also giddy, vertiginous, and lunatic within this sublunary 

I could produce such arguments till dark night ; if you 
should hear the i^st, 

^ Ante diem clanso component vesper Oljmpo: '* 

** Through sach a train of words if I should run, 
The day would sooner than the tale be done : " 

but according to my promise, I will descend to particulars. 
This melancholy extends itself not to men only, but even to 
vegetals and sensibles. I speak not of those creatures which 
are saturnine, melancholy by nature, as lead, and such like 
minerals, or those plants, rue, cypress, &c., and hellebore 
itself, of which ^Agrippa treats, fishes, birds, and beasts, 
hares, conies, dormice, &c., owls, bats, night-birds, but that 
artificial, which is perceived in them all. Remove a plant, it 
will pine away, which is especially perceived in date-trees, as 
you may read at large in Constantine's husbandry, that an- 
tipathy betwixt the vine and the cabbage, wine and oil. Put 
a bird in a cage, he will die for suUenness, or a beast in a 

Arist. Top. lib. 1, c. 8. Rog. Bao. E]^iBt. in yolgo. i De ooenlt. Philosoph. 1. 1, 
de secret, artet luiJt. c. 8, Qoaestjadioiam o. 26, et 19, cijuad. 1, lib. 10, cap. 4. 


Democritas to the Reader. 107 

pen, or take his young ones or companions &om him, and see 
what effect it will cause. But who perceives not these com- 
mon passions of sensible creatures, fear, sorrow, &c. Of all 
other, dogs are most subject to this malady, insomuch some 
hold they dream as men do, and through violence of melan- 
choly run mad ; I could relate many stories of dogs that have 
died for grief, and pined away for loss of their masters, but 
they are common in every * author. 

Kingdoms, provinces, and politic bodies are likewise sensi- 
ble and subject to this disease, as ^ Boterus in his politics hath 
proved at large. ^ As in human bodies (saith he) there be 
divers alterations proceeding from humours, so there be many 
diseases in a commonwealth, which do as diversely happen 
from several distempers,'* as you may easily perceive by their 
particular symptoms. For where you shall see the people 
civil, obedient to God and princes, judicious, peaceable and 
quiet, rich, fortunate, * and flourish, to live in peace, in unity 
and concord, a country well tilled, many fair built and popu- 
lous cities, uU incoke nitent, as old ^ Cato said, the people are 
neat, polite and terse, uln bene, hecUeque vimint, which our 
politicians make the chief end of a commonwealth ; and which 
* Aristotle Polit. lib. 3, cap, 4, calls Commune bonum, PolybitiSy 
lib. 6, optabilem et selectum statum, that country is free from 
melancholy ; as it was in Italy in the time of Augustus, now 
in China, now in many other flourishing kingdoms of Europe. 
But whereas you shall see many discontents, common griev- 
ances, complaints, poverty, barbarism, beggary, plagues, wars, 
rebellions, seditions, mutinies, contentions, idleness, riot, epi- 
curism, the land lie untilled, waste, full of bogs, fens, deserts, 
&c., cities decayed, base and poor towns, villages depopulated, 
the people squalid, ugly, uncivil ; that kingdom, that country, 
must needs be discontent, melancholy, hath a sick body, and 
had need to be reformed. 

1 See Upsins epist. < De poUtia illug- ^ Lib. de xe nut. ^ Vel publioam utili- 

teitim lib. 1. cap. 4, ut in humania oor> tatem : aalns publioa snprema lex esto. 

poribiu Tariie accidunt mntatlones cor- Beata ciTitas non ubi piauci beat!, Bed 

r>ri8f animiqne, sic in repnblici, &c. tota civitas beata. Plato quarto de ro* 

UU rages pbilosophantur, Plato. public&. 

108 DemocrituB to the Reader* 

Now that cannot well be effected, till the causes of these 
maladies be first removed, which commonly proceed from 
their own default, or some accidental inconvenience : as to be 
situated in a bad clime, too far north, sterile, in a barren 
place, as the desert of Lybia, deserts of Arabia, places void 
of waters, as those of Lop and Belgian in Asia, or in a bad 
air, as at Alexandretta, Bantam^ /V«a, Durtzzzo, S. John de 
UUoay Sfc, or in danger of the sea's continual inundations, as 
in many places of the Low Countries and elsewhere, or near 
some bad neighbours, as Hungarians to Turks, Podolians to 
Tartars, or almost any bordering countries, they live in fear 
still, and by reason of hostile incursions are oftentimes leh 
desolate. So are cities, by reason *of wars, fires, plagues, 
inundations, ^ wild beasts, decay of trades, barred havens, the 
sea's violence, as Antwerp may witness of late, Syracuse of 
old, Brundusium in Italy, Rye and Dover with us, and many 
that at this day suspect the sea's fury and rage, and labour 
against it as the Venetians to their inestimable charge. But 
the most frequent maladies are such as proceed from them- 
selves, as first when religion and Grod's service is neglected, 
innovated or altered, where they do not fear Grod, obey their 
prince, where atheism, epicurism, sacrilege, simony, <&c., and 
all such impieties are freely committed, that country cannot 
prosper. When Abraham came to Gerar, and saw a bad 
land, he said, sure the fear of God was not in that place. 
* Cyprian Echovius, a Spanish chorographer, above all other 
pities of Spain, commends " Borcino, in which there was no 
beggar, no man poor, &;c., but all rich, and in good estate, and 
he gives the reason, because they were more religious than 
their neighbours ; " why was Israel so often spoiled by their 
enemies, led into captivity, «fec., but for their idolatry, neglect 
of God's word, for sacrilege, even for one Achan's fault? 
And what shall we expect that have such multitudes of 

1 Ibntua m misens niminm Ticina optimiia qniiqafl atque ditissimiu. Pte 

Oremonas. s Interdum 4 feite, nt oUm sancteqne vivebant, snmmaque oum 

ICauxitania, &o. s DeliciiB HlspanisB veneratione et fimore, divlno coltui, sa- 

anno 10(H. Nemo mains, nemo pauper, crisque lebns incumbebant. 

Democritui to the Beader. 109 

Acbansy church robbers, simoniacal patrons, &c*, how ean 
they hope to flourish, that neglect diyine duties, that live 
most part like Epicures? 

Other common grievances are generally noxious to a body 
politic ; alteration of laws and customs, breaking privileges, 
general oppressions, seditions, <&c^ observed by ^Aristotle, 
Bodin, Boterus, Junius, Amiscus, &c I will only point at 
some of the chiefest. ^ Impoientia gt^femoMdi, ataxia, con* 
fusion, ill-government, which proceeds from unskilful, slothful, 
griping, covetous, unjust, rash, or tyrannizing magistrates, 
when they are fools, idiots, children, proud, wilful, partial, 
indiscreet, oppressors, giddy heads, tyrants,, not able or unfit 
to maimge such offices ; ' many noble cities and flourishing 
kingdoms by that means are desolate, the whole body groans 
under such heads, and all the members must needs be dis- 
affected, as at this day those goodly provinces in Asia Minor, 
&C., groem under the burden of a Turkish government ; and 
those vast kingdoms of Muscovia, Russia, * under a tyran- 
nizing duke. Who ever heard of more eivO and rich popu- 
lous countries than those of '^ Greece, Asia Minor, abounding 
with all ^ wealth,, multitudes of inhabitants, force, power, 
splendour^ and magnificence ? " and that miracle of countries, 
* the Holy Land, that in so small a compass di ground could 
maintain so many towns, cities,, produce so many fighting 
men ? Egypt another paradise, now barbarous and desert, 
and almost waste^ by the despotical government of an impe- 
rious Turk, inioUraMU sermtutts jugo premitur Q one saith) 
not only fire and water, goods or lands, sed ipse spiritus ah 
insolentissimi victoris pendet ntitu, such is their slavery, their 
lives and souls depend upon his insolent will and command. 
A tyrant that spoils all wheresoever he c(Hnes, inscmiuch that 
an ^ historian complains, '^ if an old inhabitant should now see 

1 PoUt. 1. 6, c. A, SBoteras Pollt. lib. 1, dhritdamm afflnentfai Ineolaram mnltita- 

e. 1. Cum nempe prinoeps remm ger- dine splendore ac potentia. o Not 

•ndanixn imperitos, segnk, oscHaius, above 200 mitoft in lenfftb, 60 in breadth, 

sniqne mnneiis immemor, aut &tnas est. according to iLdricomius. ^ BkmLolus 

s Non viget raspnblica c'ujos caput in- Amascus. 8 Sabellious. Si quis incola 

flrmatur. Salisburieosis, o. 22. < See Tetus, n<m agnofcerat, si qui* pevegriBiu, 

Dr. Fletcher's relation* and Alexander ingemisccnt. 
Qagninus's history. frAbundansonmi 

110 DemocrituB to the Reader. 

them, he would not know them ; if a traveller, or stranger, it 
would grieve his heart to behold them." Whereas ^ Aristotle 
notes. Novae exactionee^ nova onera imposita, new burdens 
and exactions daily come upon them, like those of which 
Zosimus, lib. 2, so grievous, tU viri uxoree, patresJUioe prosti- 
tuerent tU exactorihue ^ questu, S^Cy they must needs be discon- 
tent, htnc ctvttcUum gemitus et ploratw, as ' Tully holds ; hence 
come those complaints and tears of cities, " poor, miserable, 
rebellious, and desperate subjects," as * Hippolitus adds ; and 
^ as a judicious countryman of ours observed not long since, 
in a survey of that great Duchy of Tuscany, the people lived 
much grieved and discontent, as appeared by their manifold 
and manifest complainings in that kind. ^'That the state 
was like a sick body which had lately taken physic, whose 
humours are not yet well settled, and weakened so much by 
purging, that nothing was left but melancholy." 

Whereas the princes and potentates are immoderate in 
lust, hypocrites, epicures, of no religion, but in show ; Quid 
hypocnsijraffiliusf what so brittle and unsure?^ what sooner 
subverts their estates than wandering and raging lusts, on 
their subjects* wives, daughters ? to say no worse. That they 
should facem praferrey lead the way to all virtuous actions, 
are the ringleaders oftentimes of all mischief and dissolute 
courses, and by that means their countries are plagued, 
* " and they themselves often ruined, banished, or murdered 
by conspiracy of their subjects, as Sardanapalus was, Diony- 
sius, junior, Heliogabalus, Periander, Pisistratus, Tarquinius, 
Timocrates, Childericus, Appius Claudius, Andronicus, Galea- 
cius Sforsia, Alexander Medices," &c. 

Whereas the princes or great men are malicious, envious, 
factious, ambitious, emulators, they tear a commonwealth 
asunder, as so many Gudfs and Gibdines disturb the quiet- 
ness of it, ^ and with mutual murders let it bleed to death ; 

1 Polit. 1. 6, 0. 6. Gmdelitaei principum, 1596, conclusio libil. s Boteriu 1. 0, 

impunitas soelemm. TioUktio legam, peon- c. 4. Polit. Quo fit ut aut rebus despe- 

latns pecuniiB publicaa, etc. < Epist. latis exulent, aut coi\juratioae subdito- 

> De increm. urb. cap. 20, subditi miseri, rum crudelinime tandem trueideoitur. 

rebdlflfl, deeperaU, fro. * R. Darlington. « MatuiB odiis et o«edibua exhausti, &e. 

Democritus to the JReader. Ill 

3ur histories are too full of such barbarous inhumanities, and 
the miseries that issue from them. 

Whereas they be like so many horseleeches, hungry, 
griping, corrupt, ^ covetous, avaritice manctpia, ravenous as 
wolves, for as Tully writes : qui prceest pvodest, et qui pecudi- 
bus prceest, debet eorum viilitati inservire : or such as prefer 
their private before the public good. For as ^ he said long 
since, res privatce ptMicis semper officere. Or whereas they 
be illiterate, ignorant, empirics in policy, uhi deest facvUas 
* virttis (Aristot. poL 5, cap, 8,) et scientia, wise only by in- 
heritance, and in authority by birthright, favour, or for their 
wealth and titles ; there must needs be a fault, ^ a great de- 
fect ; because, as an '^ old philosopher affirms, such men are 
not always fit " Of an infinite number, few noble are sena- 
tors, and of those few, fewer good, and of that small number 
of honest, good, and noble men, few that are learned, wise, 
discreet, and sufficient, able to discharge such places, it must 
needs turn to the confusion of a state." 

For as the • Princes are, so are the people ; QuaMs ReXj 
talis grex ; and which "^ Antigonus right well said of old, qui 
Macedonice regem erudit, omnes etiam subditos erudit, he that 
teaches the king of Macedon, teaches all his subjects, is a 
true saying still. 

<< For Princes are the glass, the school, the book, 
Where subjects' eyes do learn, do read, do look." 

" Velocius et citios nos 
Gormmpunt vitiorum exempla domestica, magnis 
Gum subeant animos auctoribus." * 

Their examples are soonest followed, vices entertained, if 

1 Lncra ex mails, BoeleratUqne caiuis. biles, h consnlaribxis pand boni, 6 bonis 

s Sallnst. > For meet part we mistake adhuc pauci emditi. ^ Non solum vitia 

the name of Politicians, acconnting such concipiunt ipsi principes, sed etiam in- 

as read Machiavel and Tacitus, great fiindunt in ciyitatem, plusque exemplo 

statesmen, that can dispute of political quam peccato nooent. Cic. 1, de legibus. 

precepts, supplant and overthrow their 7 Epist. ad Zen. JuTen. Sat. 4. Pauper- 

adTersaries, enrich themselres, get hon- tas seditionem gignit et maleficium, Arist. 

ours, dissemble; but what is this to the Pol. 2, o. 7. * Vicious domestic exam- 

bene esse, or preserration of a Common- pies operate more quickly upon us when 

wealth? * Imperium suapte sponte suggested to our minds by high authori- 

corrult. BApul. Prim. Flor. Ex innu- ties, 
merabilibufl, pauci Senatores genere no- 

112 DemoerituB to the Reader. 

they be profane, irreligious, lascivioas, riotous, epicures, fac- 
tious, covetous, ambitious, illiterate, so will the oommons most 
part be, idle, unthrifts, prone to lust, drunkards, and therefore 
poor and needy (Ji vevia aroaw kuitotd kcH Ktuarupyiav, for poverty 
begets sedition and villany) upon all occasions ready to 
mutiny and rebel, discontent still, complaining, murmuring, 
grudging, apt to all outrages, thefts, treasons, murders^ inno- 
vations, in debt, shifters, cozeners, outlaws, ProfligaUB famee 
ac vitce. It was an old ^ politician's aphorism, ^ They that 
are poor and bad envy rich, hate good men, abhor the pres- 
ent government, wish for a new, and would have all turned 
topsy turvy." When Catiline rebelled in Rome, he got a 
company of such debauched rogues together, they were his 
familiars and coadjutors, and such have been your rebels 
most part in all ages, Jack Cade, Tom Straw, Kette, and his 

Where they be generally riotous and contentious, where 
there be many discords, many laws, many lawsuits, many 
lawyers and many physicians, it is a manifest s%n of a dis- 
tempered, melancholy state, as ^ Plato long since maintained ; 
for where such kind of men swarm, they will make more 
work for themselves, and that body politic diseased, whicli 
was otherwise sound. A general mischief in these our times, 
an insensible plague, and never so many of them ; " which 
are now multiplied (saith Mat Gleraldus, ' a lawyer himself,) 
as so many locusts, not the parents, but the plagues of the 
country, and for the most part a supercilious, bad, covetous, 
litigious generation of men. * Orumenimvlga ncUio, ^c, A 
purse-milking nation, a clamorous company, gowned vultures, 
* qui ex injuria vivent et sanguine ctviuniy thieves and semi- 
naries of discord; worse than any pollers by the highway 
side, auri accipitres, auri exterehronides, pecuniarum hamiolo!, 

1 Sallust. Semper in ciTitate qnibus Jtirifl. Htdtipllcantur nane in terris at 

opos nulke sunt, bonis inrident, retera locnstsd non patrin parentes, sed pestes, 

odeie. nova exoptant, odio suarum pessiml homines, rnajore ex parte stiper- 

rerum mufcari omnia petnnt. 'De ciliosi, contention, &c.,Iicitam latroclni- 

fefpbus. ProfligatsB in repub. disciplinse nm exercent. * Booaa epid. loqnieleia 

est indicium jurisperitornm numerus, et tnrba, yultures tog&tl. 'Bare Argen. 
medicorum copia. 8 In prsef. stud. 

Democfitus to the Reader. 113 

^[tuidruplatareSy curia harpagones, fori tintinahuUiy monstra 
hominum, mangofies, S^Cy that take upon them to make peace^ 
but are indeed the very disturbers of our peace, a company 
of irreligious harpies, scraping, griping catchpoles, (I mean 
our common hungry pettifoggers, ^ ralmUzs forenseSy love and 
honour in the mean time all good laws, and worthy lawyers, 
that are so many ^ oracles and pilots of a well-governed com- 
monwealth.) Without art, without judgment, that do more 
harm, as ^Livy said, quam beUa extemoj fameSy morbive, than 
sickness, wars, hunger, diseases ; ^ and cause a most incredi- 
ble destruction of a commonwealth," saith ^ Sesellius, a 
famous civilian sometimes in Pans, as ivy doth by an oak, 
embrace it so long, until it hath got the heart out of it, so do 
they by such places they inhabit; no counsel at all, no 
justice, no speech to be had, nisi eum premvheriSy he must 
be fed still, or else he is as mute as a fish, better open an 
oyster without a knife. Experto crede (saith * Salisburiensis) 
in manus eorum millies inddi, et Charon immitiSf qui nuHi 
pepercit unquamy his longe clementior est ; " I speak out of 
experience, I have been a thousand times amongst them, and 
Charon himself is more gentle than they ; ^ he is contented 
with his single pay, but they multiply still, they are never 
satisfied," besides they have damnificas lingims, as he terms 
it, nisi funihus argenteis vinciaSy they must be fed to say 
nothing, and * get more to hold their peace than we can to 
say our best. They will speak their clients fair, and invite 
them to their tables, but as he follows it, ' " of all injustice 
there is none so pernicious as that of theirs, which when they 
deceive most, will seem to be honest men." They take upon 
them to be peacemakers, et fovere causas humilium, to help 
them to their right, patrocinantur afflictisy ®but all is for 
their own good, ut loctdos pleniorum exhaurianty they plead 

• Jarinconsalti domtui oracnlam eiTi- noe loqui. 7 Totios ii^astitiaB nulla 

telis. Tally. > Lib. 8. ^ Lib. 8. capitallor, qn&m cerum qui cum maxime 

4 Lib. 1, de rep. Oallomm, inered- decipiunt, id agunt, ut boni nri esM 

lUIem nipub. pemiciem a£ferunt. — rideantur. 8 Nam quocunque modo 

• Polycrat. lib. • Is stipe contentus, oausa procedat, boo semper agitur, ul 

•e hi asses integros sibi mnltiplicari Ju- kwuli impleaotnr, etsi aTaritia nequit 

bant. * Plus accipiunt tacere, quam satiari. 

VOL. I. 8 

114 Democritus to the Reader, 

for poor men gratis, but thej are but as a stale to catch 
others. If there be no jar, ' they can make a jar, out of the 
law itself find still some quirk or other, to set them at odds, 
and continue causes so long, lustra aliquot^ I know not how 
many years before the cause is heard, and when 'tis judged 
and determined by reason of some tricks and errors, it is as 
fresh to begin, after twice seven years some times, as it was 
at first ; and so they prolong time, delay suits till they have 
enriched themselves, and beggared their clients. And, as 
^ Cato inveighed against Isocrates's scholars, we may justly 
tax our wrangling lawyers, they do consenescere in litibus, are 
so litigious and busy here on earth, that I think they will 
plead their client's causes hereafter, some of them in heU. 
* Simlerus complains amongst the Suissers of the advocates 
in his time, that when they should make an end, they began 
controversies, and "protract their causes many years, per- 
suading them their title is good, till their patrimonies be con- 
sumed, and that they have spent more in seeking than the 
thing is worth, or they shall get by the recovery." So that 
he that goes to law, as the proverb is, * holds a wolf by the 
ears, or as a sheep in a storm runs for shelter to a brier, if 
he prosecute his cause he is consumed, if he surcease his suit 
he loseth all ; *^ what difference ? They had wont hereto- 
fore, saith Austin, to end matters, per communes arhitros ; 
and so in Svdtzerland (we are informed by ® Simlerus), 
"they had some common arbitrators or daysmen in every 
town, that made a friendly composition betwixt man and man, 
and he much wonders at their honest simplicity, that could 
keep peace so well, and end such great causes by that means. 
At "^ Fez in Africa, they have neither lawyers nor advocates ; 

1 Camden in Norfolk : qui ei nihil sit ^ Hor. • Lib. de Helvet. repnb. Judioea 

litium k Juris apicibus lites tamen sereie quocunque pago constituunt qui amio& 

caUent. * Plutarch, yit. Cat. causas aliqn& transactlone, si fieri possit, lites tol- 

apud inferos quas in suam fldem re- lant. Ego majorum nostrorum simplici- 

ceperunt, patrocinio suo tuebuntur. tatem admiror, qui sic causas gravissinuui 

8 Lib. 2, de Helyet. repub. non ezplican- composuerint ; &c. 7 Clenard 1. 1, ep. 

dis, sed moliendis controversiis operam Si quae controversise utraque pars ju- 

dant, ita ut lites in multos annos extra- dicem adit, is semel et simul remr trand- 

hantur summft cum molestift utrisque ; git, audit : nee quid sit appellatio, laoli* 

partis et dum interea patrimonia exhauri- rymosaeque morsD noscunt. 
antur. ^ Lupum auribus tenent. 

Democritus to t?ie Reader. 115 

but if there be any controversies amongst them, both parties 
plaintiff and defendant come to their Alfakins or chief judge, 
*• and at once, without any farther appeals or pitiful delays, 
the cause is heard and ended." Our forefathers, as ^ a worthy 
chorographer of ours observes, . had wont pauctUis crucvUs 
aureiSf with a few golden crosses, and lines in verse, make all 
conveyances, assurances. And such was the candour and 
integrity of succeeding ages, that a deed (as I have often 
seen) to convey a whole manor, was implicite contained in 
some twenty lines or thereabouts ; like that scede or Sytala 
Jjocanica, so much renowned of old in all contracts, which 

* Tully so earnestly commends to Atticus, Plutarch in his 
Lysander, Aristotle polit : Thucydides, lib, 1. • Diodorus 
and Suidas approve and magnify, for that laconic brevity in 
this kind ; and well they might, for, according to ^ TertuUian, 
certa stmt paucts, there is much more certainty in fewer 
words. And so was it of old throughout ; but now many 
skins of parchment will scarce serve turn ; he that buys and 
sells a house, must have a house full of writings, there be so 
many circumstances, so many words, such tautological repeti- 
tions of all particulars, (to avoid cavillation they say ;) but 
we find by our woful experience, that to subtle wits it is a 
cause of much more contention and variance, and scarce any 
conveyance so accurately penned by one, which another will 
not find a crack in, or cavil at ; if any one word be mis- 
placed, any little error, all is disannulled. That which is a 
law to-day, is none to-morrow ; that which is sound in one 
man's opinion, is most faulty to another ; that in conclusion, 
here is nothing amongst us but contention and confusion, we 
bandy one against another. And that which long since 

• Plutarch complained of them in Asia, may be verified in 
our times. ^ These men here assembled, come not to sacri- 
fice to their gods, to offer Jupiter their first-fruits, or merri- 

1 Oamden. * lib. 10, epist. ad At- Jovl prbnltias offennt, aut Baccho e<nn- 

, ttcnm, epist. 11. < Biblioth. 1. 8. meMationes, sed anniyerflariufl morbos 

* Lib. de Anim. ^ Lib. major morb. exasperans Aslam hue eos ooegit, ut con« 

oorp. an animi. HI non conrenlunt ut tentlonei hlo peragant 
dill more nutjomm iaera fhdant, non ut 

116 Democritut to the Reader. 

ments to Bieiccfaus ; but an yearly disease, exasperadhg Asia, 
bath brought them hither, to make an end of their contro- 
versies and lawsuits." 'Tis mvUitudo perdentinm et pereun^ 
Hum, a destructive rout that seek one ieuiother^B ruin* Such 
most part are our ordinary suitors, termers, clients, new stirs 
every day^ mistakes, errors, cavils^ and at this present^ as I 
liave heard in tome one court, I know not how many thou- 
sand causes ; no person free, no title almost good, with such 
bitterness in following, so many slights^ procrastinations^ 
delays, forgery, such cost {for infinite sums are inoonsider^ 
Ately spent), violence and malice, I know not by whose fiiult, 
lawyers, clients, laws, both or all ; but as Paul reprehended 
the * Corinthians long since, I may more positively infer now : 
^ There is a fault amongst you, and I speak it to yoiir shame^ 
Is there not a * wise man amongst you, to judge between his 
brethren ? bat that a brother goes to law with a brother." 
And * Christ's counsel concerning lawsuits, was never so fit 
to be inculcated as in this age : • " Agree with thine adver- 
sary quickly," &c. Matth. v. 25. 

I could repeat many such particular grievances, which 
must disturb a body politic. To shut up all in brief, where 
good government is, prudent and wise princes, there all 
things thrive and prosper, peace and happiness is in that 
land ; where it is otherwise, all things are ugly to behold^ 
incult, barbarous, uncivil, a paradise is turned to a wilder^ 
ness. This island amongst the rest, our next neighbours 
the French and Germans, may be a sufficient witness, that 
in a short time by that prudent policy of the Romans^ was 
brought from barbarism ; see but what Csssar reports of us, 
and Tacitus of those old Germans, they were once as undvil 
as they in Virginia, yet by planting of colonies and good laws, 
they became from barbarous outlaws, ^ to be fiill of rich and 

1 1 Cor. tI. 5, 6. > Stnlti quando mons. * Saspias bonA mateila oeesat 

.dMnttm sapietlfl? Pa. xlix. 8. * So sine ardfioe. Aftbellicus de Germania. 

Intitaled, and pxeaohed bj our Re- Si qnis videret Germaniun nrMbiu hodia 

glai Professor, J>. Prideaux; printed excnltam, noa dioeret at olim tristem 

at London by foeliz Elingston, 1621. eultu, asperun codo^ terrain inlbnnem 
* Of which Text read two learned Ser- 


J}emocritus to the JReader., 11? 

pQpmlQU^ cities, as now thej are, and mos^ flourishing king-* 
d(axjL^ £yen so might Virginia, and those wild Irish have 
l^en ^vili^d long si9ce, if that order had been heretofore 
taken, which now begiiia, of planting colonies, &c I have 
read a ^discourse, printed anno 1619. ^^Discovering tha 
true causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued, or 
brought under obedience to the crown of England, until tha 
beginning of his Majesty's happy reign." Yet if his reasons 
we^-e tl^oronghly scanned by a judicious politician, I am afraid 
he would not altogether be apprqved, but that it would turn 
to the dishonour of our nation, to suffer it to lie so long waste. 
Yea, and if some travellers should see (to come nearer home) 
those rich, nnited provinces of Holland, Zealand, <&&, over 
against us- ; those neat cities and populous towns, full of most 
industrious artificers, ^ so much land recovered from the sea, 
and so painfully preserved by those artificial inventions, so 
wonderfully approved, as that of Bemster in Holland, ut nihil 
huic par aut simile invenias in toto, orbe, saith Bertius the 
geographer, all the world cannot match it, 'so many navi- 
gable channels from place to place, made by men's hands, 
<&c., and on the qther side sp many thousand acres of our fens 
lie drowned, our cities thin, and those vile, poor, and ugly to 
behold in respect of theirs, our trades decayed, our still run- 
ning rivers stopped, and that beneficial use of transportation, 
wholly neglected, so many havens void of ships and towns, 
so many parks and forests for pleasure, barren heaths, so 
many villages depopulated, &c., I thinl: sure he would find 
some fault. 

I may not deny but that this nation of ours, doth bene 
audire apud eosteros, is a most noble, a most flourishing king- 
dom, by common consent of all ^geographers, historians, 
politicians, 'tis unica veliU arx,* and which Quintiua in Livy 
said of the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, may be well applied 
to us, we are testudines testd sua incltmi like so n^any tor- 

1 By his Majesty's Attomey-Oeneral Brugoa |o tha fle», fro. iOrteliuf, 
there. > As Zeipland, Bemster in Hoi- Boterus, Heroator, Hetorftniu, fro.— 
land, fro. s From Oaunt to Since, from * '* The citadel par ezcellenoe.'* 

118 Democritw to ike Reader. 

toises in our shells, safely defended by an angij sea, as a wall 
on all sides. Our island hath many such honourable eulogi- 
ums ; and as a learned countryman of ours right well hath it, 
^^^Ever since the Normans first coming into England, this 
country both for military matters, and all other of civility, 
hath been paralleled with the most fiourishing kingdoms of 
Europe and our Christian world/' a blessed, a rich country, 
and one of the fortunate isles ; and for some things ^ preferred 
before other countries, for expert seamen, our laborious dis- 
coveries, art of navigation, true merchants, they carry the 
bell away from all other nations, even the Portugals and 
Hollanders themselves ; • " without all fear," saith Boterus, 
'^ furrowing the ocean winter and summer, and two of their 
captains, with no less valour than fortune, have sailed round 
about the world." * We have besides many particular bless- 
ings, which our neighbours want, the Grospel truly preached, 
church discipline established, long peace and quietness free 
from exactions, foreign fears, invasions, domestical seditions, 
well manured, 'fortified by art, and nature, and now most 
happy in that fortunate union of England and Scotland, 
which our forefathers have laboured to effect, and desired 
to see. But in which we excel all others, a wise, learned, 
religious king, another Numa, a second Augustus, a true 
Josiah ; most worthy senators, a learned clergy, an obedient 
commonalty, <&c. Yet amongst many roses, some thistles 
grow, some bad weeds and enormities, which much disturb 
the peace of this body politic, eclipse the honour and glory 
of it, fit to be rooted out, and with all speed to be reformed. 

The first is idleness, by reason of which we have many 
swarms of rogues, and beggars, thieves, drunkards, and dis- 
contented persons (whom Lycurgus in Plutarch calls morhos 
reipuMtcce, the boils of the commonwealth), many poor people 
in all our towns. Olvitates ignohihs as * Polydore calls them, 

1 Jam inde non minus belli glorift, duo illorum duces non minoxe audacUl 

qujon hnmanitatls cultu inter iiorentis- qvAm ibrtunft totius orbem teme cir- 

simas orbis Christiani gentes imprimis cumnavigirunt. Amphitheatro Boterus. 

floruit. Camden Brit, de Normannis. * A fertile soil, good air, &c. Tin, Lead, 

> Oeog. Keeker. > Tam hieme qiijim Wool, Saffron, &c. & Tota Britannia 

nstate intrepid^ sulcant Ooeanum, et unica yelut arx. Boter. « Lib. 1, hlsi. 

Democritus to the Header. 119 

base-built cities, inglorious, poor, small, rare in sight, ruinous, 
and thin of inhabitants. Our land is fertile we may not deny, 
full of all good things, and why doth it not then abound with 
cities, as well as Italy, France, Germany, the Low Countries ? 
because their policy hath been otherwise, and we are not so 
thrifty, circumspect, industrious. Idleness is the malus genitis 
of our nation. For as i Boterus justly argues, fertility of a 
country is not enough, except art and industry be joined unto 
it; according to Aristotle, riches are either natural or arti- 
ficial ; natural, are good land, fair mines, &c., artificial, are 
manufactures, coins, &c. Many kingdoms are fertile, but 
thin of inhabitants, as that Duchy of Piedmont . in Italy, 
which Leander Albertus so much magnifies for com, wine, 
fruits, &c., yet nothing near so populous as those which are 
more barren. ^ " England," saith he, " London only ex- 
cepted, hath never a populous city, and yet a fruitful coun- 
try." I find 46 cities and walled towns in Alsatia, a small 
province in Germany, 50 castles, an infinite number of vil- 
lages, no ground idle ; no, not rocky places, or tops of hills 
are untilled, as *Munster informeth us. In ^Greichgea, a 
small territory on the Necker, 24 Italian miles over, I read 
of 20 walled towns, innumerable villages, each one containing 
150 houses most part, besides castles and noblemen's palaces. 
I observe in ^ Turinge, in Dutchland (twelve miles over by 
their scale), 12 counties, and in them 144 cities, 2,000 vil- 
lages, 144 towns, 250 castles. In * Bavaria, 34 cities, 46 
towns, &c. ^ PortiLgallia interamnts, a small plot of gi^ound, 
hath 1,460 parishes, 130 monasteries, 200 bridges. Malta, 
a barren island, yields 20,000 inhabitants. But of all the 
rest, I admire Lues Guicdardine's relations of the Low 
Countries. Holland hath 26 cities, 400 great villages. Zea- 
land, 10 cities, 102 parishes. Brabant, 26 cities, 102 parishes. 
Flanders, 28 cities, 90 towns, 1,154 villages, besides abbeys, 

1 Increment, nrb. 1. 1, c. 9. ^ An- menu, nuUus locus otioeus ant Incnltus. 

gliaB, excepto Londino, nulla esfc ciyitas * Ohytreus orat. edit. Francof. 1688. 

memorabilia, licet ea natio rerum om- & Maginus Geog. ^ Ortelius 6 Vaseo et 

nium copiSL abundet. ^ Cosmog. Pet. de Medina. f An hundred fluni- 

Lib. d, cop. 119. Villarum non est nu- lies in each. 

120 Demoetitui to the Header, 

castles, &C. The Low Countries generallj have three cities 
at least for one of ours, and those far more populous and 
rich ; and what is the cause, but their industry and excel* 
lency in all manner of trades ? Their commerce, which is 
maintained by a multitude of tradesmen, so many excellent 
channels made by art and opportune havens, to which they 
build their cities ; all which we have in like measure, or at 
least may have. But their chiefest loadstone which draws all 
manner of commerce and merchandise, which maintains their 
present estate, is not fertility of soil, but industry that en- 
richeth them ; the gold mines of Peru, or Nova Hispania may 
not compare with them. They have neither gold nor silver 
of their own, wine nor oil, or scarce any com growing in 
those united provinces ; little or no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, 
wool, any stuff almost, or metal ; and yet Hungary, Transyl* 
vania, that brag of their mines, fertile England, cannot com- 
pare with them. I dare boldly say, that neither France, 
Tarentum, Apulia, Lombardy, or any part of Italy, Valence 
in Spain, or that pleasant Andalusia, Mrith their excellent 
fruits, wine and oil, two harvests, no not any part of Europe 
is so flourishing, so rich, so populous, so full of good ships, of 
well-built cities, so abounding with all things necessary for 
the use of man. 'Tis our Indies, an epitome of China, and 
all by reason of their industry, good policy, and commerce. 
Industry is a loadstone to draw all good things ; that alone 
makes countries flourish, cities populous, ^and will enforce 
by reason of much manure, which necessarily follows, a bar- 
ren soil to be fertile and good, as sheep, saith ^ Dion, mend a 
bad pasture. 

Tell me, politicians, why is that fruitful Palestina, noble 
Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, so much decayed, and (mere 
carcasses now) fallen from that they were ? The ground is 
the same, but the government is altered; the people are 
grown slothful, idle; their good husbandry, policy, and in- 

1 PopvU mnltiltudo diligente cultnit * Ont. 86. Tern aU otm itabulantnr 
fiMundat solum. Boter. 1. 8, e. 8. optima agrieoUs ob Bteroiu. 


Democritui to the JReader. 121 

dastry is decayed. Nonfatigata atU effieta humus, as ^ Colu- 
mella well informs Sjlvinus, sed nogtrd fit inertid, Sfc. May 
a man believe that which Aristotle in his politics, Pausanias, 
Stephanus, Sophianus, Grerbelius relate of old Greece ? I find 
heretofore seventy cities in Epirus overthrown by Paulus 
^milius, a goodly province in times past, ^ now left desolato 
of good towns and almost inhabitants. Sixty-two cities in 
Macedonia in Strabo's time. I find thirty in Laconia, but now 
scarce so many villages, saith Gerbelius. If any man from 
Mount Taygetus should view the country round about, and see 
tot deUcuUj tot urbes per Pelopannesum dispersas, so many deli- 
cate and brave built cities with such cost and exquisite cun- 
ning, so neatly set out in Peloponnesus, ' he should perceive 
them now ruinous and overthrown, burnt, waste, desolate, 
and laid level with the ground. Incredihile dictu, S^c. And 
as he laments, Quts talia fando Temperet a lachrymts f Quis 
tarn durus out ferreus f (so he prosecutes it)* Who is he 
that can sufficiently condole and commiserate these ruins ? 
Where are those 4,000 cities of Egypt, those 100 cities in 
Crete? Are they now come to two? What saith Pliny 
and ^lian of old Italy ? There were in former ages 1,166 
cities ; Blondus and Machiavel, both grant them now nothing 
near so populous, and full of good towns as in the time of 
Augustus (for now Leander Albertus can find but 300 at 
most), and if we may give credit to * Livy, not then so strong 
and puissant as of old : They mustered seventy Legions in for- 
mer times, which now the known world will scarce yield. Al- 
exander built seventy cities in a short space for his part, our 
Sultans and Turks demolish twice as many, and leave all 
desolate. Many will not believe but that our island of Great 
Britain is now more populous than ever it was ; yet let them 

iDe re rust. I. 2, cap. 1. The soil 
if not tired or exhausted, but has * Not eT«n the havdeet of our foes eoald 
become barren through our sloth. hear, 

* Hodie urbibus desolatur, et magna ex Nor stem Ulysses tell without a tear, 
parte incoUs destltuitur. Gerbelius deee. 

Oneclse, lib. 6. > Videbit eas fere om- * Lib. 7. Beptuaginta olim legiones 
nes aut eyersas, aut solo soquatas, aut in seriptao dieuntnr j quaa vires hodie, kt. 
rad«ra foediflsimi d^tas. Gerbelius. 

122 Democritus to the Reader 

read Bede, Leland, and others, thej shall find it most flour- 
ished in the Saxon Heptarchy, and in the Conqueror's time 
was far better inhabited than at this present. See that 
Domesday-Book, and show me those thousands of parishes, 
which are now decayed, cities ruined, villages depopulated, 
&c The lesser the territory is, commonly, the richer it is. 
Parvus sed bene ctdtus ager. As those Athenian, Lacede- 
monian, Arcadian, Aelian, Sycionian, Messenian, &c., com- 
monwealths of Greece make ample proof, as those imperial 
cities and free states of Germany may witness, those Cantons 
of Switzers, Rheti, Grisons, Walloons, Territories of Tuscany, 
Luke and Senes of old, Piedmont, Mantua, Venice in Italy, 
Ragusa, &c. 

That prince, therefore, as * Boterus adviseth, that will have 
a rich country, and fair cities, let him get good trades, privi- 
leges, painful inhabitants, artificers, and suffer no rude matter 
unwrought, as tin, iron, wool, lead, &c, to be transported out 
of his country, — ^sl thing in part seriously attempted amongst 
us, but not effected. And because industry of men, and mul- 
titude of trade so much avails to the ornament and enriching 
of a kingdom ; those ancient * Massilians would admit no man 
into their city that had not some trade. Selym, the first 
Turkish emperor, procured a thousand good artificers to be 
brought from Taurus to Constantinople. The Polanders in- 
dented with Henry, Duke of Anjou, their new-chosen king, 
to bring with him an hundred families of artificers into Po- 
land. James the First, in Scotland, (as ^ Buchanan writes,) 
sent for the best artificers he could get in Europe, and gave 
them great rewards to teach his subjects their several trades. 
Edward the Third, our most renowned king, to his eternal 
memory, brought clothing first into this island, transporting 
some families of artificers from Gaunt hither. How many 
goodly cities could I reckon up, that thrive wholly by trade, 
where thousands of inhabitants live singular well by their 

1 Polit. 1. 8, c. 8. s For dyeing of propositis pnemiis, ut Scoti ab Us edooe* 

slothB, and dressing, &c. > Valer. 1. 2, rentur. 
3. 1. * Hist. Scot. Lib. 10. Magnis 

Democritus to the Reader, 123 

fingers' ends I As Florence in Italy by making cloth of gold ; 
great Milan bj silk, and all curious works ; Arras in Artois 
by those fair hangings ; many cities in Spain, many in 
France, Germany, have none other maintenance, especially 
those within the land. ^ Mecca in Arabia Fetraea, stands in 
a most unfruitful country, that wants water, amongst the 
rocks (as Yertomanus describes it), and yet it is a most ele- 
gant and pleasant city, by reason of the traffic of the east 
and west. Ormus in Persia is a most famous mart-town, 
hath nought else but the opportunity of the haven to make it 
flourish. Corinth, a noble city, (Lumen Graeciae, Tully calls 
it,) the Eye of Greece, by reason of Cenchreas and Lecheus, 
those excellent ports, drew all that traffic of the Ionian and 
udSgean seas to it ; and yet the country about it was curva et 
superciliosa, as ^ Strabo terms it, rugged and harsh. We may 
say the same of Athens, Actium, Thebes, • Sparta, and most 
of those towns in Greece. Nuremberg in Germany is sited 
in a most barren soil, yet a noble, imperial city, by the sole 
industry of artificers, and cunning trades, they draw the riches 
of most countries to them, so expert in manufactures, that as 
Sallust long since gave out of the like, Sedem animce in ex- 
tremis digitis hctbent, their soul, or inteUecttis agens, was placed 
in their fingers' end; and so we may say of Basil, Spire, 
Cambray, Frankfort, &c. It is almost incredible to speak 
what some write of Mexico and the cities adjoining to it, no 
place in the world at their first discovery more populous, 
• Mat. Hiccius, the Jesuit, and some others, relate of the in- 
dustry of the Chinese most populous countries, not a beggar 
or an idle person to be seen, and how by that means they 
prosper and flourish. We have the same means, able bodies, 
pliant wits, matter of all sorts, wool, flax, iron, tin, lead, wood, 
&c., many excellent subjects to work upon, only industry is 
wanting. We send our best commodities beyond the seas, 

1 Mnnflt. cosm. I. 6, c. 74. Agro Oocidentis. > lib. 8, Geogr. ob upe- 

omnium remm InfiBcundisfiimo, aquJil rum situm. > Lib. Edit. & Nic. Tregant. 

indigente, inter saxeta, urbs tamen ele- Belg. A. 1616, expedit. in Sinas. 
gantfssima, ob Oiientis negotiationes et 

124 JJemoeriftu to th$ Evader. 

which they make good use of to their necessities, set theni« 
selves a work about, and severally improve, sending the same 
to us back at dear rates, or else make toys and baubles of the 
tails of them, which they sell to us again, at as great a reck<« 
oning as the whole. In most of our cities, some few ex* 
cepted, like ^ Spanish loiterers, we live wholly by tippling* 
inns and alehouses. Malting are their best ploughs, their 
greatest traffic to sell ale. ' Meteran and some others object 
to us, that we are no whit so industrious as the Hollanders i 
^* Manual trades (saith he) which are more curious or trouble- 
some, are wholly exercised by strangers ; they dwell in a sea 
fiill of fish, but they are so idle, they will not catch so much 
as shall serve their own turns, but buy it of their neighbours." 
Tush * Mare Itberum, they fish under our noses, and sell it to 
us when they have done, at their own prices. 

" Pudet hsBC opprobria nobis 
Et dici potuisse, et non potuisse refelli.** 

I am ashamed to hear this objected by strangers, and know 
not how to answer it. 

Amongst our towns, there is only * London that bears the 
face of a city, * Epitome BritanmcB, a famous emporium^ sec- 
ond to none beyond seas, a noble mart ; but sola crescit, de^ 
crescentihus aliis ; and yet in my slender judgment, defective 
in many things. The rest ('some few excepted) are in 
mean estate, ruinous most part, poor, and full of beggars, by 
reason of their decayed trades, neglected or bad policy, idle- 
ness of their inhabitants, riot, which had rather beg or loiter, 
and be ready to starve, than work. 

I cannot deny but that something may be said in defence 
of our cities, ^ that they are not so fair built, (for the sole 

1 Ubi Qobiles probi loco habent artem ali> turn non piscantur quantum insulae suf- 

?uampToflteri. Cleonard. ep. 1. 1. ^JAh. fecerit, sed k vicinis emere c<^nntur 

8, Belg. Hist, non tain laboriosi ut Belgae, > Orotii Liber. < Urbs animis numero- 

sed ut Hispani otiatores yitam ut pluri< que potens, et robore gentis Scaliger. 

mum otiosam agentes; artee manuarisa ^ Camden. ^ York, Bristol, Norwich, 

quae plurimum habent in se laboris et dif- Worcester, &c. 7 m. Gainsford's Argu- 

fleultatis, majoremque requirunt Indus- ment : Because gentlemen dwell with ua 

triam, a peregrinis et exteris exercentur; in the country villages our cities are less, 

habitant in piflco8is8imoniari,interea tan is nothing to the purpose; put thret 

Democritus to thiB Reader. 125 

magnifioence of this kingdom, concerning buildings, hath been 
of old in those Norman castles and religious houses,) so rich, 
thick sited, populous^ as in some other countries ; besides the 
reasons Cardan giveS) SuhHL lAhk 11, we want wine and oil, 
their two harvests 5 we dwell in a colder air, and for that 
cause must a little more liberally ^ feed of flesh, as all north- 
em countries do : our provisions will not therefore extend to 
the maintenance of so many ; jet notwithstanding we have 
matter oi all sorts, an open sea for traffic, as well as the rest, 
goodly havens. And how can we excuse our negligence, our 
riot, drunkenness, &c., and such enormities that follow it? 
We have excellent laws enacted, you will say, severe stat- 
utes, houses of correction, &c., to small purpose it seems ; it 
is not houses will serve, but cities of correction ; ^ our trades 
generally ought to be reformed, wants supplied. In other 
countries they have the same grievances, I confess, but that 
doth not excuse us, ' wants, defects, enormities, idle drones, 
tumults, discords, contention, lawsuits, many laws made 
against them to repress those innumerable brawls and law- 
«uits, excess in apparel, diet, decay of tillage, depopulations, 
* especially against rogues, beggars, Egyptian vagabonds (so 
termed at least) which have * swarmed all over Germany, 
France, Italy, Poland, as you may read in * Munster, Cran- 
zius, and Aventinus ; as those Tartars and Arabians at this 
day do in the eastern countries ; yet such has been th« iniquity 
of all ages, as it seems to small purpose. Nemo in nostrd 
eivitate mendicus esto^f saith Plato; he will have them 
purged from a * commonwealth, ^ <' as a bad humour from the 

hundrad or tova hundred TillagM In a flnutra ezeroent jnstitiam. Mor. titop. 

shire, and every village yield a gentle- Lib. 1. » Manctpiis locuples eget aerls 

man, what b tcmt hundred llunuies to Cappadooum rex. Hor. * Regis digni- 

increase one of our cltfee, or to contend talis non est exercere impexium in men- 

with tlieirs, whloh stand thicker? And dicoe sed in opulentos. Non est regni 

whereu ours luually consist of seren deeus, sed carceris esse custoe. Idem, 

thousand, theirs consist of forty thou- * CoUuTies hominum mirabiles excoeti 

sand inhahitants. i Maxima pars victfiB solo, Immundi Testes fbedi tIsu, ftirti im- 

in came eonsistit. Polyd. Lib. 1, Hist, ptimis acres. &o. * Cosmog. lib. 8^ 

• Befrsonate monopolii lioentiam, pan- cap. 6. t "Let no one in our city be 

oiores alantur otto, redlntegretur agrlco- a beggar.'' * Seneca. Haud minus 

latio, laoiflcium instauretur, ut sit ho- turpia prinelpi multa supplicia, quiim 

nestum negotium quo se exereeat otiosa medico multa ftinera. i Ao pituitam et 

ilia tarba. NW his malk meAentur, MtaM. a oorpore (11 4» legg.) <»n«s Tult 

126 Democritus to the Reader. 

bodj," that are like so many ulcers and boils, and must be 
cured before the melancholy body can be eased. 

What Carolus Magnus, the Chinese, the Spaniards, the 
Duke of Saxony, and many other states have decreed in 
this case, read AmiseuSy cap, 19; Boterus, lihro 8, cap, 2; 
Osorius de Rebus gest, JEman, lib. 11. When a country is 
overstocked with people, as a pasture is oft overlaid with 
cattle, they had wont in former times to disburden them- 
selves, by sending out colonies, or by wars, asf those old 
Bomans ; or by employing them at home about some public 
buildings, as bridges, road-ways, for which those Romans 
were famous in this island ; as Augustus Csesar did in Rome, 
the Spaniards in their Indian mines, as at Potosi in Peru, 
where some 80,000 men are still at work, 6,000 furnaces 
ever boiling, &c, ^ aqueducts, bridges, havens, those stupend 
works of Trajan, Claudius, at ' Ostium, Dioclesiani Therma, 
Fucinus Lacus, that Piraeum in Athens, made by Themisto- 
cles, amphitheatrums of curious marble, as at Yerona, Ci vitas 
Philippi, and Heraclea in Thrace, those Appian and Fla- 
minian ways, prodigious works all may witness ; and rather 
than they should be 'idle, as those ^Egyptian Pharaohs, 
Maris, and Sesostris did, to task their subjects to build un- 
necessary pyramids, obelisks, labyrinths, channels, lakes, gi- 
gantic works all, to divert them from rebellion, riot, drunken- 
ness, * Qiio scilicet alantur, et ne vagando laborare desuescanL 

Another eyesore is that want of conduct and navigable 
rivei^, a great blemish as ^ Boterus, ^ Hippolitus a CoUibus, 
and other politicians hold, if it be neglected in a common- 
wealth. Admirable cost and charge is bestowed in the 
Low Countries on this behalf, in the duchy of Milan, territory 
of Padua, in ^France, Italy, China, and so likewise about cor- 

extenninari. i See Llpdiu AdiaiFanda. dlaeunu polit. cap. 2, " whereby they are 

s De quo Suet, in Claadio, et PliniiU) gupported, and do not become Tagrants 

c. 86. * Ut egeetati 8ini.ul et ignaTia by being less accustomed to labour." 

occurratur, opificia condiscantur, tenues * Lib. 1, de increm. Urb. cap. 6. ^ Cap. 

subleyentur. Bodin. 1. 6, c. 2, num. 6, 7. 6, de iniciem. urb. Quas flumen, lacus 

« Amasis iBgypti rex legem promulgaTit, aut mare alluit & Inciedibllem com- 

at omnes subditi quotannis rationem moditatem, yecturft mercium tres fluTli 

radderent unde Tiverent. > Busooldus naTigabiles, fro. Botenu de OalUtu 

DemocritiLs to the Reader, 127 

riyations of water to moisten and refresh barren grounds, to 
drain fens, bogs, and moors. Massinissa made many inward 
parts of Barbary and Numidia in Africa, before his time in- 
cult and horrid, fruitful and bartable by this means. Great 
industry is generally used all over the eastern countries in 
this kind, especially in Egypt, about Babylon and Damascus, 
as Vertomannus and ^ Grotardus Arthus relate ; about Barce- 
lona, Segovia, Murcia, and many other places of Spain, 
Milan in Italy ; by reason of which their soil is much im- 
poverished, and infinite commodities arise to the inhabitants. 

The Turks of late attempted to cut that Isthmus be- 
twixt Africa and Asia, which ^ Sesostris . and Darius, and 
some Pharaohs of Egypt had formerly undertaken, but with 
ill success, as * Diodorus Siculus records, and Pliny, for that 
Red Sea being three * cubits higher than Egypt, would have 
drowned all the country, ccepto destiterant, they left off; yet 
as the same * Diodorus writes, Ptolemy renewed the work 
many years after, and absolved it in a more opportune 

That Isthmus of Corinth was likewise undertaken to be 
made navigable by Demetrius, by Julius Caesar, Nero, Domi- 
tian, Herodes Atticus, to make a speedy * passage, and less 
dangerous, from the Ionian and ^gean seas ; but because it 
could not be so well affected, the Peloponnesians built a wall 
like our Picts's wall about Schaenute, where Neptune's tem- 
ple stood, and in the shortest cut over the Isthmus, of which 
Diodorus, lib. 11, Herodotus, lib. 8, Vran. Our latter 
writers call it Hexamilium, which Amurath the Turk de- 
molished, the Venetians, anno 1453, repaired in 15 days with 
30,000 men. Some, saith Acosta, would have a passage cut 
from Panama to Nombre de Dios in America ; but Thuanus 
and Serres the French historians speak of a famous aqueduct 

1 Herodotus. s Ind. Orient, cap. 2. Archimedes, who holds the superficies 

Botam in medio flumine constltuunt, cui of all waters eren. ^ Lib. 1, cap. 8. 

ez pellibas animalium consutos uteres > IMon. Pausanias, et Nic. (}erbelius. 

appendant, hi dum rota moretur. aquam Munster. Goem. Lib. 4, cap. 86. Ut bre- 

per canales, &o. > Centum pedes lata Tlor foret nayigatio et minus periculoMU 
fctsa, 80 alta. i Oontnuy to that of 

128 Democritus to the Reader. 

in France, intended in Henry the Fourth's time, from the 
Loire to the Seine, and from Rhodanus to the Loire. The 
like to which was formerly assayed by Domitian the em- 
peror, ^from Arar to Moselle, which Cornelius Tadtos 
speaks of in the Idth of his Annals, after by Charles the 
Great and others. Much cost hath in former times been be- 
stowed in either new making or mending channels of rivers, 
and their passages, (as Aurelianus did by Tiber to make it 
navigable to Rome, to convey com from Egypt to the city, 
vadum alvei tumentii effodit saith Vopiscus, et TiherU rtpcu 
extrtucit, he cut fords, made banks, &c,) decayed havens, 
which Claudius the emperor, with infinite pains and charges, 
attempted at Ostia, as I have said, the Venetians at this day 
to preserve their city ; many excellent means to enrich their 
territories, have been fostered, invented in most provinces of 
Europe, as planting some Indian plants amongst us, silk- 
worms, ^ the very mulberry leaves in the plains of Granada 
yield 30,000 crowns per annum to the king of Spain's coffers, 
besides those many trades and artificers that are busied about 
them in the kingdom of Granada, Murcia, and all over 
Spain. In France a great benefit is raised by salt, &c., 
whether these things might not be as happily attempted with 
us, and with like success, it may be controverted, silk-worms 
(I mean,) vines, fir-trees, &c. Cardan exhorts Edward the 
Sixth to plant olives, and is fully persuaded they would pros- 
per in this island. With us, navigable rivers are most part 
neglected ; our streams are not great, I confess, by reason of 
the narrowness of the island, yet they run smoothly and even, 
not headlong, swift, or amongst rocks and shelves, as foam- 
ing Rhodanus and Loire in France, Tigris in Mesopotamia, 
violent Durius in Spain, with cataracts and whirlpools, as the 
Rhine, and Danubius, about Shaffausen, Lausenburgh, Linz, 
and Cremmes, to endanger navigators ; or broad shallow, as 

1 Charles the Great went about to make Rednich to Altiiuul. Ut naTigahilia inter 

a channel from the Rhine to the Danube, ae Ooeidentis et Septentrionis littora 

BO. Pirkimerus demript. Oer. the ruins fierent. ^ Mai^nus Qeogr. GMmlerai 

an yet seen about Wessenburg from de np. H^Tet. lib. 1, descru)it. 

Democritus to the Reader. 129 

Neckar in the Palatinate, Tibris in Italy ; bat calm and faif 
as Arar in France, Hebrus in Macedonia, Eurotas in Laoo 
nia, thej gently glide along, and might as well be repaired 
many of them (I mean Wye, Trent, Ouse, Thamisis at 
Oxford, the defect of which we feel in the mean time) as the 
River of Lee from Ware to London. B. Atwater of old, or 
as some wiU Henry L, * made a channel from Trent to Lin- 
coln, navigable ; which now, saith Mr. Camden, is decayed, 
and much mention is made of anchors, and such like monu- 
ments found about old ^Yerulamium, good ships have for- 
merly come to Exeter, and many such places, whose chan- 
nels, havens, ports, are now barred and rejected. We con- 
temn this benefit of carriage by waters, and are therefore 
compelled in the inner parts of this island, because portage is 
80 dear, to eat up our commodities ourselves, and live like so 
many boars in a sty, for want of vent and utterance. 

We have many excellent havens, royal havens, Falmouth, 
Portsmouth, Milford, &c, equivalent if not to be preferred 
to that Indian Havanna, old Brundusium in Italy, Aulis in 
Greece, Ambracia in Acamia, Suda in Crete, which have 
few ships in them, little or no traffic or trade, which have 
scarce a village on them, able to bear great cities, sed viderint 
polltid, I could here justly tax many other neglects, abuses, 
errors, defects among us, and in other countries, depopula. 
tions, riot, drunkenness, &c., and many such, quce nunc in 
aurem stisurrare non libet. But I must take heed, ne quid 
gravius dicam^ that I do not overshoot myself, Sus Minervam, 
I am forth of my element, as you peradventure suppose ; and 
sometimes Veritas odium parit, as he said, ^'verjuice and oat- 
meal is good for a parrot." For as Ludan said of an histo- 
rian, I say of a politician. He that will freely speak and 
write, must be forever no subject, under no prince or law, but 
lay out the matter truly as it is, not caring what any can, 
will, like or dislike. 

1 Camdvn in Linoolnshiie. 1(mhk<U1w. O'Nwir S. Albttna," which miut not 

now be whispered in the ear." 

VOL. I. 9 

130 Democrttus to the Header. 

We have good laws, I deny not, to rectify sucli enonnitiea, 
and so in all other countries, but it seems not always to good 
purpose. We had need of some general visitor in our age, 
that should reform what is amiss ; a just army of Rosie-crosse 
men, for they will amend all matters (they say), religion, pol- 
icy, manners, with arts, sciences, &c. Another Attila, Tam- 
erlane, Hercules, to strive with Achelous, Augecs stahulum 
purgare, to subdue tyrants, as ^ he did Diomedes and Busiris ; 
to expel thieves, as he did Cacus and Lacinius ; to vindicate 
poor captives, as he did Hesione ; to pass the torrid zone, the 
deserts of Lybia, and purge the world of monsters and 
Centaurs ; or another Theban Crates to reform our manners, 
to compose quarrels and controversies, as in his time he did, 
and was therefore adored for a god in Athens. ^' As Her- 
cules * purged the world of monsters, and subdued them, so 
did he fight against envy, lust, anger, avarice, &c, and all 
those feral vices and monsters of the mind." It were to be 
wished we had some such visitor, or if wishing would serve, 
one had such a ring or rings, as Timolaus desired in ' Lucian, 
by virtue of which he should be as strong as 10,000 men, or 
an army of giants, go invisible, open gates and castle doors, 
have what treasure he would, transport himself in an instant 
to what place he desired, alter affections, cure all manner of 
diseases, that he might range over the world, and reform all 
distressed states and persons, as he would himself. He might 
reduce those wandering Tartars in order, that infest China 
on the one side, Muscovy, Poland, on the other ; and tame 
the vagabond Arabians that rob and spoil those eastern coun- 
tries, that they should never use more caravans, or janizaries 
to conduct them. He might root out barbarism out of Amer- 
ica, and fully discover Terra AustralU Incognita, find out the 
northeast and northwest passages, drain those mighty Mseo- 
tian fens, cut down those vast Hircinian woods, irrigate 

1 LifliiM Oirald. Nat. comei. s Apa- diam, invidiam, ayaritiain, libidinem, 

leliM, lib. 4, Flor. Lar. fluniliaris inter oeteraque animi nnmanl yitia et monstra 

homines letatis suffi onltus est, litium philosophua iste Hercules fait. Pestes 

omnium et Jurgiorum inter propinquos eas mentibus es^jit omnes, &o. ^ Vo- 

arbiter et diaoeptator. AdTersus iraeun- tis narig. 

Deniocritus to the Reader, 131 

those barren Arabian deserts, &c., cure us of our epidemical 
diseases, scor^um,j9/ica, morbus NeapolitanuLs, S^c, end all our 
idle controversies, cut off our tumultuous desires, inordinate 
lusts, root out atheism, impiety, heresy, schism, and superstition, 
which now so crucify the world, catechize gross ignorance, 
purge Italy of luxury and riot, Spain of superstition and 
jealousy, Grermany of drunkenness, all our northern country 
of gluttony and intemperance, castigate our hard-hearted par- 
ents, masters, tutors ; lash disobedient children, negligent ser- 
vants, correct these spendthrifts and prodigal sons, enforce 
idle persons to work, drive drunkards off the alehouse, re- 
press thieves, visit corrupt and tyrannizing magistrates, &c 
But as L. Licinius taxed Timolaus, you may us. These are 
vain, absurd and ridiculous wishes not to be hoped ; all must 
be as it is, * Bocchalinus may cite commonwealths to come 
before Apollo, and seek to reform the world itself by com- 
missioners, but there is no remedy, it may not be redressed, 
desinent homines tum demum shUtescere quando esse desinent, 
so long as they can wag their beards, they will play the 
knaves and fools. 

Because, therefore, it is a thing so difficult, impossible, and 
far beyond Hercules's labours to be performed ; let them be 
rude, stupid, ignorant, incult, lapis super lapidem sedeat, and 
as the • apologist will, resp. tussi, et graveolentia lahoret, mim- 
dus vitio, let them be barbarous as they are, let them 'tyran- 
nize, epicurize, oppress, luxuriate, consume themselves with 
factions, superstitions, lawsuits, wars and contentions, live in 
riot, poverty, want, misery ; rebel, wallow as so many swine 
in their own dung, with Ulysses's companions, stidtosjubeo esse 
liberUer, I will yet, to satisfy and please myself, make an 
Utopia of mine own, a new Atlantis, a poetical commonwealth 
of mine own, in which I will freely domineer, build cities, 
make laws, statutes, as I list myself. And why may I not ? 

* Pictorihus atque poetis, S^c. You know what liberty 

poets ever had, and besides, my predecessor Democritus was 

1 Raggnalios, part 2, cap. 2, et part 8, 604. * Qtd sordidtu est, eordesoat ad 
0.17. > Velent. Andrew Apolog. manip. hue. *Hor 

132 Democritm to the Reader. 

a politician, a recorder of Abdera, a lawmaker as some saj 
and why may not I presume so much as he did ? Howsoever 
I will adventure. For the site, if jou will needs urge me to 
it, I am not fuUj resolved, it may be in Terra Australi Incogs 
nitay there is room enough (for of my knowledge neither that 
hungry Spaniard,* nor Mercurius Bntannicus, have yet dis- 
covered half of it), or else one of those floating islands in 
Mare del Zur, which like the Cyanian isles in the Euxine 
sea, alter their place, and are accessible only at set times, and 
to some few persons ; or one of the Fortunate isles, for who 
knows yet where, or which they are ? there is room enough 
in the inner parts of America, and northern coasts of Asia. 
But I will choose a site, whose latitude shall be forty-five de-> 
grees (I respect not minutes) in the midst of the temperate 
zone, or perhaps under the equator, that fp&i^dise of the 
world, ubi semper virens laurm, S^Cj where is a perpetual 
spring ; the longitude for some reasons I will conceal. Yet 
'< be it known to all men by these presents," that if any hon- 
est gentleman will send in so much money, as Cardan allows 
an astrologer for casting a nativity, he shall be a sharer, I 
win acquaint him with my project, or if any worthy man will 
stand for any temporal or spiritual office or dignity, (for as he 
smd of his archbishopric of Utopia, 'tis sanctus ambitits, and 
not amiss to be sought after,) it shall be fi*eely given without 
all intercessions, bribes, letters, &c., his own worth shall be 
the best spokesman ; and because we shall admit of no dep- 
uties or advowsons, if he be sufficiently qualified, and as able 
as willing to execute the place himself, he shall have present 
possession. It shall be divided into twelve or thirteen prov- 
inces, and those by hills, rivers, roadways, or some more emi- 
nent limits exactly bounded. Each province shall have a 
metropolis, which shall be so placed as a centre almost in a 
circumference, and the rest at equal distances, some twelve 
Italian miles asunder, or thereabout, and in them shall be sold 
all things necessary for the use of man ; statis horis et diebus^ 

* Ferdinando Qtiir. 1612. f Vide Aooita et Laiet. 

Democritus to the Reader, 133 

no market towns, markets or fairs, for thej do but beggar 
cities (no village shall stand above six, seven, or eight miles 
from a city), except those emporiums which are by the sea- 
side, general staples, marts, as Antwerp, Venice, Bergen of 
old, London, (Sec, cities most part shall be situated upon nav- 
igable rivers or lakes, creeks, havens; and for their form, 
regular, round, square, or long square, * with fair, broad, and 
straight ^streets, houses uniform, built of brick and stone, 
like Bruges, Brussels, Rhegium Lepidi, Berne in Switzer- 
land, Milan, Mantua, Grema, Cambalu in Tartary, described 
by M. Polus, or that Venetian palma. I will admit very few 
or no suburbs, and those of baser building, walls only to keep 
out man and horse, except it be in some frontier towns, or by 
the seaside, and those to be fortified * after the latest manner of 
fortification, and situated upon convenient havens, or opportune 
places. In every so built city, I will have convenient churches, 
and separate places to bury the dead in, not in churchyards ; 
a cttadeUa (in some, not all) to command it, prisons for offend- 
ers, opportune market-places of all sorts, for com, meat, cattle, 
fuel, fish, commodious courts of justice, public halls for all 
societies, bourses, meeting-places, armouries, ^ in which shall 
be kept engines for quenching of fire, artillery gardens, pub- 
lic walks, theatres, and spacious fields allotted for all gymnastic 
sports, and honest recreations, hospitals of all kinds, for chil- 
dren, orphans, old folks, sick men, mad men, soldiers, pest- 
houses, &c., not built precario, or by gouty benefactors, who, 
when by fraud and rapine they have extorted all their lives, 
oppressed whole provinces, societies, &c, give something to 
pious uses, build a satisfactory almshouse, school or bridge, 
&c, at their last end or before perhaps, which is no other- 
wise than to steal a goose, and stick down a feather, rob a 
thousand to relieve ten; and those hospitals so built and 
maintained, not by collections, benevolences, donaries, for a 
set number, (as in ours,) just so many and no more at such 

I Vide Patrittam, lib. 8, tit. 10, de In- 1. 1, c. tilt. » With vralls of earth, &c. 
itit. Beipub. s Sic olim Hippodajnui 4 De his PUn. epist. 42, lib. 2, et tacit. 
Milesiiu Axiat. polit. cap. U,' et VitruTiua Annal. 13 lib. 

134 Democrittu to the Rectder, 

a rate, but for all those who stand in need, be tbej more or 
less, and that ex puhUco teranp, and so still maintained, nan 
nobis soUtm nati sumtis, S^c. I will have conduits of sweet 
and good water, aptly disposed in each town, common ^ gran- 
aries, as at Dresden in Misnia, Stetcin in Pomerland, Nor- 
emberg, &c Colleges of mathematicians, musiciam\, and 
actors, as of old at Labedum in Ionia, 'alchemists, physi- 
cians, artists, and philosophers ; that all arts and sciences may 
sooner be perfected and better learned ; and public historiog- 
raphers, as amongst those ancient ' Persians, qui in comment 
tarios referehant quce memoratu digna gerebantur, informed 
and appointed by the state to register all famous acts, and not 
by each insufficient scribbler, partial or parasitical pedant, as 
in our times. I will provide public schools of all kinds, sing- 
ing, dancing, fencing, &c., especially of grammar and lan- 
guages, not to be taught by those tedious precepts ordinarily 
used, but by use, example, conversation,* as travellers learn 
abroad, and nurses teach their children ; as I will have all 
«uch places, so will I ordain * public governors, fit officers to 
each place, treasurers, sediles, questors, overseers of pupils, 
widows' goods, and all public houses, &c, and those once a 
year to make strict accounts of all receipts, expenses, to 
avoid confusion, et sic Jiet vt non absumant (as Pliny to Tra- 
jan,) quodpudeat dicere. They shall be subordinate to those 
higher officers and governors of each city, which shall not 
be poor tradesmen, and mean artificers, but noblemen and 
gentlemen, which shall be tied to residence in those towns 
they dwell next, at such set times and seasons ; for I see no 
reason (which ® Hippolitus complains of) " that it should be 
more dishonourable for noblemen to govern the city than the 
country, or unseemly to dwell there now, than of old." * I 

1 Vide BriRonium de regno Pene alia procurent. Vide Isaaenm Pontanam 

lib. 8, de his et Vegetium, lib. 2, cap. 3, de cir. Amstel. hiee omnia, &c., Gotar- 

de Annona. s Not to make fi^ld, but dumet alios. ^ De Increm. urb. cap. 18. 

for matten of physic. * Bresonius Ingenai &teor me non intelligere cur vg- 

Josephus, lib. 21, antiquit. Jud. cap. 6. nobilius sit urbes bene munitas colore 

Herod, lib. 8. ^ So Lod. Vires thinks nunc qukm olim, aut casse rustless pne- 

best, Commineus, and others. <> Plato esse qukm urbi. Idem Ubertus FoUot.. 

8, de legg. JBdiles creari vult, qui fora, de Neapoli. . 7 Ne tantillum quidem soli 

fontes, Tias, portus, plateas, et id genus inoultum reUnquitur, lit verum sit im 

Democrittis to the Reader. 135 

will have no bogs, fens, marshes, vast woods, deserts, heaths, 
commons, but all inclosed ; (jet not depopulated, and there- 
fore take heed you mistake me not ;) for that which is common, 
and every man's, is no man's ; the richest countries are still 
inclosed, as Essex, Kent, with us, &c, Spain, Italy; and 
where inclosures are least in quantity, they are best ^hus- 
banded, as about Florence in Italy, Damascus in Syria, &c., 
which are liker gardens than fields. I will not have a bar- 
ren acre in all my territories, not so much as the tops of 
mountains ; where nature fails, it shall be supplied by art ; 
^ lakes and rivers shall not be left desolate. All common 
highways, bridges, banks, corrivations of waters, aqueducts, 
channels, public works, building, &c., out of a ' common stock, 
curiously maintained and kept in repair; no depopulations, 
engrossing.s, alterations of wood, arable, but by the consent 
^ of some supervisors that shall be appointed for that purpose, 
to see what reformation ought to be had in all places, what is 
amiss, how to help it, et quid qucequeferat regio, et quid qua^ 
que recuset, what ground is aptest for wood, what for com, 
what for cattle, gardens, orchards, fishponds, &c, with a char- 
itable division in every village, (not one domineering house 
greedily to swallow up all, which is too common with us) 
what for lords, * what for tenants ; and because they shall be 
better encouraged to improve such lands they hold, manure, 
plant trees, drain, fence, &c., they shall have long leases, a 
known rent, and known fine to free them from those intoler- 
able exactions of tyrannizing landlords. These supervisors 
phall likewise appoint what quantity of land in each manor 

poUicem quidem agrl in his regionibus CotRwol, and their soil much mended, 

sterilem aut infiiecundum reperiri. Mar- Tasser, cap. 62, of his husbandry, is of 

cus Hemingius Augustanus de regno his opinion, one acre inclosed, is worth 

Chinse, 1. 1, c. 8. i M. Carew, in his three common. The country inclosed I 

surrey of Cornwall, saith that before that praise ; the other delighteth not me, for 

country was inclosed, the husbandmen nothing of wealth it doth raise, &c. 

drank water, did eat little or no bread, > Incredibilis navigiornm copia, nihilo 

fol. 66, lib. 1, their apparel was coarse, pauciores in aquis, quJon in continent 

they went barel^j^ged, their dwelling was commorantur. M. Ricceus expedit in 

correspondent ; but since inclosure, they Sinas, 1. 1, c. 8. ? To this purpose 

live decently, and hare money to spend Arlst. polit. 2, c. 6, allows a third part of 

(Ibl. 28); when their fields were common, their reyenues. Hippodamus half. ^ Ita 

Cheir wool was coarse, Cornish hair; but lex Agraria oltm RomsB. 
since inclosure, it is almost as good as 

186 DemocrUm to the Reader. 

18 fit for the lord's demesnes, ^ what for holding of tenant^ 
how it ought to be husbanded, vt ^magnetis equis, Miny<B gem 
eognita remis, how to be manured, tilled, rectified, * kie 
iegetes veniunty iUic fodiciue twa, arborei foetus aUhi, atque 
injussa vireseunt Gramiriay and what proportion is fit for all 
callings, because private professors are many times idiots, ill 
husbands, oppressors, covetous, and know not how to improve 
their own, or else wholly respect their own, and not public 

Utopian parity is a kind of government, to be wished for, 
' rather than effected, Respub, Chnstianopolitanciy Campanel- 
la's city 'of the Sun, and that new Atlantis, witty fictions, but 
mere chimeras and Plato's community in many things is im- 
pious, absurd and ridiculous, it takes away all splendour and 
magnificence. I will have several orders, degrees of nobility, 
and those hereditary, not rejecting younger brothers in the 
mean time, for they shall be sufficiently provided for by pen- 
sions, or so qualified, brought up in some honest calling, they 
shall be able to live of themselves. I will have such a pro- 
portion of ground belonging to every barony, he that buys 
the land shall buy the barony, he that by riot consumes his 
patrimony, and ancient demesnes, shall forfeit his honours.^ 
As some dignities shall be hereditary, so some again by elec- 
tion, or by gift, (besides free offices, pensions, annuities,) like 
our bishoprics, prebends, the Basso's palaces in Turkey, the 
• procurator's houses and offices in Venice, which, like the 
golden apple, shall be given to the worthiest, and best de- 
serving both in war and peace, as a reward of their worth 
and good service, as so many goals for aU to aim at {honos 
edit artes), and encouragements to others. For I hate these 
severe, unnatural, harsh, German, French, and Venetian de- 
crees, which exclude plebeians from honours, be they never 
so wise, rich, virtuous, valiant, and well qualified, they must 

iHiesegeteSjillieyeiiiuntlbeliciiuuTn, Andreas, Loid Verulam. < So is it 

Arborei fbetus alfbi, atque injussa vires- in the kingdom of Naples and France, 

ount Oramina. Virg. 1 Qeorg. > Lu- ^ See Oontarenus and Osorius de rebiu 

eanns, 1. 6. * Viig. ^ joh. Valent. geetis Emanuelis. 


Demoentus to the Reader. 137 

not be patricians, but keep their own rank, this is natura 

helium inferre, odious to God and men, I abhor it Mj form 

of government shall be monarchical. 

* ** nunqnam libertas gratlor extat, 
Qnam sub Rege pio/' &c. 

Few laws, but those severely kept, plainly put down, and in 
the mother tongue, that every man may understand. Every 
city shall have a peculiar trade or privilege, by which it shall 
be chiefly maintained ; ^ and parents shall teach their chil* 
dren one of three at least, bring up and instruct them in the 
mysteries of their own trade. In each town these several 
tradesmen shall be so aptly disposed, as they shall free the 
rest from danger or offence ; fire-trades, as smiths, forge-men, 
brewers, bakers, metal-men, &c, shall dwell apart by them- 
selves ; dyers, tanners, felmongers, and such as use water in 
convenient places by themselves ; noisome or fulsome for bad 
smells, as butchers' slaughter-houses, chandlers, curriers, in 
remote places, and some back lanes. Fraternities and com- 
panies, I approve of, as merchants' bourses, colleges of drug- 
gists, physicians, musicians, &c., but all trades to be rated in 
the sale of wares, as our clerks of the market do bakers and 
brewers ; com itself, what scarcity soever shall come, not to 
exceed such a price. Of such wares as are transported or 
brought in, ^ if they be necessary, commodious, and such as 
nearly concern man's life, as com, wood, coal, &c., and such 
provision we cannot want, I will have little or no custom 
paid, no taxes ; but for such things as are for pleasure, de- 
light, or ornament, as wine, spice, tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth 
of gold, lace, jewels, &c., a greater impost. I will have cer- 
tain ships sent out for new discoveries every year, • and some 
discreet men appointed to travel into all neighbouring king- 

• Clandian 1. 7. ** liberty neymr is Emanoele rege Lusitano. lUccius de 

more gratifying than under a piotiB king.-* Sinis. > Hippol. ^ collibus de increm 

I Herodotiu Erato lib. 6. Cum iEgyptiis urb. e. 20. Plato idem 7, de legibus, 

Laoedemonii in hoe congrnunt, quod quae ad vitam necessaria, et quibus ca- 

eorum praeconet, tibicines, ooqui, et reli- rere non possumus, nullum dependl vec- 

3ni artifices, in paterno artiflcio succe- tigal, &c. ^ Plato 12, de l^bus, 40 

nnt, et coquus k ooquo gignitur, et antios natos rult, ut si quid memorabile 

paterno opere perseverat. Idem Marcus yiderent apud exteros, hoc ipsum in rem- 

Polus de Qulnseay. Idem Osorius de pub. recipiatnr. 


138 , Democritus to the Reader. 

doms bj land, which shall observe what artificial inventioiis 
and good laws are in other countries, customs, alterations, or 
aught else, concerning war or peace, which may tend to the 
common good. Ecclesiastical discipline, penes EpiecopoSy 
subordinate as the other. No impropriations, no lay patrons 
of church livings, or one private man, but common societies, 
corporations, &c., and those rectors of benefices to be chosen 
out of the Universities, examined and approved, as the literati 
in China. No parish to contain above a thousand auditors. 
If it were possible, I would have such priests as should imi- 
tate Christ, charitable lawyers should love their neighbours 
as themselves, temperate and modest physicians, politicians 
contemn the world, philosophers should know themselves, 
noblemen live honestly, tradesmen leave lying and cozening, 
magistrates, corruption, &c., but this is impossible, I must get 
such as I may. I will therefore have ^ of lawyers, judges, 
advocates, physicians, chirurgeons, &c., a set number, ^ and 
every man, if it be possible, to plead his own cause, to tell 
that tale to the judge which he doth to his advocate, as 
at Fez in Africa, Bantam, Aleppo, Ragusa, euam quisque 
causam dicere tenetur. Those advocates, chirurgeons, and 
' physicians, which are allowed to be maintained out of the 
* common treasury, no fees to be given or taken upon pain 
of losing their places ; or if they do, very small fees, and 
when the * cause is fully ended. • He that sues any man 
shall put in a pledge, which if it be proved he hath wrong- 
fully sued his adversary, rashly or maliciously, he shall for- 
feit, and lose. Or else before any suit begin, the plaintiff 
shall have his complaint approved by a set delegacy to that 
purpose ; if it be of moment he shall be suflfered as before, to 
proceed, if otherwise, they shall determine it. All causes 

1 Simlems in Helvetia. > Utopiensefl no ; sic mintu eilt ambagam, et -Veritas 

eausidioos ezcludunt, qui caiuas callide ikciliiu ellcietur. Mor. Utop. 1. 2. 

et vaflre tractent et disputent. Iniqaissi- ' Medici ex publico victum sumnnt. 

mum censent hominem ullis obligari 1^- Boter. 1. 1, o 5, de iEgyptiis. * De hia 

bus, qu8B aut numerosiores sunt, quiim lege Patrit. 1. 8, tit. 8, de reip. Instit. 

nt perle^ queant, aut obscuriores quJLm <> Niliil k clientibus patroni accipiant, 

ut k quovis possint intelUgi. Volunt ut piiusquam lis finita est. Barcl. Argen. 

Buam quisque causam agat, eamque refe- lib. 8. o It is so in most free cities in 

rat Judici quam narraturus fuerat patro- Qermany. 

Democritus to the Recder. 139 

shall be pleaded suppresso nomine, the parties' names con- 
cealed, if some circumstances do not otherwise require. 
Judges and other oflficers shall be aptly disposed in each 
province, villages, cities, as common arbitrators to hear 
causes, and end all controversies, and those not single, but 
three at least on the bench at once, to determine or give sen- 
tence, and those again to sit by turns or lots, and not to con- 
tinue still in the same office. No controversy to depend 
above a year, but without all delays and further appeals to 
be speedily despatched, and finally concluded in that time 
allotted. These and all other inferior magistrates to be 
chosen ^ as the literati in China, or by those exact suffrages of 
the '^ Venetians, and such again not to be eligible, or capable 
of magistracies, honours, offices, except they be sufficiently 
* qualified for learning, manners, and that by the strict appro- 
bation of reputed examiners ; * first scholars to take place, 
then soldiers ; for I am of Vigetius his opinion, a scholar de- 
serves better than a soldier, because Uhius cetatis sunt quce 
fortiter fiunt, qtuB vera pro lUilitate Reipvh, scribuntur, cder^ 
na : a soldier's work lasts for an age, a scholar's -forever. If 
they * misbehave themselves, they shall be deposed, and ac- 
cordingly punished, and whether their offices be annual ® or 
otherwise, once a year they shall be called in question, and 
give an account; for men are partial and passionate, mer- 
ciless, covetous, corrupt, subject to love, hate, fear, favour, 
&c., omne stib regno graviore regnum ; like Solon's Areopa- 
gites, or those Roman Censors, some shall visit others, and 
^ be visited invicem themselves, ® they shall oversee that no 
prowling officer, under colour of authority, shall insult over 

1 Mat. Riccius exped. in Sinas, 1. 1, c. 5, mas habet, insigni per totam yitam dig- 

d« examinatione electionum copios^ i^t, nitate insignitur, marchloni similis, aut 

&c. * Contar. de repub. Venet. 1. 1. duci apud nos. * Oedant arma tog». 

> Osor 1. 11. de reb. gest. Eman. Qui in & As in Berne, Lucerne, Friburge, in 

Uteris maximos progressus fecerint maxi- Switaierland, a vicious liver is uncapable 

mis honoribus afflciuntur, secundus ho- of any office ; if a Senator, instantly de- 

noris gradus militibus assignatur, pos- posed. Simlerus. ^ Not above three 

tremi ordinis mechanicis, doctorum years, Arist. polit. 6, c. 8. 7 Nam quis 

hominum jndiciis in altiorem locum custodiet ipsos custodes? sCytreusin 

quisq ; praefertur, et qui a plurimis ap- Greisgeia. Qui non ex sublimi despiciant 

probatur, ampliores in rep. dignitates inferiores, nee ut bestias conculcent sibi 

Bonsequitur. Qui in hoc examine pri- subditos, auctoritatis nomini confisi, &o. 

140 Democrittu to the Rectder. 

his inferiors, as so many wild beasts, oppress, domineer, flea, 
grind, or trample on, be partial or corrupt, but that there be 
aqtuibile jus, justice equally done, live as friends and breth- 
ren together ; and which * Sesellius would have and so much 
desires in his kingdom of France, " a diapason and sweet haiv 
mony of kings, princes, nobles, and plebeians so mutually tied 
and involved in love, as well as laws and authority, as that 
they never disagree, insult or encroach one upon another.'* 
If any man deserve well in his office he shall be rewarded. 

*' quis enim virtutem amplectitar ipsam, 

He that invents anything for public good in any art or 
science, writes a treatise, * or performs any noble exploit, at 
home or abroad, • shall be accordingly enriched, * honoured, 
and preferred. I say with Hannibal in Ennius, JBbstem qui 
feriet erit mihi Cartkagimensis, let him be of what condition 
he will, in all offices, actions, he that deserves best shall 
have best. 

Tilianus in Philonius, out of a charitable mind no doubt, 
wished all his books were gold and silver, jewels and pre- 
cious stones, t to redeem captives, set free prisoners, and 
relieve all poor distressed souls that wanted means; relig- 
iously done, I deny not, but to what purpose ? Suppose this 
were so well done, within a little after, though a man had 
Croesus's wealth to bestow, there would be as many more. 
Wherefore I will suffer no * beggars, rogues, vagabonds, or 
idle persons at all, that cannot give an account of their 

1 Sesellius de rep. Gallorum, lib. 1 & 2. inter celeres oelerrimo, non inter robitstos 

* *' For who would cultivate virtue itself, robustissimo, &c. t Nullum videres 
if you were to take away the reward? " vel in hau vel in vlcinis regionibus pau- 

* Si qois egregium aut bello aut pace per- perem, nullum obseratum, &c. & Nul- 
feoerit. Sesel. 1. 1. ^ ' Ad regeudam lus mendieus apud Sinas, nemini sano, 
rempub. soli literati admittuntur, nee ad quamvia oculis turbatus sit, mendicare 
earn rem gratia magistratuum aut regis permittitur, omnes pro viribus laboraie 
indigent, omnia ezplorata cujusq ; scien- coguntur, cseci molis trusatilibus versan- 
tia et Tirtute pendent. Riocius, Mb. 1. disaddiruntur, soli hospitiisgaudent, qui 
cap. 5. 4 In defunctilocumeum jussit ad labores sunt inepti. Osor. 1- 11, de 
subrogari, qui inter majores virtute reli- reb. gest. Eman. Heming. de r^. Chin, 
quis praeiret; non fuit apud mortales 1. 1, c. 8. Ootard. Arth. Orient. Ind 
ullum excellentius certamen, aut cujus desor. 

vktoiia magis essefc expetenda, non enim 

Democritus to the Reader. 141 

lives how they ^ maintain themselves. If they be impotent, 
lame, blind, and single, they shall be sufficiently maintained 
in several hospitals, built for that purpose ; if married and 
infirm, past work, or by inevitable loss, or some such like 
misfortune cast behind, by distribution ^f ^com, house-rent 
fi-ee, annual pensions or money, they shall be relieved, and 
highly rewarded for their good service they have formerly 
done ; if able, they shall be enforced to work. • " For I see 
no reason (as * he said) why an epicure or idle drone, a rich 
glutton, a usurer, should live at ease and do nothing, live 
in honour, in all manner of pleasures, and oppress others, 
vhen as in the mean time a poor labourer, a smith, a car- 
penter, an husbandman that hath spent his time in continual 
labour, as an ass to carry burdens to do the commonwealth 
good, and without whom we cannot live, shall be lefl in his 
old age to beg or starve, and lead a miserable life worse than 
a jument/' As ® all conditions shall be tied to their task, so 
none shall be overtired, but have their set times of recrea- 
tions and holidays, indulgere gemo, feasts and merrymeet- 
ings, even to the meanest artifioer, or basest servant, once a 
week to sing or dance, (though not all at once,) or do what- 
soever he shall please ; like • that Sdccarum festum amongst 
the Persians, those Satumals in Rome, as well as his master. 
^If any be drunk, he shall drink no more wine or strong 
drink in a twelvemonth afler. A bankrupt shall be " Cat(P- 
demiattts in Amphitheatro, publicly shamed, and he that can- 
not pay his debts, if by riot or negligence, he have been im- 
poverished, shall be for a twelvemonth imprisoned, if in that 

1 Alex, ab Alex. 8, o. 12. * Sic olim toribiu, inanium Tolnirtatmn artifidbtiB 

Bonifle Isaac. Pontan. de his optime. generosis et otiosis tanta mnnera prodigit, 

Amstel. 1. 2, c. 9. > Idem Ariatot. at coatrii agricoIISf carbonariis, aurigis, 

pol. 5, c. 8. Vitiosum qnum soli pan- fiibris, &c., nihil prospicit, sel eorum 

perum liberi educantur ad labores, no- a^nsa labore florentia astatia, fiune penset 

Dilinm et diyitam in Toluptatibus et et aerumnis, Mor. Utop. 1. 2. & In Se- 

deliciia. ^ Quae haeo injuatitia ut nob- govia nemo otiosua, nemo mendicua niai 

ilia quiapiam, aut foenerator qni nihil per aetatem aut morbum opna Ikcere non 

agat, lautam et aplendidam yitam agat, potest : nulli deeat unde Tictum quaerat, 

oBo et deliciia, qunm interim auriga, aut quo ae exerceat. Cypr. EchOTiua 

fliber, agricola, quo reapub. carere non Delit. Hlapan. NuUua Geneyae otioaua, n« 

poteai, vitam adeo miaeram ducat, ut aeptennia.puer. Faulua Heuzner Itiner. 

pt^or quam jumentorum sit ^ua conditio ? > At^enaeua, 1. 12. t Simlerua de repub. 

Iniqua reap, quae dat paragitia, adular Helvet. > Spartian. olim Bom» aio. 

142 Democrttus to the Header. 

space his creditors be not satisfied, ^ he shall be hanged. He 
' that commits sacrilege shall lose his hands ; he that bears 
false witness, or is of perjury convicted, shall have his tongue 
cut out, except he redeem it with his head. Murder, • adul- 
tery, shall be punished by death, * but not theft, except it be 
some more grievous offence, or notorious offenders; other- 
wise they shall be condemned to the galleys, mines, be his 
slaves whom they have offended, during their lives. I hate 
all hereditary slaves, and that duram Persarum legem as 
• Brisonius calls it ; or as • Ammtanus, impendio formidatcLS 
et abominandas leges, per quas oh noxam unius, omnis pro- 
pinqmtas perit, hard law that wife and children, friends and 
allies, should suffer for the father's offence. 

No man shall marry until he ^ be twenty-five, no woman till 
she be twenty, ® nisi cditer dispensatum fiierit. If one • die, the 
other party shall not marry till six months after ; and because 
mafty families are compelled to live niggardly, exhaust and 
undone by great dowers, *° none shall be given at ally or very 
little, and that by supervisors rated, they that are foul shall 
have a greater portion ; if fair, none at all, or very little ; 
" howsoever not to exceed such a rate as those supervisors 
shall think fit And when once they come to those years, 
poverty shall hinder no man from marriage, or any other 
respect, ^^but all shall be rather enforced than hindered, 
^ except they be " dismembered, or grievously deformed, in- 

1 He that proyides not for hfa fiunily, niMum, Neviaaniiin, et alios de hao 

Ib worse than a thief. Paul. > Al- qu8B8tione. * Alnredus. lo Apnd 

fredi lex : utraq ; manus et Un^na pneo- Lacones olim virgines sine dote nubebant. 

idatur, nisi earn capite redemerit. * Si Boter. 1. 8, c. 8. i^ Lege cantnm non 

quis nnptam stuprftrit, yirga yirilis ei ita pridem apud Venetos, ne quia Pa> 

praecidatur; si mulier, nasus et auricula trltius dotem excederet 1,600 coron. 

prsBcidantur. Alfredi lex. En leges ipsi u Bux. Synag. Jud. Sio Judsei. Leo Afer 

Veneri Martlque timendas. * Pauperes Afiicie descript. ne sint alitor inconti- 

non peccant, quum extreme necessitate nentes ob reipub. bonum. Ut August, 

coacti, rem alienam capiunt. Maldonat. Caesar, orat. ad caelibes Romanos olim 

summula quaest. 8, art. 8. Ego cum edocuit. u Morbo laborans, qui in 

illis sentio qui licere putant 4 divite clam prolem fhcile dififunditur. ne genus hu- 

accipere, qui tenetur pauperi subyenire. manum foeda oontagione laedatur, juren- 

Emmanudi Sa. Aphor. confess. <> Lib. tute castratur, mulieres «tale8 procul A. 

2, de reg. Persarum. > Lib. 24. consortio Tirorum ablegantur, &c. Hec- 

f Aliter Aristoteles, a man at twenty-flvef tor Boethiua hist. lib. 1, de yet. Scoto- 

a woman at twenty, polit. ^ Lex olim rum moribus. ^^ Spedosiasimi Ju- 

Licurgi, hodie Ghinenaium; yide Plu- yenes liberis dabunt operam. Plato 6, de 

Carohum, Bicdum, Hemmingium, Ar- legibns. 


JDemocriius to the Header. 143 

firm, or visited with some enormous hereditary disease, in 
body or mind ; in such cases upon a great pain, or mulct, 
* man or woman shall not marry, other order shall be taken 
for them to their content. If people overabound, they shall 
be eased by ^ colonies. 

*No man shall wear weapons in any city. The same 
attire shall be kept, and that proper to several callings, by 
which they shall be distinguished. ^ Liixus funerum shall be 
taken away, that intempestive expense moderated, and many 
others. Brokers, takers of pawns, biting usurers, I will not 
admit ; yet because hie cum hominihus non cum diis agitur, 
we converse here with men, not with gods, and for the hard- 
ness of men's hearts, I will tolerate some kind of usury.* 
If we were honest, I confess, si probi essemus, we should 
have no use of it, but being as it is, we must necessarily 
admit it. Howsoever most divines contradict it, dictmus 
tnficias, sed vox ea sola reperta est, it must be winked at by 
politicians. And yet some great doctors approve of it, Cal- 
vin, Bucer, Zanchius, P. Martyr, because by so many grand 
lawyers, decrees of emperors, princes' statutes, customs of 
commonwealths, churches* approbations, it is permitted, &c., 
I will therefore allow it But to no private persons, nor to 
every man that will, to orphans only, maids, widows, or such as 
by reason of their age, sex, education, ignorance of trading, 
know not otherwise how to employ it ; and those so approved, 
not to let it out apart, but to bring their money to a ® common 
bank which shall be allowed in every city, as in Genoa, 
Geneva, Nuremberg, Venice, at ' five, six, seven, not above 
eight per centum, as the supervisors, or cerarii prcefecti shall 

1 The Saxons exclude dumb, blind, Seas, though with some refbrmation, 
leprous, and such like persons from all mons pietatis, or bank of charity, as Ma- 
inheritance, as we do Ibols. * Ut olim lines terms it, cap. 83, Lex mercat. 
Romani, Hispani hodle, &c. > Riccius part 2, that lend money upon easy 
lib. 11, cap. 5, de Sinarum expedit. sic pawns, or take money upon adventure 
Iffispani coguntMauros arma deponere. for men's lives. ^ That proportion 
So it is in most Italian cities. ^ Idem will make merchandise increase, land 
Plato 12, de legibus, it hath ever been dearer, and better improved, as he hath 
immoderate, vide Guil. Stuckium antiq. judicially proved in his tract of usury, 
convlval. lib. 1, cap. 26. > Plato 9, de exhibited to the Parliament anno 1621. 
'egibns. * As those Lombards beyond 

144 Democritui to the Eeader. 

think fit ^ And as it shall not be lawful for each man to lie an 
usurer that will, so shall it not be lawful for all to take up 
money at use, not to prodigals and spendthrifts, but to mer^ 
chants, young tradesmen, such as stand in need, or know hon- 
estly how to employ it, whose necessity, cause and conditiim 
the said supervisors shall approve of. 

I will have no private monopolies, to enrich one man, and 
beggar a multitude, * multiplicity of offices, of supplying by 
deputies, weights and measures, the same throughout, and 
those rectified by the Primum mobile^ and sun's motion, 
threescore miles to a degree according to observation, 1,000 
geometrical paces to a mile, five foot to a pace, twelve inches 
to a foot, &c, and from measures known it is an easy matter 
to rectify weights, &c, to cast up all, and resolve bodies by 
algebra, stereometry. 1 hate wars if they be not ad popuK 
salutem, upon urgent occasion, *"odimus accipitrem, quia 
temper vivit in armxs^^ ' offensive wars, except the cause be 
very just, I will not allow of. For I do highly magnify that 
saying of Hannibal to Scipio, in *Livy, "It had been a 
blessed thing for you and us, if God had given that mind 
to our predecessors, that you had been content with Italy, 
we with Africa. For neither Sicily nor Sardinia are worth 
such cost and pains, so many fleets and armies, or so many 
famous Captains' lives." Omnia prius tentanda, fair means 
shall first be tried. * Peragit tranquiUa potestas. Quod via- 
tenia nequit, I will have them proceed with all moderation ; 
but hear you, Fabius my general, not Minutius, nam f qui 
Consilio nititur plus hostibus nocet, quam qui sine animi 
rationey viribus ; And in such wars to abstain as much as 
is possible from * depopulations, burning of towns, massacring 

1 Hoc fere Zanchins com. in 4 cap. ad the hawk, becauM he alwajrs lives in hat- 

Bphes. sequisRimam Tocat nBu»m, et tie." « Idem Plato de legibns. * lib. 

charitati ChristiansB coosentaneam, modo 80. Optiinum quidem ftaerat earn patribiu 

non exigant, &c., neo omnes dent ad noetns mentem a diis datam esfie. ut yom 

IbenuB. aed ii qui in pecuniis bona habent, ItaU», nos Africse impcolo contend eese* 

et ob »tatem, seznm, artis alic^i^s ig- mus. Neque enim Sicilia ant Sardinia 

nontntiam, non poeannt nti. Nee omi^ aatis digna predo sunt pro tot elassibus, 

bus Bed mercatozibus et lis qui honeete &c. » Clandian. t Thacydides. 

Impendent, &c. * Idem apnd Persaa * A depopnlatione, agrc»um incoodlis, et 

olim, lege Brisonium. • <' We hate ^^uamodi fteiis immaoibus. Plato. 

Democntus to the Header. 145 

of infants, 6cc. For defensive wars, I will have forces still 
ready at a small warning, bj land and sea, a prepared navy, 
soldiers in proctnctu, et quam * Bonfinius apvd Hungaros 
8UOS vuU, virgam ferream, and money, which is nervus belliy 
still in a readiness, and a sufficient revenue, a third part as 
in old 1 Rome and Egypt, reserved for the commonwealth ; 
to avoid those heavy taxes and impositions, as well to defray 
this charge of wars, as also all other public defalcations, ex- 
penses, fees, pensions, reparations, chaste sports, feasts, dona- 
ries, rewards, and entertainments. All things in this nature 
especially I will have maturely done, and with great ^ delib- 
eration : «« quid ^temere ne quid remisse ac timide fiat ; Sed 
quo feror hospes f To prosecute the rest would require a 
volume. Manum de tabeUa, I have been over tedious in 
this subject ; I could have here willingly ranged, but these 
straits wherein I am included will not permit. 

From commonwealths and cities, I will descend to families, 
which have as many corsives and molestations, as frequent 
discontents as the rest Great affinity there is betwixt a 
political and economical body ; they differ only in magnitude 
and proportion of business (so Scaliger * writes) as they have 
both likely the same period, as * Bodin and • Peuoer hold, out 
of Plato, six or seven hundred years, so many times they 
have the same means of their vexation and overthrows ; as 
namely, riot, a common ruin of both, riot in building, riot in 
profuse spending, riot in apparel, &c., be it in what kind 
soever, it produceth the same effects. A 'corographer of 
ours speaking obiter of ancient families, why they are so 
firequent in the north, continue so long, are so soon extin- 
guished in the south, and so few, gives no other reason but 
this, Itcxus omnia distipavit, riot hath consumed all, fine 
clothes and curious buildings came into this island, as he 

* Hungar. dec. 1, lib. 9. l Sesellios, lenta neqtiit. Claudian. 3 Belliim 

lib. 2, de repub. Qal. Talde enim est Inde- nee timendum nee prorocandum. Plin. 

corum, ubi quod praeter opinionem acei- Panegyr. Trajano. * Lib. 3, poet. cap. 

dit, dicere, Non put&ram, presertim si 19. ^ Lib. 4, de repnb. cap. 2. > Peu- 

res pr8B( averi potuerit. Lirins, lib. 1. cer. lib. 1, de divinat. 7 Camden in 

Dion. lib. 2. BiodoruB Siculnn, lib. 2. Cheshire. 

s Peragit tranquUla potest as, Quod tIo- 

VOL. I. 10 

146 Democritus to the Reader, 

notes in his annals, not so many years since ; non tine di$ 
pendio hoipitalttaiis, to the decay of hospitality. Howbeit 
many times that word is mistaken, and under the name of 
bounty and hospitality, is shrouded riot and prodigality, and 
that which is commendable in itself well used, hath been mis- 
taken heretofore, is become by his abuse, the bane and utter 
ruin of many a noble family. For some men live like the 
rich glutton, consuming themselres and their substance by 
continual feasting and invitations, with ^ Axilon in Homer, 
keep open house for all comers, giving entertainment to such 
as visit them, * keeping a table beyond their means, and a 
company of idle servants (though not so frequent as of old) 
are blown up on a sudden ; and as Actaeon was by his 
hounds, devoured by their kinsmen, friends, and multitude 
of followers. ' It is a wonder that Paulus Jovius relates of 
our northern countries, what an infinite deal of meat we con- 
sume on our tables ; that I may truly say, 'tis not bounty, 
not hospitality, as it is often abused, but riot and excess, 
gluttony and prodigality ; a mere vice ; it brings in debt, 
want, and beggary, hereditary diseases, consumes their for- 
tunes, and overthrows the good temperature of their bodies. 
To this I might here well add their inordinate expense in 
building, those fantastical houses, turrets, walks, parks, &c., 
gaming, excess of pleasure, and that prodigious riot in ap- 
parol, by which means they are compelled to break up house, 
and creep into holes. Sesellius in his commonwealth of 
* France, gives three reasons why the French nobility were 
so frequently bankrupts : " First, because they had so many 
lawsuits and contentions one upon another, which were 
tedious and costly; by which means it came to pass, that 
commonly lawyers bought them out of their possessions. 

1 1liad. 6 lib. * Vide Puteani Oo- oanssB forensM, aliae ferantur ex aliiSf in 

mum, Goclenium de portenfeosis coenis immensum producantnr, et magnos 

nostrorum temporum. 8 Mirabtle dictu sumptas requirant, unde fit ut juris 

est, quantum opsonlorum una domua admlnistri plerumque nobilium posses- 

gingulis diebus absumat, sturnuntur cAones adquiraut, turn quod snmptuos^ 

mensas in omnes pene boras, cf^entibu8 yivant. et k mercatoribus absorbentur el 

•emper eduUls. Descrip. Britan. * Lib. splendidiflsim^ Testiantur, &o. 
li de rep. Oallorum; quod tot lites et 

Democntus to the Header, 147 

A second cause was their riot, they lived beyond their means, 
and were therefore swallowed up by merchants." (La Nove, 
a French writer, yields ^ve reasons of his countrymen's pov- 
erty, to the same effect almost, and thinks verily if the gentry 
of France were divided into ten parts, eight of them would 
be found much impaired, by sales, mortgages, and debts, or 
wholly sunk in their estates.) " The last was immoderate 
excess in apparel, which consumed their revenues." How 
this concerns and agrees with otir present state, look you. 
But of this elsewhere. As it is in a man's body, if either 
head, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, or any one part be mis- 
affected, all the rest suffer with it ; so is it with this econom- 
ical body. If the head be naught, a spendthrift, a drunkard, 
a whoremaster, a gamester, how shall the family live at ease ? 

* Ipsa si cupiat solus servare prorstis, non potest, hanc familr 
tarn, as Demea said in the comedy. Safety herself cannot 
save it. A good, honest, painful man many times hath a 
shrew to his wife ; a sickly, dishonest, slothful, foolish, careless 
woman to his mate ; a proud, peevish flirt ; a liquorish, prodi- 
gal quean, and by that means all goes to ruin ; or if they differ 
in nature, he is thrifty, she spends all ; he wise, she sottish and 
soft ; what agreement can there be ? what friendship ? Like 
that of the thrush and swallow in -^sop, instead of mutual 
love, kind compellations, whore and thief is heard, they fling 
stools at one another's heads. ^ Qute tnte?npenes vexat hanc 
familiam f All enforced marriages commonly produce such 
effects, or if on their behalfs it be well, as to live and agree 
lovingly together, they may have disobedient and unruly 
children, that take ill courses to disquiet them, ' " their son 
is a thief, a spendthrift, their daughter a whore ; " a step 

* mother, or a daughter-in-law, distempers all ; * or else for 
want of means, many torturers arise, debts, dues, fees, dowries, 
jointures, legacies to be paid, annuities issuing out, by means 
of which, they have not wherewithal to maintain themselves 

\ Ter. * Amphit. Plaut. * Paling, nunquam viTunt doe lite. '^ Bee an- 
nUoB aut ftir. * Catu8 oum mure, gnsta donJ. 

duo gain (dmul in eede, Et glotes binad 

148 JDemoentut to the Reader. 

in that pomp as their predecessors have done, bring up or 
bestow their children to their callings, to their birth and 
quality, ^and will not descend to their present fortunes. 
Oftentimes, too, to aggravate the rest, concur many other 
inconveniences, unthankful friends, decayed friends, bad 
neighbours, negligent servants, * iervi furaceSy versipeUes, cal- 
Udi, occhtsa nhi miUe claivihus reserant, Jurttmqtie ; raptcaUy 
coTisumunt, ligtmunt ; casualties, taxes, mulcts, chargeable 
offices, vain expenses, entertainments, loss of stock, enmities, 
emulations, frequent invitations, losses, suretyship, sickness, 
death of friends, and that which is the gulf of all, improvi- 
dence, ill husbandry, disorder and confusion, by which means 
they are drenched on a sudden in their estates, and at un- 
awares precipitated insensibly into an inextricable labyrinth 
of debts, cares, woes, want, grief, discontent, and melancholy 

I have done with families, and will now briefly run over 
some few sorts and conditions of men. The most secure, 
happy, jovial, and merry in the world's esteem are princes and 
great men, free from melancholy ; but for their cares, mis- 
eries, suspicions, jealousies, discontents, folly, and madness, I 
refer you to Xenophon^s Tyrannus, where king Hieron dis- 
courseth at large with Simonides the poet, of this subject. 
Of all others they are most troubled with perpetual fears, 
anxieties, insomuch that, as he said in * Valerius, if thou 
knewest with what cares and miseries this robe were stuffed, 
thou wouldst not stoop to take it up. Or put case they be 
secure and free from fears and discontents, yet they are void 
* of reason too ofl, and precipitate in their actions, read all 
our histories, quos de stuttis prodidere ttuUiy Blades, ^neides, 
Annales, and what is the subject ? 

" Stultonun regam, et populorum continet Astns." 

1 When pride and b^sgary meefc in a claps in the skies. * Plantiis Anlular 

ftmily, they roar and howl, and cause as > Lib. 7, cap. 6. * Pellitur in belUs sa 

many flashes of discoDtents, as lire and pientia, Tigeriturres. Vetus proTerbinmi 

water, when th^ concur, make thunder- aut regem aut Iktuum nasei oportei» 

Democritui to the Reader. 149 

The giddy tamnlts and the foolish rage 
Of kings and people. 

Ho'vr mad thej are, how furious, and upon small occasions, 
rash and inconsiderate in their proceedings, how they dote, 
every page almost will witness, 

^ delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi." 

When doting monarohs urge 

Unsound resolves, their subjects feel the scourge. 

Next in place, next in miseries and discontents, jn all man-' 
ner of hairbrain actions, are great men, procul d Jove, procul 
a Jtdmine, the nearer the worse. If they live in court, they 
are up and down, ebb and flow with their princes' favours, 
Jngenium vuUu statqtie caditque mo, now aloft, to-morrow 
down, as ^Folybius describes them, ^like so many casting 
counters, now of gold, to-morrow of silver, that vary in 
worth as the computant will ; now they stand for units, to- 
morrow for thousands ; now before all, and anon behind." 
Beside, they torment one another with mutual factions, emu- 
lations ; one is ambitious, another enamoured, a third in debt, 
a prodigal, overruns his fortunes, a fourth solicitous with 
cares, gets nothing, &c But for these men's discontents, 
anxieties, I refer you to Lucian's Tract, de mercede con* 
ductisy ^JEneas Sylvius (libidinis et stuUitice servos, he calls 
them), Agrippa, and many others. 

Of philosophers and scholars priscce saptentia dictatores, I 
have already spoken in general terms, those superintendents 
of wit and learning, men above men, those refined men, min- 
ions of the muses, • 

*" mentemque habere qudis bonam 
Et esse ^ooroulis datum est." 

'^ These acute and subtle sophisters, so much honoured, have 

1 Lib. 1. hist. Rom. Similes tot baoeu- Epid. lib. 1, o. 18. * Hoc cognomento 

lorum calculis, secundiim computantis cohonestatt RomsB, qui eeeteros mortales 

^ arbitrium, modd aerei sunt, mod6 aurei ; sapientiSL pmstarent, testis Plin. lib. 7, 

ad nutam regit* nunc beatl sunt nunc cap. 84. ^ Insanire parant certa rations 

miseri. * JSrumnosique Solones in Sa. modoque, mad by the book they, &«. 
8. De miser, ourialium. > F. Dousao 

150 Democritut to the Beader, 

as much need of hellebore as others. ^ O medici mediam 

pertundite venam. Read Lucian's Piscator, and teU how he 
esteemed them ; Agrippa's Tract of the vanity of Sciences ; 
naj, read their own works, their absurd tenets, prodigious 
paradoxes, et rtsum teneatis amicif Tou shall find that of 
Aristotle true, nunum magnum tngenium sine mtxtura de- 
mentia, thej have a worm as well as others ; you shall find a 
fantastical strain, a fustian, a bombast, a vainglorious humour, 
an affected style, &c, like a prominent thread in an uneven 
woven cloth, run parallel throughout their works. And they 
that teach wisdom, patience, meekness, are the veriest diz- 
zards, hairbrains, and most discontent * ^ In the multitude 
of wisdom is grief, and he that increaseth wisdom, increaseth 
sorrow." I need not quote mine author; they that laugh 
and contemn others, condemn the world of folly, deserve to 
be mocked, are as giddy-headed, and lie as open as any other. 
•Democritus, that common fiouter of folly, was ridiculous 
himself, barking Menippus, scoffing Lucian, satirical Lucilius, 
Petronius, Varro, Persius, &c., may be censured with the 
rest, Loripedem rectus dertdeat, ^thiopem aUms. Bale, 
Erasmus, Hospinian, Yives, Kemnisius, explode as a vast 
ocean of obs and sols, school divinity. * A labyrinth of in- 
tricable questions, unprofitable contentions, incredibilem deU- 
rationem, one calls it. If school divinity be so censured, 
subtilis ^^Scotus lima veritatis, Occam irrefragabilisy cu^us in- 
genium vetera omnia ingenia subvertit, S^c, Baconthrope, Dr. 
Resolutus, and Gorctdum Theologies, Thomas himself. Doctor 
• Seraphicus, cui dictavit Angelas, S^c. What shall become 
of humanity ? Ars stidta, what can* she plead ? What can 
her followers say for themselves ? Much learning, ^ cere- 
diminuit-hrum, hath cracked their sconce, and taken such 
root, that tribus Anticyris caput insanabUe, hellebore itself 
can do no good, nor that renowned ® lantern of Epictetus, by 

1 Jurenal. " Physicians ! open the < Vit. ejtis. T Ennins. 8 Lndan. 

middle yein." ^ Solomon. s Com- Ter mille drachmis olim empta; student 

munis irrisor stultitise. < Wit whither inde sapientiam adipiscetur 
wilt? 6 Scaliger exercitat. 824. 

152 Democritui to the Mecukr, 

BudsBus, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have dvfl 
law to be the tower of wisdom ; another honours physic, the 
quintessence of nature ; a third tumbles them both down, and 
sets up the flag of his own peculiar science. Your super- 
cilious critics, grammatical triflers, note-makers, curious anti- 
quaries, find out all the ruins of wit, ineptiarum delicictSy 
amongst the rubbish of old writers ; ^ Pro stuUis haherU nisi 
cMquid sufficiant inventre, quod in aliorum scriptis vertant 
vitio, all fools with them that cannot find fault ; thej correct 
others, and are hot in a cold cause, puzzle themselves to find 
out how many streets in Rome, houses, gates, towers. Ho- 
mer's country, -^neas's mother, Niobe's daughters, an Sap- 
pho pMica fiierit f ovum *prius extiterit an ^aUina ! S^.^ 
et alia qua dsdiscenda essent scire, si scireSy as * Seneca 
holds. What clothes the senators did wear in Home, what 
shoes, how they sat, where they went to the closestool, how 
many dishes in a mess, what sauce, which for the present for 
an historian to relate, * according to Lodovic Vives, is very 
ridiculous, is to them most precious elaborate stuff, they 
admired for it, and as proud, as triumphant in the mean 
time for this discovery, as if they had won a city, or con- 
quered a province ; as rich as if they had found a mine of 
gold ore. Quosvis atictores ahsurdis commentis suis per" 
cacant et stercorant, one saith, they bewray and daub a com- 
pany of books and good authors, with their absurd comments, 
correctorum sterquilinia * Scaliger calls them, and show their 
wit in censuring others, a company of foolish note-makers, 
bumblebees, dors, or beetles, inter stercora ut plurimum ver- 
santur, they rake over all those rubbish and dunghills, and 
prefer a manuscript many times before the Gospel itself, 
^thesaurum criticum, before any treasure, and with their 
deleaturs, alii legunt sic, mens codex sic hahety with their 
postremcB editiones, annotations, castigations, &c., make books 
dear, themselves ridiculous, and do nobody good, yet if any 

and dwell in the groTe of madness." oorrup. artinm. ^ Lib. 2, In Ausoninm, 
1 Moms Utop. lib. 11. s Bfacrob. Satnr. cap. 19 et 82. * Bdit. 7, yolum. Jano 
7,16. *£piAt. 16. « Lib. de eauBis Oatero. 

Democritus to the Rectder. 15d 

man dare oppose or ooDtradict, they are mad, up in arms 01: 
a sudden, how many sheets are written in defence, how bitter 
invectives, what apologies ? ^EpiphiUedes hce sunt ut mertB 
Tvug{B. But I dare say no more of, for, with, or against 
them, because I am liable to their lash as well as others. 
Of these and the rest of our artists and philosophers, I will 
generally conclude they are a kind of madmen, as ^ Seneca 
esteems of them, to make doubts and scruples, how to read 
them truly, to mend old authors, but will not mend their own 
lives, or teach us ingenia %anare^ memoriam offictorum in-- 
fferere, cujjidem in rebus humanis retinere, to keep our wits 
in order, or rectify our manners. Numquid ttbi demens vide- 
tur, si istis aperam impenderit f Is not he mad that draws 
lines with Archimedes, whilst his house is ransacked, and his 
city besieged, when the whole world is in combustion, or we 
whilst our souls are in danger, (mors sequitur^ vita fugit) to 
spend our time in toys, idle questions, and things of no 

That * lovers are mad, I think no man will deny, Armxre 
simul et sap&re, ipsi Jovi non datur, Jupiter himself cannot 
intend both at once. 

4 " Nod ben^ conveniunt, nee in unft sede morantnr 
Majestas et amor." 

TuUy, when he was invited to a second marriage, replied, 
he could not simul amare et sapere, be wise and love both 
together. ^Est orcus iUe, vis est immedicahilis, est rabies 
insana, love is madness, a hell, an incurable disease ; im- 
potentem et insanam libidinem ^ Seneca calls it, an impotent 
and raging lust I shall dilate this subject apart; in the 
mean time let lovers sigh out the rest. 

'Nevisanus the lawyer holds it for an axiom, "most 
women are fools," ' consilium fceminis invalidum ; Seneca, 

1 ArifltophsniB Ranis. * lib. de Amatorio est amor insanus. < Epist. 

bsneficiiB. * Delims et amens dicatnr 89. f SjIysb naptlalis. 1. 1, num. 11. 

amans. Hor. Seneca. ^Orid. Met Omnes muUeieB ut plorimmn stultas. 

'* Majesty and Lore do not agree well, * Aristotle. 
QOfr dwell together." * Plutarch. 

154 J)emocritU8 to the Reader, 

men, be they young or old ; who doubts it, youth is mad as 
Elius in Tully, Stulti adolesceniult, old age little better, delirt 
senes, S^c. Theophrastus, in the 107th year of his age, ^ said 
he then began to be wise, turn sapere ccepit, and therefore 
lamented his departure. If wisdom come so late, where 
shall we find a wise man ? Our old ones dote at threescore- 
and-ten. I would cite more proofs, and a better author, but 
for the present, let one fool point at another. ^ Nevisanus 
hath as hard an opinion of ' rich men, ^' wealth and wisdom 
cannot dwell together," sttdtitiam patiuntur opes, ^ and they 
do commonly * tnfaiuare cor homtnis, besot men ; and as we 
see it, " fools have fortune ; " * Sapientia non tnvenitur in 
terra suaviter viventium. For beside a natural contempt of 
learning, which accompanies such kind of men, innate idle- 
ness (for they will take no pains), and which 'Aristotle 
observes, tdd mens plurima, ibi minima fortuna, ubi phirima 
fortuna, ibi mens perexigiuz, great wealth and little wit go 
commonly together: they have as much brains some of 
them in their heads as in their heels; besides this inbred 
neglect of liberal sciences, and all arts, which should excolere 
mentem, polish the mind, they have most part some gullish 
humour or other, by which they are led ; one is an Epicure, 
an Atheist, a second a gamester, a third a whoremaster (fit 
subjects all for a satirist to work upon) ; 

8 " Hie nuptarum insanft amoribus, hie puerorum." 

One bums to madness for the wedded dame ; 
Unnatural lusts another's heart inflame. 

• one is mad of hawking, hunting, cocking ; another of carous- 
ing, horse-riding, spending ; a fourth of building, fighting, &c, 
Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo, Damasippus hath 

1 Dolere se dixit quod turn yita egred- & Fortuna nimium quem foyet, stultnin 

eretur. > Lib. 1, num. 11, sapieotis flusit. > Joh. 28. ' Mag. moral, lib. 

et divitisB Tix simul possideri poraunt. 2, et lib. 1, sat. 4. ^ Hor. lib. 1, sat. 4. 

* They get their wisdom by eating pie- 9 Insana ^la. insanie obstructiones, in- 

crust some * xphf^'^^ ^Off ^vrfTOLQ sanum yenandi studium discordia de« 

/iverai a(j>po(Jvvij. Opes quidem mor- mens. Virg. ^n. 
tolibus sunt amentia. Theognis. 

Democritus to the Reader, 155 

an humour of his own, to be talked of; ^Heliodorus the 
Carthaginian, another. In a word, as Scaliger concludes of 
them all, they are Statuce erectce stvMticB, the very statues or 
pillars of folly. Choose out of all stories him that hath been 
most admired, you shall still find, mtdta ad laitdem, rmdta ad 
vituperationem magnifica^ as ^ Berosus of Semiramis ; omnes 
mortales militia, triumphis, divitiis, S^c.^ turn et hucu, ctBde^ 
caterisgue vitiis antecessit, as she had some good, so had she 
many bad parts. 

Alexander, a worthy man, but furious in his anger, over- 
taken in drink ; Caesar and Scipio valiant and wise, but vain- 
glorious, ambitious; Vespasian a worthy prince, but covet- 
ous ; * Hannibal, as he had mighty virtues, so had he many 
vices ; unam virtutem miUe vitia comitarUur, as Machiavel of 
Cosmo de Medici, he had two distinct persons in him. I 
will determine of them all, they are like these double or 
turning pictures ; stand before which you see a fair maid, on 
the one side an ape, on the other an owl ; look upon them 
at the first sight, all is well, but further examine, you shall 
find them wise on the one side, and fools on the other ; in 
some few things praiseworthy, in the rest incomparably 
faulty. ^I will say nothing of their diseases, emulations, dis- 
contents, wants, and such miseries ; let poverty plead the 
rest in Aristophanes's Plutus. 

Covetous men, amongst others, are most mad, * They have 
all the symptoms of melancholy, fear, sadness, suspicion, &c, 
as shall be proved in its proper place. 

** Danda est Hellebori multo pars maxima avaris.*' 

Misers make Anticyra their own ; 
Its hellebore reserved for them alone. 

And yet methinks prodigals are much madder than they, 

1 Hellodoms CarthaglnieDsis ad ex- suspects. ^JAtj. Ingentes virtutes, 

tremum orbis sarcophago testamento me ingentia Tltla. < Hor. Qnisquis am- 

hic Jussi condier, et nt Tiderem an qnis bitione malSl aut argent! pallet amoro, 

Insanior ad me Tisendum usque ad haeo Qulsquis luxurlft, tristlque superstitiooo. 

loca penetraret. Ortelius in Ghtd. Per. 
* If it be his work, which Gkusper Veretus 

156 Demoentut to the Reader. 

he of what condition thej will, that bear a public or private 
purse ; as ' Dutch writer censured Richard the rich duke of 
Cornwall, suing to be emperor, for his profuse spending, 
qui ejfudit pecuniam ante pedeg principxum Stedorum sicai 
aquam, that scattered money like water ; I do censure them, 
Sitilta Anglia (^ith he) qua tot denariit tponte eit privaia, 
etuUi principei AUmania, tfui nobile Jut »uum pro peeumd 
vendideruTit ; spendthrifts, bribers, and bribe-takers are fools, 
and GO are ' all the; that cannot keep, disburse, or spend 
their moneys well. 

I might say the like of angry, peevish, envious, ambitious; 
■ Anticyra* melior lorhere meracat; Epicures, Atheists, Schis- 
matics, Heretics ; hi omnet haberU imaginationem latam (saith 
Nymannus) "and their madness shall be evident" 2 T^m. 
,iii. 9. * Fabatus, an Italian, holds seafaring men all mad; 
" the ship is mad, for it never stands still ; the mariners are 
mad, to expose themselves la such imminent dangers ; the 
waters ore raging mad, in perpetual motion ; the winds are 
as mad as the rest, they know not whence they come, whither 
they would go ; and those men are maddest of all that go to 
sea ; for one fool at home, they find forty abroad." He was 
a madman that said it, and thou peradventure as mad to read 
it * Fffllix Platetus is of opinion all alchemists are mad, out 
of their wila ; ' Atheneus saith as much of fiddlers, et mu$a- 
rum hacinias, ' Musicians, omnef tihiciTiet imaniunt ; wU 
temel efflant, avolat illico mens, in comes music at one ear, 
out goes wit at another. Proud and vainglorious persons 
are certainly mad ; and so are ' lascivious ; I can feel their 
pulses beat hither ; horn-mad some of them, to let others He 
with their wives, and wint at it 

To insist ■ in all particulars, were an Herculean task, to 

lCroidM8lBToiilHi«d»nniim]267, d6 item, 10 mni Inrsntt, Giiiiwr Em. 
cujuapnualojamlacndiuib (UurnDt. Ham. » Cup. 4e ftUea. mimtla. 

.....1. .... n ptHed. • DlpinMophlst. lib. B. ' Tibldnw 

Democritm to the Reader. 157 

* reckon up ^ insanas substructiories, insanos laboreSy insanum 
luxum, mad labours, mad books, endeavours, carriages, gross 
ignorance, ridiculous actions, absurd gestures ; insanam gulam, 
insaniam viRarum, insana jurgia, as Tully terms them, mad- 
ness of villages, stupend structures ; as those ^Egyptian Pyra- 
mids, Labyrinths and Sphinxes, which a company of crowned 
asses, ad ostentationem opum^ vainly built, when neither the 
architect nor king that made them, or to what use and pur- 
pose, are yet known ; to insist in their hypocrisy, inconstancy, 
"blindness, rashness, deinentem temeritaiemy fraud, cozenage, 
malice, anger, impudence, ingratitude, ambition, gross super- 
stition, ' tempora infecta et adulatione sordida, as in Tiberius's 
times, such base flattery, stupend, parasitical fawning and 
colloguing, &c^ brawls, conflicts, desires, contentions, it would 
ask an expert Vesalius to anatomize every member. Shall 
I say? Jupiter himself, Apollo, Mars, &c., doted; and 
monster-conquering Hercules that subdued the world, and 
helped others, could not relieve himself in this, but mad he 
was at last. And where shall a man walk, converse with 
whom, in what province, city, and not meet with Signior 
Deliro, or Hercules Furens, Maenades, and Corybantes? 
Their speeches say no less. * Efungis nati homines, or else 
they fetched their pedigree from those that were struck by 
Samson with the jawbone of an ass. Or from Deucalion 
and Pyrrha's stones, for durum genus sumus, ^marmorei 
sumus, we are stony-hearted, and savour too much of the 
stock, as if they had all heard that enchanted horn of Astol- 
pho, that English duke in Ariosto, which never sounded but 
all his auditors were mad, and for fear ready to make away 
with themselves ; * or landed in the mad haven in the Euxine 
sea of Daphnis insana, which had a secret quality to demen- 
tate ; they are a company of giddy-heads, afternoon men, it 

1 nterestinsaDiorhomm? Hot. Oyid. semiscnlpti. o Arianns periplo marifl 

inig. Plin. s Plin. lib. 86. « Taoi- Buxini portns ^ns meminit, et GilUus, 

tns 8. Animl. ^ Ovid. 7, met. E fUngis 1. 3, de Bosphor. Thracio et laums insana 

nati homfaMS ut oUm Gorlnthi primsBTl qu8S allata in conviTinm oonyiyas omnes 

illiua loci aocolse, quia stoHdiet &tiii fan- inaanUL affeeit. Quliel. Stucchins com- 

1^ nati dioebantur, idem et alibi dicas. ment., &o. 
* Famian. Strade de bajnlis, de marmore 

158 Democritus to the Reader. 

is Midsummer moon still, and the dogdays last all the year 
long, they are all mad. Whom shall I then except ? Ulricus 
Huttenus ^ nenu)^ nam nemo omnibus horis sapit, Nemo nasct- 
tur sine vitiisy Onmine Nemo caret, Nemo sorts sua vivit con- 
tentus, Nemo in amove sapit. Nemo bonus, Nemo sapiens, 
Nemo est ex omni parte beatus, S^c.,* and therefore Nich- 
olas Nemo, or Monsieur Nobody shall go free. Quid valeat 
nemo, Nemo referre potest f But whom shall I except in the 
second place ? such as are silent, vir sapit qui pauca loqui' 
tur ; *no better way to avoid folly and madness, than by 
taciturnity. Whom in a third? all senators, magistrates; 
for all fortunate men are wise, and conquerors valiant, and so 
are all great men, non est bonum ludere cum diis, they are 
wise by authority, good by their office and place, his licet 
impune pessimos esse (some say) we must not speak of them, 
neither is it ^t; per me sint omnia protinus alba, I will not 
think amiss of them. Whom next ? Stoics ? Sapiens 
Stoicus, and he alone is subject to no perturbations, as ' Plu- 
tarch scoffs at him, " he is not vexed with torments, or burnt 
with fire, foiled by his adversary, sold of his enemy ; though 
he be wrinkled, sand-blind, toothless, and deformed ; yet he 
is most beautiful, and like a god, a king in conceit, though not 
worth a groat." " He never dotes, never mad, never sad, 
drunk, because virtue cannot be taken away," as * Zeno holds, 
" by reason of strong apprehension," but he was mad to say 
so. ^ Anticyr€B ccdo huic est opus aut dolabrd, he had need 
to be bored, and so had all his fellows, as wise as they would 
seem to be. Chrysippus himself liberally grants them to be 
fools as well as others, at certain times, upon some occasions, 
amitti viriutem ait per ebrietatem, aut atribilarium morbum, it 

1 Lepidum poema slo inscriptam. tus. Etid mgosus, senez edentaiiu, 

* ** No one is wise at all hoars,— no one lusous, defbrmis, formoRus tamen, et deo 

born without &ults,— no one free from similis, felix, dives, rex nullius egens, 

crime, — no one content with his lot, — no etsi denario non sit diffn^B* * TLUua 

one in love wise, — no good, or wise man contendant honinJuri&afflci,noninsanl8L^ 

perfectly happy." s Stu]titiam simu- non inebriari, quia virtus non eripitur ob 

lare non potes nisi tacitumitate. > Ex- constantes oomprehensiones. Lips. phys. 

tortus non crudatur, ambustus non Stoic, lib. 8, diffl. 18. * 'Farreus Hebui 

laddltur, prostratus in lucta, non vinci- epig. 102, 1, 8. 
tor ; non fit captivuB ab hoste renunda- 

Democritus to the Reader. 159 

may be lost by drunkenness or melancholy, he may be some- 
times crazed as well as the rest ; ^ ad mmmum sapiens nisi 
quum pituita molestd, I should here except some Cynics, 
Menippus, Diogenes, that Theban Crates ; or to descend to 
these times, that omniscious, only wise fraternity ^ of the 
Rosicrucians, those great theologues, politicians, philosophers, 
physicians, philologers, artists, &c., of whom S. Bridget, 
Albas Joacchimus, Leicenbergius, and such divine spirits 
have prophesied, and made promise to the world, if at least 
there be any such (Hen. ' Neuhusius makes a doubt of it, 
* Yalentinus Andreas and others) or an Elias artifex their 
Theophrastian master; whom though Libavius and many 
deride and carp at, yet some will have to be " the * renewer 
of all arts and sciences," reformer of the world, and now liv- 
ing, for so Johannes Montanus Strigoniensis, that great patron 
of Paracelsus, contends, and certainly avers ® " a most divine 
man," and the quintessence of wisdom wheresoever he is ; for 
he, his fraternity, friends, &c., are all ^ " betrothed to wisdom," 
if w^e may believe their disciples and followers. I must needs 
except Lipsius and the Pope, and expunge their name out 
of the catalogue of fools. For besides that parasitical testi- 
mony of Dousa, 

" A Sole exoriente Mseotidas usque paludes, 
Nemo est qui justo se sequiparare queat." ^ 

Lipsius saith of himself, that he was ^ humani generis quidem 
pcedagogus voce et stylo, a grand signior, a master, a tutor of 
us all, and for thirteen years he brags how he sowed wisdom 
in the Low Countries, as Ammonius the philosopher some- 
times did in Alexandria, ^cum humanitate literas et sapien* 
tiafn cum prudentia : antistes sapientice, he shall be Sapientum 
Octavtis. The Pope is more than a man, as ^°his parats 

1 Hor. s Fratres sanct. Rosen crucis. ing Sun to the Maeotid Lake, there was 

8 An sint, quales sint, unde nomen ill ad not one that could &irly be put in com 

asciTerint. * Turri Babel. ^ Om- parison with them." 8 Solus hie est 

nimn artium et scientiarum instanrator. sapiens aUi yolitant yelut umbne. ^ In 

Divinus ille vir auctor notarum in epist. ep. ad Balthas. Moretum. lo Rc^ti- 

Rog. Bacon, ed. Hambur. 1008. f Sa- unculae ad Patavum. Felinus cum rell- 

plentin desponsati. * " From the Bis- quis. 

160 JDemocritus to the Reader. 

often make him, a demi-god, and besides his holiness cannot 
err, in CaihMrd belike ; and jet some of them have been 
magicians, Heretics, Atheists, children, and as Platina saitb 
of John 22. Etd vir Kteratus, mvUa stolidttcUem et kemtatem 
pra se ferentia egtt, stolidi et socordte vir ingenii, a scholar 
sufficient, jet many things he did foolishly, lightly. I can 
saj no more than in particular, but in general terms to the 
rest, they are all mad, their wits are evaporated, and as 
Ariosto feigns 1. 34, kept in jars above the moon. 

" Some lose their wits with lore, some with ambition, 
Some following ^ Lords an4 men of high condition. 
Some in fair jewels rich and costly set, 
Others in Poetry their wits forget, 
Another thinks to be an Alchemist, 
Till all be spent, and that his number*8 mist'* 

Convicted fools they are, mad men upon record ; and I am 
afraid past cure many of them, * crepunt inguina, the symp- 
toms are manifest, they are all of Gotam parish : 

S" Quum furor hand dnbius, qunm sit manifesta phrenesis,'* 
(Since madness is indispntable, since frenzy is obvions,) 

what remains then 'but to send for Lorarios, those officers 
to carry them all together for company to Bedlam, and set 
Rabelais to be their physician. 

If any man shall ask in the mean time, who I am that so 
boldly censure others, tu nuUane hahes vitiaf have I do 
faults? ^Yes, more than thou hast, whatsoever thou art. 
2^08 numerus sumus, I confess it again, I am as foolish, as 
mad as any one. 

*" Insanus vobis videor, non deprecor ipse, 
Quo minus insanus," 

I do not deny it, demens de populo demcUur, My comfort is, 

1 Magnum yirnm sequi est sapere, tage. * AUquantulum tamen inde me 

some think ; others OMipere. Catul. solabor, quod unk cum multis et sapien- 

* Plaut. Menec. s In Sat. 14. > Or tibus et oeleberrimifl Tiris ipse inslpiens 

to send for a cook to the Anticyrae to sim, quod se Menippus Luciani in Necyo 

make hellebore pottage, settle-brain pot- mantiia. ^ Petronius in Cataleet. 

Democritus to the Header. 161 

I have more fellows, and those of excellent note. And though 
I be not so right or so discreet as I should be, yet not so 
mad, so bad neither, as thou perhaps takest me to be. 

To conclude, this being granted, that all the world is 
melancholy, or mad, dotes, and every member of it, I have 
ended my task, and sufficiently illustrated that which I took 
upon me to demonstrate at first. At this present I have no 
more to say ; His sanam mentem Democritus, I can but wish 
myself and them a good physician, and all of us a better 

And although for the above-named reasons, I had a just 
cause to undertake this subject, to point at these particular 
species of dotage, that so men might acknowledge their im- 
perfections, and seek to reform what is amiss ; yet I have a 
more serious intent at this time ; and to omit all impertinent 
digressions, to say no more of such as are improperly melan- 
choly, x>r metaphorically mad, lightly mad, or in disposition, 
as stupid, angry, drunken, silly, sottish, sullen, proud, vain- 
glorious, ridiculous, beastly, peevish, obstinate, impudent, ex- 
travagant, dry, doting, duU, desperate, hairbrain, &c., mad, 
frantic, foolish, heteroclites, which no new ^ hospital can hold, 
no physic help; my purpose and endeavour is, in the fol- 
lowing discourse to anatomize this humour of melancholy, 
through all its parts and species, as it is an habit, or an ordi- 
nary disease, and that philosophically, medicinally, to show 
the causes, symptoms, and several cures of it, that it may be 
the better avoided. Moved thereunto for the generality of 
it, and to do good, it being a disease so frequent, as * Mercu- 
rial is observes, " in these our days ; so often happening," 
saith 'Laurentius, "in our miserable times," as few there 
are that feel not the smart of it. Of the same mind is ^lian 
Montalius, * Melancthon, and others ; • Julius Caesar Claudi- 
nus calls it the " fountain of all other diseases, and so com- 

1 That I mean of Andr. Vale. Apolog. s Consult. 98, adeo nostris temporibus 

xnanip. 1. 1 et 26, Apol. < Hsec affec- frequenter ingruit ut nullus fere ab ejus 

tio nontris temporibus frequentissima. labe immunis reperiatur et omnium ftre 

8 Gap. 15, de Mel. * De animo nostro merborum occasio existat. 

hoc sflBcuIo morbus firequentiasimus. 

VOL. I. 11 



162 ^ Democnius to the Header, 

mon in this crazed age of ours, that scarce one of a thousand 
is free from it;" and that splenetic hypochondriacal wind 
especially, which proceeds from the spleen and short ribs. 
Being then a dise^e so grievous, so conamon, I know not 
wherein to do a more general service, and spend my time 
better, than to presci*ibe means how to prevent and cure so 
universal a malady, an epidemical disease, that so often, so 
much crucifies the body and mind. 

If I have overshot myself in this which hath been hitherto 
said, or that it is, which I am sure some will object, too fan- 
tastical, " too light and comical for a Divine, too satirical for 
one of my profession," I will presume to answer with 
* Erasmus, in like case, 'tis not I, but Democritus, Democ- 
ritus dixit ; you must consider what it is to speak in one's 
own or another's person, an assumed habit and name ; a 
difference betwixt him that affects or acts a prince's, a phi- 
losopher's, a magistrate's, a fool's part, and him that is so 
indeed ; and what liberty those old satirists have had ; it is a 
cento collected from others ; not I, but they that say it 

2 " Dixero si quid forte jocosins, hoc mihi juris 
Cum venia dabis." 

Yet some indulgence I may justly claim, 
If too familiar with another*8 fame. 

Take heed, you mistake me not. If I do a little forget 
myself, I hope you will pardon it. And to say truth, why 
should any man be offended, or take exceptions at it ? 

" Licuit, semperque licebit, 
Parcere personis, dicere de vitiis.** 

It lawful was of old, and still will be, 

To speak of vice, but let the name go free. 

I hate their vices, not their persons. If any be displeased, 
or take aught unto himself, let him not expostulate or cavil 
with him that said it (so did ' Erasmus excuse himself to 

1 Hor. Encom. si quia calumnietur rindicet, non habet quod ezpoetulet cum 

levius esse quiun decet Theolognm, aut eo qui scripsit, ipse si yolet, secum agat 

mordacius quam deceat Ohristianum. injuriam, utpote sui proditor, qui deo> 

X Hor. Sat. 4, 1. 1. ^ Epi. ad Dorpium larayit hoc ad se proprie pertinare. 
de Moria. si quispiam^fbndatur et sibi 

Democritus to the Reader, 163 

Dorpius, si parva licet componere magms) and so do I ; "but 
let him be angry with himself, that so betrayed and opened 
his own faults in applying it to himself : ** * if he be guilty 
and deserve it, let him amend, whoever he is, and not be 
angry. " He that hateth correction is a fool," Pro v. xii. 1. 
If he be not guilty, it concerns him not ; it is not my freeness 
of speech, but a guilty conscience, a galled back of his own 
that makes him wince. 

'^ Suspicione si quis errabit suH, 
Et rapiet ad Be, quod erit commune omnium, 
Stult^ nudabit animi conscientiam." * 

I deny not this which I have said savours a little of Democ- 
ritus ; ^ Quamvis ridentem dicere verum quid vetcU ; one may 
speak in jest, and yet speak truth. It is somewhat tart, I 
grant it; acriora orexim excitant emhammata^ as he said, 
sharp sauces increase appetite, ' nee cibus ipse juvat morsu 
fraudatus aceti. Object then and cavil what thou wilt, I 
ward all with * Democritus's buckler, his medicine shall salve 
it; strike where thou wilt, and when; Democritus dixit, 
Democritus will answer it. It was written by an idle fellow, 
at idle times, about our Satumalian or Dyonisian feasts, when 
as he said, nvUum lihertaii perictdum est, servants in old Rome 
had liberty to say and do what them list. When our coun- 
trymen sacrificed to their goddess ^Vacuna, and sat tippling 
by their Vacunal fires, I writ this, and published this olrtf 
lA^yev, it is neminis nihil. The time, place, persons, and all 
circumstances apologize for me, and why may I not then be 
idle with others ? speak my mind freely ? If you deny me 
this liberty, upon these presumptions I will take it; I say 
again, I will take it. 

<* '* Si quis est qui dictum in se inclementius 
Existimavit esse, sic existimet.*' 

1 Si quia se liesum clamabit, aut con- hoe ictus Democriti pharmacos. > Kus- 
flcientiam prodit 8uain, aut certe metnin. ticorum dea preesse yacantibus et otiosia 
Phaedr. lib. 3. iBlsop. Fab. * If any pntabatnr, cui post labores agricola sac- 
one shall err through his own suspicion, riflcabat. Plin. 1. 8, c. 12. Ovid. 1. 6. 
and shall apply to himself what is com- Fast. Jam quoque cum flunt antiqusa 
mon to all, he will foolishly betray a con- sacra Vacunae, ante Vacunales stantque 
ciousness of guilt. * Hor. > Mart, sedentque focos. Rosiuus. * Ter. prol. 
I. 7, 22. * Ut lubet feriat, abstergant Eunuch. 

164 Democritui to the Reader, 

If any man take exceptions, let him turn the buckle of his 
girdle, I care not I owe thee nothing (Reader), I look for 
no favour at thy hands, I am independent, I fear not. 

No, I recant, I will not, I care, I fear, I confess my fault 
acknowledge a great offence, 

** motos prsBstat componere flactus.'* 
(let's first assuage the troabled waves.) 

I have overshot myself, I have spoken foolishly, rashly, un- 
advisedly, absurdly, I have anatomized mine own folly. And 
now methinks upon a sudden I am awaked as it were out of 
a dream ; I have had a raving fit, a fantastical fit, ranged up 
and down, in and out, I have insulted over the most kind of 
men, abused some, offended others, wronged myself; and 
•now being recovered, and perceiving mine error, cry with 
^ Orlando, Solvite me, pardon (o boni) that which is past, and 
I will make you amends in that which is to come; I promise 
you a more sober discourse in my following treatise. 

If through weakness, folly, passion, " discontent, ignorance, 
I have said amiss, let it be forgotten and forgiven. I ac- 
knowledge that of • Tacitus to be true, Asperm facetice ubi 
ntmis ex vero traxere, acrem sui memoriam relinquunt, a bitter 
jest leaves a sting behind it ; and as an honourable man ob- 
serves, * " They fear a satirist's wit, he their memories." I 
may justly suspect the worst; and though I hope I have 
wronged no man, yet in Medea's words I will crave pardon. 

" Illud jam voce extrema peto, 
Ne si qua noster dubius effudit dolor, 
Maneant in animo verba, sed melior tibi 
Memoria nostri subeat, base irsB data 
Obliterentur " 

And in my last words this I do desire, 
That what in passion I have said, or ire, 
May be forgotten, and a better mind 
Be had of us, hereafter as you find. 

1 Ariost. 1. 89. Staf. 58. ^ Ut enim ep. lib. 8. * Annal. 16. * Sir Pnn- 
ez stadiis gaudium, sic studia ex hilari- ds Bacon in his Essays, now ^laooontSt 
tate proTeniunt. PUnios Maximo suo, Albans. 

Democriius to the Header, 165 

I earnestlj request every private man, as Scaliger did Car- 
dan, not to take offence. I will conclude in his lines, Si me 
cognitum haberes, non solum donares nobis hasfacetias nostras^ 
sed eHam indignmn d^ereB,tam humane animum, lene .V 
ffenium, vel mintmam suspicionem deprecari oportere. If thou 
knewest my * modesty and simplicity, thou wouldst easily 
pardon and forgive what is here amiss, or by thee miscon- 
ceived. If hereafter anatomizing this surly humour, my 
hand slip, as an unskilful 'prentice I lance too deep, and cut 
through skin and all at unawares, make it smart, or cut awry, 
1 pardon a rude hand, an unskilful knife, 'tis a most difficult 
thing to keep an even tone, a perpetual tenor, and not some- 
times to lash out ; difficile est Satyram non scribere, there be 
so many objects to divert, inward perturbations to molest, and 
the very best may sometimes err ; cdiquando bonus dormitat 
JHomerus (sometimes that excellent Homer takes a nap), it 

is impossible not in so much to overshoot ; opere in longo 

fas est ohrepere somnum. But what needs all this ? I hope 
there will no such cause of offence be given ; if there be, 
^^Nemo aliquid recoffnoscat, nos mentimur omnia. I'll deny 
all (my last refuge), recant all, renounce all I have said, if 
any man except, and with as much facility excuse, as he can 
accuse ; but I presume of thy good favour, and gracious ac- 
ceptance (gentle reader). Out of an assured hope and con- 
fidence thereof, I will begin. 

* Qnod Probns Penii ptoypdipo^ Tir- ' Pral* qner. Plant. ** Let not any one 

ginaU Terecnndia Persium fuisse didt, take these things to himaelf, they are aU 

ego, &c. 1 Quas aut incnria fudit, ant «>"* fictions." 
hamana panun cayit natura. Hor. 



Tu vero cavesis edico quisqnis es, ne temere sugilles Auctorem hnjusee 
operis, aut cavillator irrideas. Imo ne vel ex aliorum consura tacite oblo- 
quaris (vis dicam verbo) ne quid nasutulus inepte improbes, aut falsofingaB. 
Nam si talis reverb sit, qualem prae se fert Junior Democritus^ seniori De- 
tnocrito saltern affinis, aut ejus Genium vel tantillum sapiat; actum de te, 
consorem aeque ac delatorem i aget e contra (petulanti splene cum sit)^ suf- 
flabit te in jocos, comminuet in sales, addo etiam, et deo iHsui te sacrifica- 

Iterum moneo, no quid cavillore, nedum Democritum Juniorem conviciis 
infames, aut ignominiose vitwperes, de te non male sentientem: tu idem 
audias ab amico cordato, quod olim vulgus Abderitanum ab ^Hippocrate^ 
concivem bone meritum et popularem suum Democritumy pro insane 
habens. Ne tu Derryocrite sapis^ stuHi autem et insani AbderitcB. 

s " AbderitansB pectora plebis habes.'' 

Hceo te paucis admonitum volo (mal6 feriate Lector), abi. 


Whoever you may be, I caution you against rashly defaming the au- 
thor of this work, or cavilling in jest against him. Nay, do not silently 
reproach him in consequence of others* censure, nor employ your wit in 
foolish disapproval, or false accusation. For, should Democritus Junior 
prove to be what he professes, even a kinsman of his elder namesake, or 
be ever so little of the same kidney, it is all over with you ; he will be- 
come both accuser and judge of you in your spleen, will dissipate you in 
jests, pulverize you into salt, and sacrifice you, I can promise you, to the 
god of Mirth. 

I further advise you, not to asperse, or calumniate, or slander, Democri- 
tus Junior, who possibly does not think ill of you, lest you may hear from 
some discreet friend, the same remark the people of 'Abdera did from Hip- 
pocrates, of their meritorious and popular fellow-citizen, whom they had 
looked on as a madman ; " It is not that you, Democritus, that art wise, 
but that the people of Abdera are fools and madmen." " You have your- 
self an Abderitian soul; " and having just given you, gentle reader, these 
few words of admonition, farewell. 

1 Si me commdrit, melius non tangere n^otium, sed rerum omnium reeeptacn- 

clamo. Hor. s Hippoo. epist. Dama- lum deprehendi,ejusque ingenium demi- 

geto. Acoenitus sum ut Democritum ratus sum. Abderitanos vero tanquam 

tanquam insanum curarem, sed post- non sanos accusavi, veratri potione ipsos 

quam conveni, non per Jovem desipientlsB potius eguisse dicens. > Mart. 

Heraclite fleas, misero sic convenit 89vo^ 

Nil nisi turpe vides, nil nisi triste Tides. 
Ride etiam, quantumque lubet, Democrite ride, 

Non nisi vana vides, non nisi stolta vides. 
Is fletu, hie risa modb gaudeat, unus utrique 

Sit licet usque labor, sit licet usque dolor. 
Nunc opus est (nam totus eheu jam desipit orbis) 

Mille Heraclitis, milleque Democritis. 
Nunc opus est (tanta est insa^ia) transeat omnis 

Mundus in Anticyras, gramen in Hellebomm. 

Weep, Heraclitus, it suits the age, 

Unless you see nothing base, nothing sad. 
Laugh, Democritus, as much as you please. 

Unless you see nothing either vain or foolish. 
Let one rejoice in smiles, the other in tears ; 

Let the same labour or pain be the office of both. 
Now (for alas! how foolish the world has become), 

A thousand Heraclitus', a thousand Democritus* are required. 
Now (so much does madness prevail), all the world must be 

Sent to Antioyra, to graze on Hellebore. 



In diseases, 
Sect. 1. 
Mtmb. 1. 

In which 

r Their 
Svbs. 1. 


Slmpul^ye; J Sin, concupiscence, &c. 
Of the body 

Subs. 2. 

Intemperance, all second causes, &o. 
Epidemical, as Plague, Plica, &o. 
aOO, which are | pa^ic^ig,,^ ^ (j^ut, Dropsy, &c. 

In disposition ; as all pertarbations, 
evil afEsction, &c. 


Of the head 
or mind. 


Habits, as 






Choreus sanpti Yiti. 


Possession or obsession of 

Melancholy. See HP- 
Its Equivocations, in Disposition, Improper, &c. Subsect. 6. 
Memb. 2. ^ontainedas j Humdur8.4. Blood, Phlegm,&c. 

J Spirits; vital, natural, animal. 

' C Similar; spermatical, or flesh, 

«/«n4>.t»t»« bones, nerves, &c. Subs. & 

L containing j jyiagtou;,. braiVi, heart, Uver, 

&c. Sid>s. 4. 


To its expli 

cation, a 


of anatomy, 1 Sitbs.2. 

in which 


parts of 

Subs. I. 

Subs. 5. 

Soul and its flMultles, S 1^^^}' ^*' « -r o 
fui "«w*M«», 1 Sensible. Subs. 6, 7, 8. 

^ i Rational. Subsect. 9, 10, 11. 

Memb. 8. 

Its definition, name, diflbrenoe. Subs. 1. 

The part and parties a£Eected, affieotation, &c. Subs. 2. 

The matter of melancholy, natural, unnatural, &o. Subs. 4. 

Species, or 
which are 

ProDAT f ^' **** head alone, Hy- 
*A »^. J pochondriacal, or windy 
*JP<»^.j melancholy. ' Of thV 
[ whole body. 
Indefinite; as Loye>melancholy, the subject of the third 

with thdr several 
causes, symptoms, 
prognostics, cures, 

Its Causes in general. Sect. 2. A. 

Its Symptoms or signs. Sect. 8. B. 
I Its Prognostics or indications. Sect. 4. 
(.Its cures; the suli|}ect of tiie second ParUtioD. 


SynopsiB of the First Partition, 

' Super- 

Sect. 2. 
Causes of 
are either 






As from God immediately, or by second eausee. &tbs. 1 
Or from the devil immediately, with a digresaion of th« 

nature of spirits and devils. Subs. 2. 
Or mediately, by magicians, witches. Subs. 8. 

Primary, as stars, proved by aphorisms, signs from 
physiogaomy, metopoaoopy, chiromancy. Subs. 4. 

Congenite, t Old age, temperament. Subs. 6. 
inward < Parents, it being an hereditary dis- 
from < ease. Subs. 6 

Neoeesary, see ^ . 

' Nurses, Subs. 1. 
Education, S. 2. 
Terrors, amnghta, 

Subs. 8. 

bitter jests, SA. 
Loss of liberty, 

servitude, im- 

prisonm't, 5.6. 
Poverty and 

want, Sidfs. 6. 
A heap of other 

accidents , death 

<^ friends, loss, 






remote, ad- 

or adven- 
which are 


inward, an- 
Memb. 6. 
Sect. 2. 





(c. Si^. 7. 

Particular to the three species. See n. 

which the body 
works on the mind, 
and this malady is 
caused by precedent 
diseases; aa agues, 
pox, &c. or tempera- 
ture innate, Subs.l. 
Or by particular parts 
distempered, as 
brain, heart, spleen, 
Ilver,mesentery, py- 
lorus, stomach, &o. 
Subs. 2. 

rOf head Mel- 
ancholy are, 
Subs. "2. 


Sect. 2. 

Of hypochon- 
driacal, or 
windy Melan- 
choly are. 

Over all the 
body are, 
Subs. 6. 



' Inward 




' Innate humour, or from distemperature 

A hot brain, corrupted blood in the bndn. 
Excess of venery, or defect. 
Agues, or some precedent disease. 
Fumes arising from the stomach, &c. 

' Heat of the sun immoderate. 
A blow on the head. 
Overmuch use of hot wines, spices, garlic, 

oaions,hot bath8,overmuoh waking, &c. 
Idleness, solitarix^ggj^^ or overmuch study, 

vehement Tal>our, &c. 
Passions, perturbations, &c. 

Default of spleen, belly, bowels, stomach, 
mesentery, miseraic veins, liver, &o. 

Months or hemorrhoids stopped, or any 
^ other ordinary evacuation. 
- Those six non-natural things abused. 

I Liver distempered, stopped, over^iiot, apt 
^ to engender melancholy, temperature 
( innate. 

{Bad diet, suppression of hemorrhoids, 
&c., and such evacuations, passions, 
cares, &c., those six non-natund things 

■ iiMnnrii¥i 


Synopsis of the First Partition. 



Sect. 2. 



toms of 
SeU. 8. 

f Sub- 


ing in 


r Bread; coarse and black, Apo. 
Drink ; thick, thin, sour, &c. 
Water unclean, milk, oil, Tinegar, wine, sp ces, &c. 

' Parts; heads, feet, entrails, tat, baccn,blood, &o 



Kinds [ ^^^^ "^^^^ TeniBon, hares, goats, pig- 

' ( eons, peacocks, fen-fowl, &c. 
Of fish; all shell-fish, hard and sUmy fish, &c. 
Of herbs; pulse, cabbage, melons, garlic, 
onions, &c. 
\ All roots, raw fruits, hard and windy meats. 
( Preparing, dressing, sharp sauces, salt meats, indurate, 


ty,a3in ( soused, fried, broiled, or made dishes, &c. 



Memb. 3, Sect 
P.tssiona and 
the mind. 
Subs. 2. With 
a digression of 
the force of 
Subs. 2, and di- 
Tision of passions 
. into. Subs. 8. 




(hian- ^ ^^oi^<lei^ ii^ eating, immoderate eating, or at unseason- 
^i. < able times, &c., Subs. 2. 
^ ^' (Custom; delight, appetite, altered, &c., Sttft*. 8. 
Retention and r Oostireness, hot baths, sweating, issues stopped, 
evacuation, I Venus in excess, or in defect, phlebotomy, purging, 
Subs. 4. ( &c. 

Air; hot, cold, tempestuous, dark, thick, foggy, moorish, &c.. Subs. 6. 
Bxerciae, ( Unseasonable, excessive, or detective, of body or mind, soUto- 
Sub^ fi. \ maess, idleness, a Ufe out of afction, &c. ■ " * ' ^ ' 

Sleep and wakmg^unseasonaole, inordinate,overmuch, overlittle,&c.5'u65.7. 

Sorrow, cause and symptom, Subs. 4. Fear, 
cause and symptom, Subs. 5. Shame, re- 
pulse, disgrace, &c.. Subs. 6. Envy and 
malice, Subs. 7. Emulation, hatred, fac- 
tion, desire of revenge. Subs. 8 Anger a 
cause, Subs. 9. Discontents, cares, miser* 
ies, &c.. Subs. 10. 
Vehement desires, ambition. Subs. 11. Cor- 
etousness, ^tXapyvplaVj Subs. 12. Love 
of pleasures, gaming in excess, &c., Subs. 
13. Desire of praise, pride, vainglory, &c., 
Subs. 14. Love of learning, study in ex- 
cess, with a digression of the misery of 
scholars, and why the muses are melan- 
choly. Subs. 15. 

Body, as ill digestion, crudity, wind, dry brains, hard belly, thick blood, 

much waking, heaviness and palpitation of heart, leaping in many 

places, &c.. Subs. 1. 

Common ( Fear and sorrow without a just cause, suspicion Jealousy, 

to all or { discontent, solitariness, irksomeness, continual cogita- 

most. ( tions, restless thoughts,vain imaginations, &c., 5^9.2. 

' Celestial influences, aa ^i 14. (f, 8tc., parts of the body, 

heartj brain, spleen, stomach, &c. 

' Sanguine are merry still, laughing, pleasant, 
meditating on plays, women, music, &c. 
Phlegmatic, slothful, dull, heavy, &o. 
■( Choleric, furious, impatient, subject to hear 
and see strange apparitions. &c. 
Black, solitary, sad ; they think they are be- 






lar to 
ing to 


witched, dead, &c. 

Or mixed of these four humours adust, or not adust, 
infinitely varied, &c. 

Their several 
customs, con 
ditions, incli 
nations, disci 
pline, &c. 

of time as the 
humour is in- 
tended or re- 
mitted, 80c. 

' Ambitious, thinks himself a king,a lord ; 
covetous,runs on his money; lascivious, 
on his mistress ; religious, hath revela- 
tions, visions, is a prophet, or troubled 
in mind ; a scholar, on his book, &ic. 
Pleasant at fir8t,hardly discerned ; after- 
wards harsh & intolerable, if inveterate. 

1. Falsa cogitatio. 

2. Cogitata loqui. 
8. Exequi loquutum. 

By fits, or continuate, as the object 
. V varies,. pleasing or diipleasing. 

Simple, or as it is mixed with other diseases, apoplexies, gout, taniwu 
appetituSj &c., so the symptoms are various. 

Hence some make 
three degrees. 


Synopns of the First Partitiaiu 

gymptoms to 
the three dis- 
tinct species. 
Sect. 8. 

Head mel- 






cal or 




Subs. 2. 

OTer all 
the body. 
Subs. 8. 

fin body 


In mind. 

In mind. 


of melancholy. ' 

' Headache, binding and heaTiness, Tertigo, 

lightness, singing of the ears, mndi 

In body ■{ waking, fixed eyes, high colour, red eyes. 

hard belly, dry body ; no great sign of 

melancholy in the othw parts. 

' Oontinnai fiaar, sorrow, suspicion, disoon- 

tent, superfluous cares, solicitude, anzie* 

In mind. •{ tJt perpetual cogitation of such toys ib&j 

are possessed with, thoughts like dreamS| 


Wind, rumbling in the guts, bellyache, heat 
in the bowelSjConTulsions.crucUties, short 
wind, sour and sharp oelchings, cold 
sweat, pain in the left side, suffocation, 
palpitation, heaTiness of the beart,8iDging 
in the ears, much spittle, and moist, &c 

( Fearful, sad, suspicious, discontent, anzie- 
J ty, fcc. LasciTious by reason of much 
* 1 wind, troublesome dreams, affected by 
I fits, ke. 

iwwi ( Black, most part lean, broad Teins, gross, 
In body ) thick blood, their hemorrhoids common- 
C ly stopped, Jbc. 

{ Fearfhl, sad, solitary, hate light, arerse 
I firom company, fearful dreams, &c. 

Symptoms of nuns', maids', and widows' melancholy, in body and 
mind, fro. 

Why Chey are so fearftd, sad, suspicious without a 
cause, why solitary, why melancholy men are witty, 
why they suppose tney hear and see strange Toioes, 
Tisions, appuitions. 

Why they prophesy, and speak strange languages; 
whence comes their crudity, rumbling, convulsions, 
cold sweat, heaTiness of heart, palpitation, cardiaca, 
ftaitul dreams, much waking, prodigious fiintasies. 

' Morphew, scabs, itch, breaking out, &e. 

Black Jaundice. 

If the hemorrhoids voluntarily open. 
, If Tarices appear. 

' Leanness, dryness, hollow-eyed, &c. 
Inyeterate melancnoly is incurable. 
If cold, it degenerates often into epilepsy, 

apoplexy, dotage, or into blindness. 
If hot« into madness, despair, and violent 

The grieyousness of this aboTe all other 

The diseases of the mind are more grievous 
than those of the body. 

Whether it be lawful, in this case of mel- 
ancholy, for a man to o£for violence to 
himself. Neg. 

How a melancholy or mad man offering 
violence to himself, is to be censured 

A reason 
of these 
Misfnb. 8* 

Tending to good, as 

Tending to evil, as 


and qnes- 

p^ » ■ 



MarCs Excellency, FaE, Miseries, Infirmities ; The causes of 


Mans Excellency. "] Man, the most excellent and noble 
creature of the world, " the principal and mighty work of 
God, wonder of nature," as Zoroaster calls him ; audads 
naturcB miraculum, " the ^ marvel of marvels," as Plato ; 
" the ^ abridgment and epitome of the world," as Pliny ; 
Microcosmus, a little world, a model of the world, 'sover- 
eign lord of the fearth, viceroy of the world, sole commander 
and governor of all the creatures in it ; to whose empire they 
are subject in particular, and yield obedience ; far surpassing 
all the rest, not in body only, but in soul ; * Imaginis Imago, 
' created to God's own * image, to that immortal and incor- 
poreal substance, with all the faculties and powers belonging 
unto it ; was at first pure, divine, perfect, happy, ' " created 
aft^r God in true holiness and righteousness ; " Deo con- 
gruens, free fix)m all manner of infirmities, and put in Para- 
dise to know God, to praise and glorify him, to do his will, 

1 Ma^um miraculam. > Mnndi imago, sio In homfne Dei. > Oen. 1. 

epitome, naturae dellcias. > F}n{g remm > Imago mnndi in corpore, Dei in anima. 

omnium, cni sublanaria serviunt. Seal- Exemplumque del quiRqu^ est in imagine 

Ig. exercit. 886, sec. 8. Vales, de sacr. parya. ' JB^h. iv. 24. 
niil. c. 6. ^ XTt in numismate Caesaris 

174 Diseases in General, [Part. I. sec. i. 

Ut diis constmiles parturiat deos (as an old poet saith) to 
propagate the church. 

MarCs FaR and 3Iisert/.'] But this most noble creature, 
Jleu tristis, et hchrymosa commtUatio (^ one exclaims) O piti- 
ful change ! is fallen from that he was, and forfeited his 
estate, become miserahilis hamuncio, a cast-away, a caitiff, 
one of the most miserable creatures of the world, if he be 
considered in his own nature, an unregenerate man, and so 
much obscured by his fall that (some few relics excepted) 
he is inferior to a beast, ^ " Man in honour that understandeth 
not, is like unto beasts that perish," so David esteems him ; 
a monster by stupend metamorphosis, • a fox, a dog, a hog, 
what not ? Qiumium mutatus ah illo f How much altered 
fix)m that he was ; before blessed and happy, now miserable 
and accursed ; * ** He must eat his meat in sorrow," subject 
to death and all manner of infirmities, all kind of calamities. 

A Description of Melancholy,"] * " Great travail is created 
for all men, and an heavy yoke on the sons of Adam, from 
the day that they go out of their mother's womb, unto that 
day they return to the mother of all things. Namely, their 
thoughts, and fear of their hearts, and their imagination of 
things they wait for, and the day of death. From him that 
sitteth in the glorious throne, to him that sitteth beneath in 
the earth and ashes ; from him that is clothed in blue silk 
and weareth a crown, to him that is clothed in simple linen. 
Wrath, envy, trouble, and unquietness, and fear of death, and 
rigour, and strife, and such things come to both man and 
beast, but sevenfold to the ungodly." All this befalls him 
in this life, and peradventure eternal misery in the life to 

Impulsive Cause of Man*s Misery and Infirmities.] The 
impulsive cause of these miseries in Man, this privation of 
destruction of God's image, the cause of death and diseases, 
of all temporal and eternal punishments, was the sin of our 

1 Palanterins. s Psal. xllx. 20. Ohrjs. 28, 0«n. « Oen. iii. 18. 8 Bo- 

* LascivUl Buperat equum, impudenti& clus. iv. 1, 2, 8, 4, 5, 8- 
eanem, astu yulpem, fiirore leonem. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Diseases in General, 175 

first parent Adam, ^ in eating of the forbidden fruit, by the 
devil's instigation and allurement. His disobedience, pride, 
ambition, intemperance, incredulity, curiosity ; from whence 
proceeded original sin, and that general corruption of man- 
kind, as from a fountain flowed all bad inclinations and actual 
transgressions which cause our several calamities inflicted 
upon us for our sins. And this belike is that which our 
fabulous poets have shadowed unto us in the tale of ^ Pan- 
dora's box, which being opened through her curiosity, filled 
the world full of all manner of diseases. It is not curiosity 
alone, but those other crying sins of ours, which pull these 
several plagues and miseries upon our heads. For Ubi peC" 
catum, ibi proceUa, as * Chrysostom well observes. ^ " Fools 
by reason of their transgression, and because of their iniqui- 
ties, are afflicted. ^ Fear cometh like sudden desolation, and 
destruction like a whirlwind, affliction and anguish," because 
they did not fear God, ^ " Are you shaken with wars ? " as 
Cyprian well urgeth to Demetrius, " are you molested with 
dearth and famine ? is your health crushed with raging dis- 
eases ? is mankind generally tormented with epidemical mal- 
adies ? 'tis all for your sins," Hag. i. 9, 10 ; Amos i. ; Jer. 
vii. God is angry, punisheth and threateneth, because of 
their obstinacy and stubbornness, they will not turn unto 
him. ^ " If the earth be barren then for want of rain, if dry 
and squalid, it yield no fruit, if your fountains be dried up, 
your wine, corn, and oil blasted, if the air be corrupted, and 
men troubled with diseases, 'tis by reason of their sins ; " 
which like the blood of Abel cry loud to Heaven for ven- 
geance. Lam. V. 15.* " That we have sinned, therefore our 
hearts are heavy," Isa. lix. 11, 12. "We roar like bears, 
and mourn like doves, and want health, &c., for our sins and 

1 Gen. iii. 17. ^ Ilia cadens tegmen fhingitur, qTi6d humanum genuR lois 

manibus decussit, et una perniciem im- populatione Tastatur; ob peccatum om- 

misit miseris mortalibus atram. Hesiod. nia. Cypr. 7 Si laro desuper pluvia 

1, oper. 3 Horn. 5, ad pop. Antioch. descendat, si terra situ pulyeris squalleat, 

* Pgal. cvii. 17. * Pro. 1. 27. « Quod si vix jejunaa et pallidas herbas sterilis 

autem crebrlus bella concutiant, qudd gleba producat, si turbo yineam debilitet, 

sterilitas et fames solicitudinem cumu- &c. Cypr. 
lent, qu6d Bseyientibos morbis yaletudo 

176 IXsecues tn GeneraL [Part I. see. ]. 

trespasses." But this we cannot endure to hear or to take 
notice of, Jer. ii. 30, " We are snutt^n in vain and receive 
no correction ; " and cap. v. 8. ^ Thou hast stricken them, 
but they have not sorrowed ; they have refused to receive 
correction ; they have not returned. Pestilence he hath sent, 
but they have not turned to him," Amos iv. * Herod could 
not abide John Baptist, nor ^ Domitian endure ApoUonius to 
tell the causes of the plague at Ephesus, his injustice, incest, 
adultery, and the like. 

To punish therefore this blindness and obstinacy of ours as 
a concomitant cause and principal agent, is God's just judg- 
ment in bringing these calamities upon us, to chastise us, I 
say, for our sins, and to satisfy Grod's wrath. For the law 
requires obedience or punishment, as you may read at large, 
Deut. xxviii. 15. ^^ If they will not obey the Lord, and keep 
his commandments and ordinances, then all these curses shall 
come upon them. ' Cursed in the town and in the field, &c. 
* Cursed in the fruit of the body, &c • The Lord shall send 
thee trouble and shame, because of thy wickedness." And a 
little afler, • " The Lord shall smite thee with the botch of 
Egypt, and with emrods, and scab, and itch, and thou canst 
not be healed. ^With madness, blindness, and astonishing 
of heart." This Paul seconds, Rom. ii. 9, " Tribulation and 
anguish on the soul of every man that doth evil." Or else 
these chastisements are inflicted upon us for our humiliation, 
to exercise and try our patience here in this life, to bring us 
home, to make us to know Grod ourselves, to inform and 
teach us wisdom. • " Therefore is my people gone into 
captivity, because they had no knowledge ; therefore is the 
wrath of the Lord kindled against his people, and he hath 
stretched out his hand upon them." He is desirous of our 
salvation. ^J^ostra scdiUis avidus, saith Lemnius, and for 
that cause pulls us by the ear many times, to put us in mind 

lUat. xSt. 8. s PhilostratuB, lib. 8, Deus quos dillglt, oantigat. siga. t.18, 

Tit. ApoUonii. Iz^xutitiam ^us, et scele- Term 16. * Nostne ndatis afidiu cod- 

ratas nuptias, et catera qxm pneter ra- tinenter aures Telicat, ac calamitate su- 

tionem feoerat, morborom oatuaa dixit, binde nos ezeroet. Levinus Lemn. 1 2, 

»16. «18. »aO. •VerM27. 7 28. e. 29, de ooonlt. nat. mir. 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Diseases in General* 111 

of our duties : " That they which erred might have under- 
standing, (as Isaiah speaks xxix. 21,) and so to be reformed.* 
I am afflicted, and at the point of death,'' so David confess* 
eth, of himself, Psahn Ixxxviii. 9, 15. " Mine eyes are 
sorrowful through mine affliction ; " and that made him turn 
unto Grod. Great Alexander in the midst of all his pros- 
perity, by a company of parasites deified, and now made a 
god, when he saw one of his wounds bleed, remembered that 
he was but a man, and remitted of his pride. In morbo recoU 
Ugit sv animus^ as ^ Pliny well perceived ; " In sickness the 
mind reflects upon itself, with judgment surveys itself, and 
abhors its former courses ; " insomuch that he concludes to 
his friend Marius, ^ " that it were the period of all philosophy, 
if we could so continue, sound, or perform but a part of that 
which we promised to do, being sick." Whoso is wise then, 
will consider these things, as David did (Psal. cxliv., verse 
last) ; and whatsoever fortune befall him, make use of it. If 
he be in sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity, seri- 
ously to recount with himself, why this or that malady, mis- 
ery, this or that incurable disease is inflicted upon him ; it 
may be for his good, ^ sic expedite as Peter said of his daugh- 
ter's ague. Podily sickness is for his soul's health, periisset 
nisi periisset, had he not been visited, he had utterly per- 
ished ; for * " the Lord correcteth him whom he loveth, even 
as a father doth his child in whom he delighteth." If he be 
safe and sound on the other side, and free from all manner of 
infirmity ; ^ et cui 

" Gratia, forma, valetndo contingat abnnd^ 
Et mnndua victus, non deficiente crumenft." 

" And that he have grace, beauty, favour, health, 
A cleanly diet, and abound in wealth/* 

Yet in the midst of his prosperity, let him remember that 

* Vezado d&t intellectum. Isa. xzriii. languoris non sum memor hnjus araoiis. 

19. In sickness the mind recollects itself. 3 Summum esse totins philosophise, ut 

1 lib. 7. Cum jttdicio, mores et' fkcta re- tales esse perseTeremus. quales nos Aitu- 

oognoscit et se intuetar. Dum fero Ian- ros ense infirm! profitemur. * Petrarch, 

gnorem, fero religionis amonm. Expen * Prov. ill. 12. ^ Hor. Epis. lib. 1, 4. 

VOL. I. 12 

178 Diseases in General. [Part. I. sec. 1. 

caveat of Moses, ^ ^' Beware that he do not forget the Lord 
his God ; " that he be DOt puffed up, but acknowledge them 
to be his good gifts and benefits, aQd * " the more he hath, to 
be more thankful," (as Agapetianus adviseth) and use them 

Instrumental Causes of our InJirmitiesJ] Now the instru- 
mental causes of these our infirmities, are as diverse as the 
infirmities themselves ; stars, heavens, elements, &c. And 
all those creatures which Grod hath made, are armed against 
sinners. They were indeed once good in themselves, and 
that they are now many of them pernicious unto us, is not in 
their nature, but our corruption, which hath caused it. For 
from the fall of our first parent Adam, they have been 
changed, the earth accursed, the influence of stars altered, 
the four elements, beasts, birds, plants, are now ready to 
offend us. " The principal things for the use of man, are 
water, fire, iron, salt, meal, wheat, honey, milk, oil, wine, 
clothing, good to the godly, to the sinners turned to evil," 
Ecclus. xxxix. 26. '^ Fire, and hail, and famine, and dearth, 
all these are created for vengeance," Ecclus. xxxix. 29. The 
heavens threaten us with their comets, stars, planets, with 
their great conjunctions, eclipses, oppositions, quartiles, and 
such unfriendly aspects. The air with his meteors, thunder 
and lightning, intemperate heat and cold, mighty winds, tem- 
pests, unseasonable weather; from which proceed dearth, 
famine, plague, and all sorts of epidemical diseases, consum- 
ing infinite myriads of men. At Cairo in Egypt, every third 
year, (as it is related by ^ Boterus, and others) 300,000 die 
of the plague ; and 200,000, in Constantinople, every fifth 
or seventh at the utmost How doth the earth terrify and 
oppress us with terrible earthquakes, which are most fre- 
quent in * China, Japan, and those eastern climes, swallowing 
up sometimes six cities at once ? How doth the water rage 
with his inundations, irruptions, flinging down towns, cities, 

1 Deut. Tiii. 11. Qui stat yideat ne debitorem fiiteri. > Boterus de Inst, 

eadat. * Quanto nuOo^^us benelBoiis urbium. * Lege hist, relationem Lod. 
a Deo oomulatur, tanto obligatiorem se Frois de rebus Japonicis ad annum 1696* 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Diseases in General* 179 

villages, bridges, &c., besides shipwrecks ; whole islands are 
Bometimes suddenly overwhelmed with all their inhabitants 
in ^ Zealand, Holland, and many parts of the continent 
drowned, as the ^ lake Erne in Ireland ? • Nihilque prceter 
arcium cadavera patenti cemimus freto. In the fens of 
Friesland 1 230, by reason of tempests, * the sea drowned 
mtdta hominum millia, et jumenta»sine numero, all the coun- 
try almost, men and cattle in it. How doth the fire rage, 
that merciless element, consuming in an instant whole cities ? 
What town of any antiquity or note hath not been once, 
again and again, by the fury of this merciless element, de- 
faced, ruinated, and lefl desolate ? In a word, 

'^ '* Ignis pepercit, unda mergit, aeris 
Vis pestilentis sequori ereptam necat, 
Bello superstes, tabidus morbo perit.'* 

^ Whom fire spares, sea doth drown; whom sea, 
Pestilent air doth send to clay ; 
Whom war *scapes, sickness takies away.*' 

To descend to more particulars, how many creatures are 
at deadly feud with men ? Lions, wolves, bears, &c. Some 
with hoofs, horns, tusks, teeth, nails; How many noxious 
serpents and venomous creatures, ready to offend us with 
stings, breath, sight, or quite kill us ? How many pernicious 
fishes, plants, gums, fruits, seeds, flowers, &c., could I reckon 
up on a sudden, which by their very smell many of them, 
touch, taste, cause some grievous malady, if not death itself? 
Some make mention of a thousand several poisons ; but these 
are but trifles in respect. The greatest enemy to man, is 
man, who by the devil's instigation is still ready to do mis- 
chief, his own executioner, a wolf, a devil to himself, and 
others. * We are all brethren in Christ, or at least should 
be, members of one body, servants of one Lord, and yet no 
fiend can so torment, insult over, tyrannize, vex, as one man 

1 Guiociard. descript. Belg. anno 1^1. the open sea. * Munster. 1. 8. Cos. 

• OfaralduR Cambrens. > Janus Dousa, cap. 462. < Buchanan. Baptist. 

•p. lib. 1, car. 10. And we percdre noth- * Homo homini lupus, homo h<nninl dm* 

ing, except the dead bodies of cities in mon. 

180 Disetues in General [Part I. seo. 1 

doth another. Let me not faQ therefore (saith David, when 
wars, plague, famine were offered) into the hands of men, 
merciless and wicked men : 

* ^ Vix sunt homines hoc nomine digni, 
Qn&mqne Inpi, ssbysb plus feritatis habent.** 

We can most part foresee these epidemical diseases, and 
likely avoid them ; Dearths^ tempests, plagnes, oar astrologers 
foretell us ; Earthquakes, inundations, ruins of houses, con- 
suming fires, come by little and little, or make some noise 
beforehand ; but the knaveries, impostures, injuries and vil- 
lanies of men no art can avoid. We can keep our professed 
enemies from our cities, by gates, walls, and towers, defend 
ourselves from thieves and robbers by watchfulness and 
weapons ; but this malice of men, and their pernicious en- 
deavours, no caution can divert, no vigilancy foresee, we 
have so many secret plots and devices, to mischief one 

Sometimes by the devil's help as magicians, * witches: 
sometimes by impostures, mixtures, poisons, stratagems, sin- 
gle combats, wars, we hack and hew, as if we were cui inter- 
necianem nati, like Cadmus's soldiers bom to consume one 
another. ' Tis an ordinary thing to read of a hundred and 
two hundred thousand men slain in a battle. Besides all 
manner of tortures, brazen bulls, racks, wheels, strappadoes, 
guns, engines, &c. ^ Ad unum corpus humanum suppUcia 
plura, quam membra : We have invented more torturing in- 
struments than there be several members in a man's body, 
as Cyprian well observes. To come neaxer yet, our own 
parents by their offences, indiscretion and intemperance, are 
our mortal enemies. ' " The fathers have eaten sour grapes, 
and the children's teeth are set on edge." They cause our 
grief many times, and put upon us hereditary diseases, inevi- 
table infirmities ; they torment us, and we are ready to injure 
our posterity; 

• Ovid, de Trist. 1. 6, Eleg. 8. i Miacent aconita noveroas. * Lib. % Ipist 

2j ad Donatum. > Esech. xriii. 2. 


Hem. 1, snbs. 1.] Diseases in GenerciL 181 

I " mox daturi progeniem vitiosiorem.'^ 

^ And jet with crimes to ns unknown, 
Our sons shall mark the coming age their own." 

and the latter end of the world, as ^ Paul foretold, is still 
like to be the worst. We are thus bad by nature, bad by 
kind, but far worse by art, every man the greatest enemy 
unto himself. We study many times to undo ourselves, 
abusing those good gifts which God hath bestowed upon us, 
health, wealth, strength, wit, learning, art, memory to our 
own destruction, ' Perditio tua ex te. As * Judas Maccabeus 
killed Apollonius with his own weapons, we arm ourselves 
to our own overthrows ; and use reason, art, judgment, all 
that should help us, as so many instruments to undo us. 
Hector gave Ajax a sword, which so long as he fought 
against enemies, served for his help and defence ; but after 
he began to hurt harmless creatures with it, turned to his 
own hurtless bowels. Those excellent means God hath 
bestowed on us, well employed, cannot but much avail us ; 
but if otherwise perverted, they ruin and confound us ; and 
80 by reason of our indiscretion and weakness they commonly 
do, we have too many instances. This St. Austin acknowl- 
edgeth of himself in his humble confessions, " promptness of 
wit, memory, eloquence, they were God's good gifts, but he 
did not use them to his glory." If you will particularly 
know how, and by what means, consult physicians, and they 
will tell you, that it is in offending in some of those six non- 
natural things, of which I shall * dilate more at large ; they 
are the causes of our infirmities, our surfeiting, and drunken- 
ness, our immoderate insatiable lust, and prodigious riot 
Plures crapvla^ quam gladius, is a true saying, the board 
consumes more than the sword. Our intemperance it is, 
that pulls so many several incurable diseases upon our heads, 
that hastens *old age, perverts our temperature, and brings 
upon us sudden death. And last of all, that which crucifies 

1 Hor. 1. 8, Od. 6. » 2 Tim. iii. 2. 6 Part. 1, Sec. 2, Hemb. 2. « Neqtdtia 

s Ezee. xviii. 81. Thy destmctioa is est qxiSB te non sibet esse senem. 
*ionx thyself. «21 Mace. Ui. 12. 

182 J^f't Nunu^ Div. of Diseases, [Part L seo. L 

us most, is our own follj, madness, (quos Jupiter perdit, d&* 
mentat; bj subtraction of his assisting grace God permits it,) 
weakness, want of government, our facility and proneness in 
yielding to several lusts, in giving way to every passion and 
perturbation of the mind ; by which means we metamorphose 
ourselves and degenerate into beasts. All which that prince 
of ^ poets observed of Agamenmon, that when he was well 
pleased, and could moderate his passion, he was — os oculos- 
que Jovi par ; like Jupiter in feature. Mars in valour, Pallas 
in wisdom, another god ; but when he became angry, he was 
a lion, a tiger, a dog, &c., there appeared no sign or likeness 
of Jupiter in him ; so we, as long as we are ruled by reason, 
correct our inordinate appetite, and conform ourselves to 
God's word, are as so many saints ; but if we give reins to 
lust, anger, ambition, pride, and follow our own ways, we 
degenerate into beasts, transform ourselves, overthrow our 
constitutions, ' provoke Grod to anger, and heap upon us this 
of melancholy, and all kinds of incurable diseases, as a just 
and deserved punishment of our sins. 

SuBSECT. n. — The Definition^ Number^ Division of Diseases. 

What a disease is, almost eveiy physician defines. • Fer- 
nelius calleth it an " Affection of the body contrary to na- 
ture." * Fuschius and Crato, " an hinderance, hurt, or alter- 
ation of any action of the body, or part of it" * Tholosanus, 
^ a dissolution of that league which is between body and soul, 
and a perturbation of it ; as health the perfection, and makes 
to the preservation of it." • Labeo in Agellius, " an ill habit 
of the body, opposite to nature, hindering the use of it" 
Others otherwise, all to this effect 

Number of Diseases.^ How many diseases there are, is a 
question not yet determined ; ' Pliny reckons up three hun* 

1 Homer. Iliad. * Intemperantia. e. 8, 4 quo primum Titiatar actio 

luxns, ingluTies, et Inflnita hnjasmodi ^ Dissolntio foederis in oorpore, nt sanitaa 

flagitia, quae divinajB poenas xnerentur. est consummatio. > Lib. 4, cap. 2. 

Crato. 8 Fern. Path.l. 1, c. 1. Mor- Morbnsest habitus contra naturam, qui 

bus est affectus contra naturam corpori usum egus, &c. l Cap. 11, lib. 7. 
IsddenB. * Fusch. Instit 1. 8, Sect. 1. 


Mem. 1, subs. 2.] I>ef,^ Num,, Div. of Diseases. 183 

dred from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot ; else* 
where he saith, morhorum injmita midtitudo, their number is 
infinite. Howsoever it was in those times, it boots not ; in 
our days I am sure the number is much augmented: 

* " macies, et nova febrinm 
Terris incubat cohors." 

For besides many epidemical diseases unheard of, and alto- 
gether unknown to Galen and Hippocrates, as scorbutum, 
smallpox, plica, sweating sickness, morbus Gallicus, &c., we 
have many proper and peculiar almost to every part. 

No nian free from some Disease (yr other.^ No man 
amongst us so sound, of so good a constitution, that hath 
not some impediment of body or mind. Quisque suos 
patimur vmnes, we have all our infirmities, first or last, more 
or less. There will be peradventure in an age, or one of a 
thousand, like Zenophilus the musician in ^ Pliny, that may 
happily live one hundred and five years without any manner 
of impediment ; a Pollio Romulus, that can preserve himself 
^ " with wine and oil ; '* a man as fortunate as Q. Metellus, 
of whom Valerius so much brags; a man as healthy as 
Otto Herwardus, a senator of Augsburg in Germany, whom 
*Leovitius the astrologer brings in for an example and 
instance of certainty in his art ; who because he had the 
significators in his geniture fortunate, and free from the 
hostile aspects of Saturn and Mars, being a very cold man, 
* " could not remember that ever he was sick." ^ Paracelsus 
may brag that he could make a man live four hundred years 
or more, if he might bring him up from his infancy, and diet 
him as he list ; and some physicians hold, that there is no 
certain period of man's life ; but it may still by temperance 
and physic be prolonged. We find in the mean time, by 

* Horat. lib. 1, ode 8. " Emaciation, > Exemplis genitur. prtefizis Ephemer. 

and a neir cohort of feven broods over cap. de inflrmitat. * Qui, quoad pae* 

the earth." i Cap. 60, lib. 7. Oentum ritiae ultimam memoriam recordari potest 

et quinque vizit annos sine uUo incom- non meminit se scrotum d<)cubui88e. 

modo. > Intus mulso, foras oleo. ^ Lib. de Tita longa. 

184 Diteuses of the Head. [Part L mg. 1 

oommon experience, that no man can escape, but that of 
iHesiod is true: 

AirofjUiToi (poiTCxTi."^ 

^ Th* earth^s full of maladies, and full the sea. 
Which set upon us both by night and day." 

Division of Diseases.'] If you require a more exact 
division of these ordinary diseases which are incident to 
men, I refer you to physicians ; * they will tell you of acute 
and chronic, first and secondary, lethales, salutares, errant, 
fixed, simple, compound, connexed, or consequent, belonging 
to parts or the whole, in habit, or in disposition, &c. My 
division at this time (as most befitting my purpose) shall be 
into those of the body and mind. For them of the body, a 
brief catalogue of which Fuschius hath made, Institut. lib. 3, 
sect 1, cap. 11, I refer you to the voluminous tomes of 
Galen, Areteus, Rhasis, Avicenna, Alexander, Paulus JBtius, 
Grordonerius ; and those exact Neoterics, Savanarola, Capi- 
vaccius, Donatus Altomarus, Hercules de Saxonia, Mer- 
curialis, Victorius Faventinus, Wecker, Piso, &c., that have 
methodically and elaborately written of them all. Those of 
the mind and head I will briefly handle, and apart. 

SuBSECT. m. — Division of the Diseases of the Head, 

These diseases of the mind, forasmuch as they have their 
chief seat and organs in the head, which are commonly re- 
peated amongst the diseases of the head which are divers, and 
vary much according to their site. For in the head, as there 
be several parts, so there be divers grievances, which accord* 
ing to that division of * Heumius, (which he takes out of Ar- 
culanus,) are inward or outward (to omit all others which 
pertain to eyes and ears, nostrils, gums, teeth, mouth, palate, 
tongue, wesel, chops, face, 4&c.) belonging properly to the 

1 Oper. et Dies s See Fernelius Path. & Pne&t. de morbis capitis. In capite at 
Ub. 1, cap. 9, 10, 11, 12. Fuschius instit. yarisd habitant partes, ita yariiB queielst 
. 8, sect. 1, c. 7- Wecker. Synt. ibi eyeniunt. 

Mem. 1, «abs. 8.] Div, of the Disetzses of the Head, 185 

brain, as baldness, falling of hair, furfaire, lice, &c. * Inward 
belonging to the skins next to the brain, called dura and pia 
mater, as all headaches, &c., or to the ventricles, eaules, kels, 
tonides, creeks, and parts of it, and their passions, as caro, 
vertigo, incubus, apoplexy, falling sickness. The diseases of 
the nerves, cramps, stupor, convulsion, tremor, palsy; or 
belonging to the excrements of the brain, catarrhs, sneezing, 
rheums, distillations; or else those that pertain to the sub- 
stance of the brain itself, in which are conceived frenzy, 
lethargy, melancholy, madness, weak memory, sopor, or Coma 
Vigilia et vigil Coma. Out of these again I will single such 
as properly belong to the fantasy, or imagination, or reason 
itself, which ^ Laurentius calls the diseases of the mind ; and 
Hildesheim, morhos imaginattonis, aiU rationis Icesce, (diseases 
of the imagination, or of injured reason,) which are three or 
four in number, frenzy, madness, melancholy, dotage, and 
their kinds ; as hydrophobia, lycanthropia. Chorus Sancti Vttt, 
morhi dcBTnoniaci, (St. Vitus's dance, possession of devils,) 
which I will briefly touch and point at, insisting especially in 
this of melancholy, as more eminent than the rest, and that 
through all his kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, cures ; 
as Lonicerus hath done de apoplexid, and many other of such 
particular diseases. Not that I find fault with those which 
have written of this subject before, as Jason Pratensis, Lau- 
rentius, Montaltus, T. Bright, &c, they have done very well 
in their several kinds and methods ; yet that which one omits, 
another may haply see ; that which one contracts, another 
may enlarge. To conclude with *Scribanius, "that which 
they had neglected, or profunctorily handled, we may more 
thoroughly examine; that which is obscurely delivered in 
them, may be perspicuously dilated and amplified by us ; " 
and so made more familiar and easy for every man's capacity, 
and the common good, which is the chief end of my dis- 

1 Of vhlch lead Heomios, Monfeoltiu, minus leoto fortaise dizerint. nos examl- 

HUdeshehn, Queicetan. JaM>n Pratensis, nare, melins dljudicare, corngere stude- 

&c. 8 Cap. 2, de melanohol. 8 Cap. amus. 
8, de Phisiologia sagarum; Quod alii 

186 Disecues of the Aftnd, [Part L see. 1 

SuBSECT. lY. — Dotage, Frenzy^ MadneUj HydrophohicLy Ly* 
canthropiay Ghonte sancti Vttij JExtans. 

Delirium, Dotage."] Dotage, fatuity, or folly, is a oom<* 
mon name to all the following species, as some will have it 
^ Laurentius and ^ Altomarus comprehended madness, melan- 
choly, and the rest under this name, and call it the swmmum 
genvA of them all. If it be distinguished from them, it is 
natural or ingenite, which comes by some defect of the 
organs, and over-much brain, as we see in our common fools ; 
and is for the most part intended or remitted in particular 
men, and thereupon some are wiser than others ; or else it 
is acquisite, an appendix or symptom of some other disease, 
which comes or goes ; or if it continue, a sign of melancholy 

Freviay^ Phrenitis, which the Greeks derive from the 
word ^p^v is a disease of the mind, with a continual madness 
or dotage, which hath an acute fever annexed, or else an in- 
flammation of the brain, or the membranes or kels of it, with 
an acute fever, which causeth madness and dotage. It differs 
from melancholy and madness, because their dotage is with- 
out an ague ; this continual, with waking, or memory de- 
cayed, &c. Melancholy is most part silent, this clamorous ; 
and many such like differences are assigned by physicians. 

Madness.'] Madness, frenzy, and melancholy are con- 
founded by Celsus and many writers ; others leave out 
frenzy, and make madness and melancholy but one disease, 
which 'Jason Pratensis especially labours, and that they 
differ only secundum mqfus or minus, in quantity alone, the 
one being a degree to the other, and both proceeding from 
one cause. They differ intenso et remisso gradu, saith * Gor- 
donius, as the humour is intended or remitted. Of the same 
mind is *Areteus, Alexander Tertullianus, Guianerius, Savan- 

1 dap. 4, de mol. * Art. Med. 7. tndine et modo 8ol&m distent, et alter 

' Plerique medici uno complexu per- gradoa ad alteram ezistat. Jaaon Pm- 

fltringant hos duos morbos, qaod ex tens. * Lib. Med. & Pan manuB 

eadem caiua oriantur, quodque magni- mihi Tidetnr. 

Hem. 1, subs. 4.] Diseases of the Mind. 187 

arola, Heumius ; and Galen himself writes promiscuously of 
them both by reason of their affinity ; but most of our ne- 
oterics do handle them apart, whom I will foUow in this trea- 
tise. Madness is therefore defined to be a vehement dotage ; 
or raving without a fever, far more violent than melancholy, 
full of anger and clamour, horrible looks, actions, gestures, 
troubling the patients with far greater vehemency both of 
body and mind, without all fear and sorrow, with such impet- 
uous force and boldness, that sometimes three or four men 
cannot hold them. Differing only in this from frenzy, that 
it is without a fever, and their memory is most part better. 
It hath the same causes as the other, as choler adust, and 
blood incensed, brains inflamed, &c. ^ Fracastorius adds, 
" a due time, and full age to this definition, to distinguish it 
from children, and will have it confirmed impotency, to sepa- 
rate it from such as accidentally come and go again, as by 
taking henbane, nightshade, wine," &c. Of this fury there 
be divers kinds ; ^ ecstasy, which is familiar with some per- 
sons, as Cardan saith of himself, he could be in one when he 
list ; in which the Indian priests deliver their oracles, and the 
witches in Lapland, as Olaus Magnus writeth, 1. 3, cap. 18. 
JExtttsi omnia prcedicere, answer all questions in an extasis 
you will ask ; what your friends do, where they are, how 
they fare, &c. The other species of this fury are enthusi- 
asms, revelations, and visions, so often mentioned by Gregory 
and Beda in their works; obsession or posession of devils, 
sibylline prophets, and poetical furies ; such as come by eat- 
ing noxious herbs, tarantulas' stinging, &c,, which some reduce 
to this. The most known are these, lycanthropia, hydropho- 
bia, chorus sancti viti. 

Lycanthropia,"] Lycanthropia, which Avicenna calls Cu- 
cubuth, others Lupinam insaniam, or Wolf-madness, when 
men run howling about graves and fields in the night, and 

1 Insantis est, qui aetate debitft, et tern- erandi circa intellectum. lib. 2, de intel- 

pore debito per se, non momentaneain et lectione. > Of which read Foellx Plater, 

ftigaoem, at Tini, solani, Hyoecyami, sed cap. 8, de mentis alienationa. 
eonfirmatam habet imiwtentiam bene op* 

188 Diseases of the Mind. [Part. I. see. 1. 

will not be persuaded but that they are wolves, or some suck 
beasts. ^ ^tius and ' Paulus call it a kind of melancholy ; 
but I should rather refer it to madness, as most do. Some 
make a doubt of it whether there be any such disease. 
* Donat ab Altomari saith, that he saw two of them in his 
time ; * Wierus tells a story of such a one at Padua, 1541, 
that would not believe to the contrary, but that he was a 
wolf. He hath another instance of a Spaniard, who thought 
himself a bear ; • Forrestus confirms as much by many ex- 
amples ; one amongst the rest of which he was an eye-wit- 
ness, at Alcmaer in Holland, a poor husbandman that still 
hunted about graves, and kept in churchyards, of a pale, 
black, ugly, and fearful look. Such belike, or little better, 
were King Prsetus's • daughters, that thought themselves kine. 
And Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel, as some interpreters hold, 
was only troubled with this kind of madness. This disease 
perhaps gave occasion to that bold assertion of ^ Pliny, " some 
men were turned into wolves in his time, and from wolves to 
men again ; " and to that fable of Pausanias, of a man that 
was ten years a wolf, and afterwards turned to his former 
shape ; to ® Ovid*s tale of Lycaon, &c. He that is desirous 
to hear of this disease, or more examples, let him read Austin 
in his eighteenth book de Oivitate Dei, cap. 5. Mizaldus, cent 
5, 77. SckenMus, Kb. 1. JHildeskeim, spicel. 2, de Mania, 
Forrestus, lib, 10, cfe morbis cerebri, Olatis Magnus, Ftw- 
centius*s BeUavicensis, spec, met, lib. 31, c. 122. Pierius, Bo- 
dine, Zuinger, Zeilger, Peucer, Wierus, Spranger, &c. This 
malady, saith Avicenna, troubleth men most in February, 
and is nowadays frequent in Bohemia and Hungary, accord- 
ing to * Heurnius. Schernitzius will have it common in Li- 
vonia. They lie hid most part all day, and go abroad in the 
night, barking, howling, at graves and deserts;" *"they 
have usually hollow eyes, scabbed legs and thighs, very dry 

1 Lib. 6. cap. 11. > Lib. 8, cap. 16. 22, homines interdum lupos fieri ; et con* 

B Gap. 9, Art. med. < De praestlg. Das- tra. ^ Met. lib. 1. > Cap. de Man. 

monum. 1. 8, cap. 21. 5 Observat. lib. * Ulcerata crura, sitia ipsis adest immodi* 

10, de morbis cerebri, cap. 16. • ffip- ca, paUidi, liogiia sicca, 
poorates, lib. de insania. 7 Lib. 8, cap. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Diseases of the Mind. 189 

and pale/' ^ saith Altomarus ; he gives a reason there of all 
the symptoms, and sets down a brief cure of them. 

Hydrophobia is a kind of madness, well known in every 
village, which comes by the biting of a mad dog, or scratch- 
ing, saith ^ Aurelianus ; touching, or smelling alone sometimes 
as * Sckenkius proves, and is incident to many other creat- 
ures as well as men ; so called because the parties affected 
cannot endure the sight of water, or any liquor^ supposing 
still they see a mad dog in it. And which is more wonder- 
fiil ; though they be very dry, (as in this malady they are,) 
they will rather die than drink ; * Cselius Aurelianus, an an- 
cient writer, makes a doubt whether this Hydrophobia be a 
passion of the body or the mind. The part affected is the 
brain ; the cause, poison that comes from the mad dog, which 
is so hot and dry, that it consumes all the moisture in the 
body. ^ Hildesheim relates of some that died so mad ; and 
being cut up, had no water, scarce blood, or any moisture left 
in them. To such as are so affected, the fear of water begins 
at fourteen days after they are bitten, to some again not till 
forty or sixty days after ; commonly, saith Heurnius, they 
begin to rave, fly water and glasses, to look red, and swell in 
the face, about twenty days after (if some remedy be not 
taken in the mean time) to lie awake, to be pensive, sad, to 
see strange visions, to bark and howl, to fall into a swoon, and 
oftentimes fits of the falling sickness. ^ Some say, little things 
like whelps will be seen in their urine. If any of these signs 
appear, they are past recovery. Many times these symptoms 
will not appear till six or seven months after, saith ' Codron- 
chus ; and sometimes not till seven or eight years, as Guia- 
nerius ; twelve as Albertus ; six or eight months after, as 
Gralen holds. Baldus, the great lawyer, died of it ; an Au- 
gustine friar, and a woman in Delft, that were ® Forrestus* 
patients, were miserably consumed with it. The common 
cure in the country (for such at least as dwell near the sea- 

1 Gap. 9, art. Hydrophobia. > Lib. 8, > Sckenkius, 7 lib. de Venenis. ^ Lib. 
eap. 9. 8 Lib. 7, de Veneois. «Lib. de Hydrophobia. 8 Observat. Ub. 10, 25. 
% cap. 18, de morbia acutiis. ^ Spioel. 2. 

190 IXseaies of the MruL [Part L sec. l 

Bide) is to duck them over head and ears in sea-water ; some 
use charms ; every good wife can prescribe medicines. But 
the best cure to be had in such cases, is from the most ap- 
proved physicians ; they that will read of them, may consult 
with Dioscorides, lib. 6, c. 37, Heumius, Hildesheim, Capi- 
vaccius, Forrestus, Sckenkius, and before all others Codron- 
chus an Italian, who hath lately written two exquisite books 
on the subject 

Chorus sancti Vitt, or S. VUui dance ; the lascivious 
dance, ^ Paracelsus calls it, because they that are taken ^m 
it, can do nothing but dance till they be dead or cured. It is 
so called, for that the parties so troubled were wont to go to 
S. Vitus for help, and after they had danced there awhile, 
they were ^ certainly freed. Tis strange to hear how long 
they will dance, and in what manner, over stools, forms, 
tables ; even great bellied women sometimes (and yet never 
hurt their children) will dance so long that they can stir 
neither hand nor foot, but seem to be quite dead. One 
in red clothes they cannot abide. Music above all things 
they love, and therefore magistrates in Germany will hire 
musicians to play to them, and some lusty, sturdy com- 
panions to dance with them. This disease hath been 
very common in Germany, as appears by those relations of 
' Sckenkius, and Paracelsus in his book of madness, who 
brags how many several persons he hath cured of it Felisc 
Phterus de mentis alienat, cap, 3, reports of a woman in 
Basil whom he saw, that danced a whole month together. 
The Arabians call it a kind of palsy. Bodine, in his fifth 
book de Repvh. cap. 1, speaks of this infirmity ; Monavius 
in his last epistle to Sooltizius, and in another to Dudithus, 
where you may read more of it. 

The last kind of madness or melancholy, is that demoniacal 
(if I may so call it) obsession or possession of devils, which 
Platerus and others would have to be preternatural ; stupend 

1 LasdTam Ghoream. To. 4, de morbte plurimum rem ipsam comprobante. 
amentiiim. Tract. 1. a Byentu nt » Lib. 1, cap. de Mania. 

Mem. 1, subs. 5.] Melancholy in Disposition, 191 

things are said of them, their actions, gestures, contortions, 
fasting, prophesying, speaking languages they were never 
taught, &c. Many strange stories are related of them, which, 
because some will not allow, (for Deacon and Darrel have 
written large volumes on this subject pro and con,) I volun- 
tarily omit. 

^Fuschius, institvt, lib, 3, sec, 1, cap, 11, Felix Plater, 
* Laurentius, add to these another fury that proceeds from 
love, and another from study, another divine or religious 
fury ; but these more properly belong to melancholy ; of all 
which I will speak * apart, intending to write a whole book 
of them. 

SuBSECT. V. — MeUxmhohf in Disposition^ improperly so 

called, Equivocations, 

Melancholy, the subject of our present discourse, is 
either in disposition or habit In disposition, is that tran- 
sitory melancholy which goes and comes upon every small 
occasion of sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, grief, pas- 
sion, or perturbation of the mind, any manner of care, dis- 
content, or thought, which causeth anguish, dulness, heaviness 
and vexation of spirit, any ways opposite to pleasure, mirth, 
joy, delight, causing frowardness in us, or a dislike. In 
which equivocal and improper sense, we call him melancholy 
that is dull, sad, sour, lumpish, ill-disposed, solitary, any way 
moved, or displeased. And from these melancholy dispo- 
sitions, ' no man living is free, no stoic, none so wise, none so 
happy, none so patient, so generous, so godly, so divine, that 
can vindicate himself; so weU composed, but more or less, 
some time or other he feels the smart of it Melancholy in 
this sense is the character of mortality, f " Man that is bom 
of a woman, is of short continuance, and full of trouble.** 
Zeno, Cato, Socrates himself, whom * ^lian so highly com- 

1 Cap. 8, de mentig alienat. > Cap. in Psal. Tiii. 5. t Job. i. 14. * Omni 

4, de mel. * PART. 8. > De quo tempore Socratem (»dem rultu ylderi, 

homine securitas, de quo oertum gaudi- slve domom rediret sive domo ^redere* 

nm? quocunqueseconTertlt, in terrenis tar. 
tebiu amaritudinem animiinyeniet. Aug. 

192 Melancholy in Disposiiiaiu [Part. I. sec. 1. 

mends for a moderate temper, that ^ nothing could disturb 
him, but going out, and coming in, still Socrates kept the 
same serenity of countenance, what misery soever befell him," 
(if we may believe Plato his disciple,) was much tormented 
with it. Q. Metellus, in whom * Valerius gives instance of 
all happiness, ^^ the most fortunate man then living, bom in 
that most flourishing city of Rome, of noble parentage, a 
proper man of person, well qualified, healthful, rich, honour- 
able, a senator, a consul, happy in Us wife, happy in his 
children," &c., yet this man- was not void of melancholy, he 
had his share of sorrow. ^ Folycrates Samius, that flung his 
ring into the sea, because he would participate of discontent 
with others, and had it miraculously restored to him again 
shortly after, by a fish taken as he angled, was not free from 
melancholy dispositions. No man can cure himself; the very 
gods had bitter pangs, and frequent passions, as their own 
• poets put upon them. In general, * " as the heaven, so is 
our life, sometimes fair, sometimes overcast, tempestuous, and 
serene ; as in a rose, flowers and prickles ; in the year itself, 
a temperate summer sometimes, a hard winter, a drought, 
and then again pleasant showers; so is our life intermixed 
with joys, hopes, fears, sorrows, calumnies ; " Invicem cedurA 
dolor et voluptas, there is a succession of pleasure and pain. 

6 " medio de fonte lepomm, 
Surgit amari aliquid in ipsis floribns angat." 

" Even in the midst of laughing there is sorrow," (as • Solo- 
mon holds ;) even in the midst of all our feasting and jollity, 
as, ' Austin infers in his Com. on the 41st Psalm, there is 
grief and discontent. Inter delicias semper cdiquid scevi nos 

i Lib. 7, cap. 1. Natus in florentLssima obscnratur. In rosario flores spinis in- 

totius orbis civitate, nobilissimis parenti- termixti. Vita similis aeri, udum modd, 

bus, corporis vires habuit et rarissimas sudum. tempestas, serehitas: ita rices 

snimi dotes, uxorem conspicuam, pudi- rerum sunt, praemia gaudiis, et sequacefl 

cam, ftelices liberos, oonsulare decus, se- cume. 6 Lucretius. 1. 4, 11584. « Pror. 

quentes triumphos, &c. s ^lian. xiv. 13. Extremum gaudii luctus occu< 

« Homer. Iliad. * Lipsius, cent. 8, ep. pat. 7 Natalitia inquit celebrantur, 

46, ut coelum, sic nos homines sumus: nuptise liic sunt; at ibi quid celebratux 

Olud ex intervallo nubibus obducitur et quod non dolet, quod non transit! 

Mem. 1, subs. 5 ] Melancholy in Disposition. 193 

stranguUxt, for a pint of honey thou shalt here likely find a 
gallon of gall, for a dram of pleasure a pound of pain, for an 
inch of mirth an ell of moan ; as ivy doth an oak, these 
miseries encompass our life. And it is most absurd and 
ridiculous for any mortal man to look for a perpetual tenure 
of happiness in this life. Nothing so prosperous and pleas- 
ant, but it hath ^ some bitterness in it, some complaining, some 
gnidging; it is all y^vKVTrucpov, a mixed passion, and like a 
checker table, black and white men, families, cities, have 
their falls and wanes ; now trines, sextiles, then quartiles and 
oppositions. We are not here as those angels, celestial pow- 
ers and bodies, sun and moon, to finish our course without all 
offence, with such constancy, to continue for so many ages ; 
but subject to infirmities, miseries, interrupted, tossed and 
tumbled up and down, carried about with every small blast, 
often molested and disquieted upon each slender occasion, 
^ uncertain, brittle, and so is all that we trust unto. * " And 
he that knows not this is not armed to endure it, is not fit to 
live in this world (as one condoles our time), he knows not 
the condition of it, where, with a reciprocality, pleasure and 
pain are still united, and succeed one another in a ring." 
JEJxi e mundo, get thee gone hence if thou canst not brook it ; 
there is no way to avoid it, but to arm thyself with patience, 
with magnanimity, to * oppose thyself unto it, to suffer afflic- 
tion as a good soldier of Christ ; as * Paul adviseth constantly 
to bear it. But forasmuch as so few can embrace this good 
counsel of his, or use it aright, but rather as so many brute 
beasts give a way to their passion, voluntary subject and pre- 
cipitate themselves into a labyrinth of cares, woes, miseries, 

1 Apuleius 4, florid. Nihil quicquid flatu fortunse quos in sublime extule- 

homini tain prosperum divinitus datum, runt, improviso recursu destitutos in 

quin ei admixtum sit aliquid difflcultatis, profundo miseriarum ralle miserabiliter 

ut etiam amplissimSl quaque IsetitiSL, sub- immergunt. Valerius, lib. 6, cap. 11. 

sit queepiam vel parva querimonia, eon- > Huic seculo parum aptus es, aut potius 

Jugatione quSLdam mellis *^t fellis. omnium nositrorum conditionem ignoras, 

2 Caduca nimirum et fragilia, et puerili- quibus reciproco quodam nexu, &c. Lor- 

bus consentanea crepnndi s, sunt ista chanus GoUobelgicus, lib. 3, ad annum 

quae vires et opes humanae Tocantur, af- 1598. * Horsum omnia studia dirigi 

fluunt subit6, repente delabuntur, nuUo debent, ut humana fortiter feramufl. 

in loco, nulla in persona, stabilibus nixa ^ 2 Tim ii. 8. 
radicibus consistunt, sed incertissimo 

VOL. I. 18 


194 Melancholy in Disposition. [Part. L sec. 1 

and suffer their souls to be overcome by them, cannot arm 
themselves with that patience as they ought to do, it falleth 
out oftentimes that these dispositions become habits, and 
"many affects contemned (as ^ Seneca notes) make a disease. 
Even as one distillation, not yet grown to custom, makes a 
cough ; but continual and inveterate causeth a consumption 
of the lungs ; ** so do these our melancholy provocations ; and 
according as the humour itself is intended, or remitted in 
men, as their temperature of body, or rational soul is better 
able to make resistance ; so are they more or less affected. 
For that which is but a flea-biting to one, causeth insufferable 
torment to another ; and which one by his singular modera- 
tion, and well-composed carriage can happily overcome, a 
second is no whit able to sustain, but upon every small occa- 
sion of misconceived abuse, injury, grief, disgrace, loss, cross, 
humour, &c., (if solitary, or idle,) yields so far to passion, that 
his complexion is altered, his digestion hindered, his sleep 
gone, his spirits obscured, and his heart heavy, his hypochon- 
dries misaffected ; wind, crudity, on a sudden overtake him, 
and he himself overcome with melancholy. As it is with a 
man imprisoned for debt, if once in the jail, every creditor 
will bring his action against him, and there likely hold him. 
If any discontent seize upon a patient, in an instant all other 
perturbations (for — qud data porta ruunt) will set upon him, 
and then like a lame dog or broken-winged goose he droops 
and pines away, and is brought at last to that ill habit or 
malady of melancholy itself. So that as the philosophers 
make * eight degrees of heat and cold, we may make eighty- 
eight of melancholy, as the parts affected are diversely seized 
with it, or have been plunged more or less into this infernal 
gulf, or waded deeper into it. But all these melancholy fits, 
howsoever pleasing at first, or displeasing, violent and tyran- 
nizing over those whom they seize on for the time ; yet these 
fits I say, or men affected, are but improperly so called, be- 

1 Epist. 96, lib. 10, affoctiu frequentes tiusim &clt, assiduaetTiolenta phthisim. 
wmtemptique morbum finoiunt. Instil- > Calidum sid octo : frigidain ad octo. 
latio una nee adhuo in morem adaucta, Una hfanindo non ftrcit aestatem. 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Digression of Anatomy. 194 

cause they continue not, but come and go, as by some objects 
they are moved. This melancholy of which we are to treat, 
is a habit, morbus sontictis, or chronictis, a chronic or contin- 
Tiate disease, a settled humour, as ^ AureHanus and * others 
call it, not errant, but fixed ; and as it was long increasing, so 
now being (pleasant, or painful) grown to an habit, it will 
hardly be removed. 


SuBSECT. T. — Digression of Anatomy. 

Before I proceed to define the disease of melancholy, 
what it is, or to discourse farther of it, I hold it not imperti- 
nent to make a brief digression of the anatomy of the body 
and faculties of the soul, for the better understanding of that 
which is to follow ; because many hard words will often 
occur, as myrache, hypochondries, emrods, &c., imagination, 
reason, humours, spirits, vital, natural, animal, nerves, veins, 
arteries, chylus, pituita; which by the vulgar will not so 
easily be perceived, what they are, how cited, and to what 
end they serve. And besides, it may peradventure give 
occasion to some men to examine more accurately, search 
further into this most excellent subject, and thereupon with 
that royal * prophet to praise God, (" for a man is fearfully 
and wonderfully made, and curiously wrought,") that have 
time and leisure enough, and are su£Giciently informed in all 
other worldly businesses, as to make a good bargain, buy and 
sell, to keep and make choice of a fair hawk, hound, horse, 
&C. But for such matters as concern the knowledge of them- 
selves^ they are wholly ignorant and careless ; they know not 
what this body and soul are, how combined, of what parts 
and faculties they consist, or how a man differs from a dog. 

1 Ub. 1, c. 6. s Fnaohiiu, 1. 8, see. 1, oap. 7. Hildasheim, Ibl. IBO. • Pnl. 
" .18 

196 Division of the Body. [Part. L sec. 1. 

And what can be more ignominious and filthy (as ^ Melano- 
thon well inveighs) " than for a man not to know the struc- 
ture and composition of his own body, especially since the 
knowledge of it tends so much to the preservation of his 
health, and information of his manners ? " To stir them up, 
therefore, to this study, to peruse those elaborate works of 
* Galen, Bauhines, Plater, Vesalius, Falopius, Laurentius, 
Remelinus, &c.,* which have written copiously in Latin ; or 
that which some of our industrious countrymen have done in 
our mother tongue, not long since, as that translation of ' Co- 
lumbus and * Microcosmographia, in thirteen books, I have 
made this brief digression. Also because * Wecker, * Melanc- 
thon, ^ Femelius, ' Fuschius, and those tedious Tracts de 
Animd (which have more compendiously handled and written 
of this matter) are not at all times ready to be had, to give 
them some small taste, or notice of the rest, let this epi- 
tome suffice. 

SuBSECT. II. — Division of the Body, Humours^ Spirits* 

Op the parts of the body there may be many divisions ; 
the most approved is that of • Laurentius, out of Hippocrates ; 
which is, into parts contained, or containing. Contained are 
either humours or spirits. 

HumoursJ] A humour is a liquid or fluent part of the 
body, comprehended in it, for the preservation of it ; and is 
either innate, or born with us, or adventitious and acquisite. 
The radical or innate, is daily supplied by nourishment, 
which some call cambium, and make those secondary hu- 
mours of ros and gluten to maintain it ; or acquisite, to main- 
tain these first four primary humours, coming and proceed- 
ing from the first concoction in the liver, by which means 
chylus is excluded. Some divide them into profitable and 
excrementitious. But *° Crato out of Hippocrates will have 

1 De anims. Turpe enim est homini > De nsn part. < History of man. 

ignorare sui corporis (ut ita dicam) sedi- ^ D. Crooke. 6 In Synta^. ^ De 

mdmn.prsesertlin oamadyaletudinemet Anima. 7 Instit. lib. 1. 8 Physiol, 

mores osec cognitio plurimum conducat. 1. 1, 2. > Anat. 1. 1, c. 18. ^o In 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Division of the Body. 197 

all lour to be juice, and not excrements, without which no 
living creature can be sustained ; which four, though they be 
comprehended in the mass of blood, yet they have their 
several affections, by which they are distinguished from one 
another, and from those adventitious, peccant, or ^diseased 
humours, as Melancthon calls them. 

Blood J\ Blood is a hot, sweet, temperate, red humour, pre- 
pared in the meseraic veins, and made of the most temperate 
parts of the chylus in the liver, whose office is to nourish the 
whole body, to give it strength and colour, being dispersed 
by the veins through every part of it. And from it spirits 
are first begotten in the heart, which afterwards by the arte- 
ries are communicated to the other parts. 

Pituita, or phlegm, is a cold and moist humour, begotten 
of the colder part of the chylus (or white juice coming out 
of the meat digested in the stomach), in the liver ; his office 
is to nourish and moisten the members of the body, which as 
the tongue are moved, that they be not over dry. 

Choler is hot and dry, bitter, begotten of the hotter parts 
of the chylus, and gathered to the gall ; it helps the natural 
heat and senses, and serves to the expelling of excrements. 

MelancholyJ\ Melancholy, cold and dry, thick, black, and 
sour, begotten of the more feculent part of nourishment, and 
purged from the spleen, is a bridle to the other two hot 
humours, blood and choler, preserving them in the blood, 
and nourishing the bones. These four humours have some 
analogy with the four elements, and to the four ages in man. 

Serum, Sweat, Tears.'] To these humours you may add 
serum, which is the matter of urine, and those excremen- 
titious humours of the third concoction, sweat and tears. 

Spirits.'] Spirit is a most subtile vapour, which is ex- 
pressed from the blood, and the instrument of the soul, to 
perform all his actions ; a common tie or medium between 
the body and the soul, as some will have it ; or as ^ Paracel- 

Bf Icro. succoe. sine qiiibus animal sustentari non potest. i Morbosos humoxes. 
* fipiiitalis anima. 

198 Similar ParU. [Part L see. 1. 

fins, a fourth fioul ot itself. Melancthon holds the foantain of 
these spirits to he the heart hegotten there, and afterward 
conveyed to the hrain, thej take another nature to them. 
Of these spirits there be three kinds, according to the three 
principal parts, brain, heart, liver; natural, vital, animal. 
The natural are begotten in the liver, and thence dispersed 
through the veins, to perform those natural actions. The 
vital spirits are made in the heart of the natural, which by 
the arteries are transported to all the other parts; if the 
spirits cease, then life ceaseth, as in a syncope or swooning. 
The animal spirits formed of the vital, brought up to the 
brain, and diffused by the nerves, to the subordinate mem- 
bers, give sense and motion to them all. 

Sub SECT. III. — Similar Paris, 

Similar Parts."] Containing parts, by reason of their 
more solid substance, are either homogeneal or heterogeneal, 
similar or dissimilar; so Aristotle divides them, lib. 1, cap. 
1, de Hist Animal. ; LaurerUius, cap. 20, lib. 1. Similar, 
or homogeneal, are such as, if they be divided, are still 
severed into parts of the same nature, as water into water. 
Of these some be spermatical, some fleshy or carnal. ^ Sper- 
matical are such as are immediately begotten of the seed, 
which are bones, gristles, ligaments, membranes, nerves, 
arteries, veins, skins, fibres or strings, fat 

Bones.'] The bones are dry and hard, begotten of the 
thickest of the seed, to strengthen and sustain other parts ; 
some say there be 304, some 307, or 313 in man's body. 
They have no nerves in them, and are therefore without 

A gristle is a substance softer than bone, and harder than 
the rest, flexible, and serves to maintain the parts of motion. 

Ligaments are they that tie the bones together, and other 
parts to the bones, with their subserving tendons; mem- 
branes' office is to cover the rest. 

1 Laurentius, cap. 20, lib. 1. Anat. 

Mem. 2, subs. 8.] Similar Parts, 199 

Nerves, or sinews, are membranes without, and full of 
marrow within ; they proceed from the brain, and carry the 
animal spirits for sense and motion. Of these some be 
harder, some softer; the softer serve the senses, and there 
be seven pair of them. The first be the optic nerves, by 
which we see ; the second move the eyes ; the third pair 
serve for the tongue to taste; the fourth pair for the 
taste in the palate; the fifth belong to the ears; the sixth 
pair is most ample, and runs almost over all the bowels ; the 
seventh pair moves the tongue. The harder sinews serve 
for the motion of the inner parts, proceeding from the mar- 
row in the back, of whom there be thirty combinations, seven 
of the neck, twelve of the breast, &c 

Arteries,'] Arteries are long and hollow, with a double skin 
to convey the vital spirits ; to discern which the better, they 
say that Vesalius the anatomist was wont to cut up men 
alive. ^ They arise in the left side of the heart, and are 
principally two, from which the rest are derived, aorta and 
venosa ; aorta is the root of all the other, which serve the 
whole body ; the other goes to the lungs, to fetch air to re- 
fHgerate the heart 

Veins,'] Veins are hollow and round, like pipes, arising 
from the liver, carrying blood and natural spirits ; they feed 
aU the parts. Of these there be two chief, Vena porta and 
Vena cava, from which the rest are corrivated. That Vena 
porta is a vein coming from the concave of the liver, and 
receiving those meseraical veins, by whom he takes the 
chylus from the stomach and guts, and conveys it to the 
liver. The other derives blood from the liver to nourish all 
the other dispersed members. The branches of that Vena 
porta are the meseraical and haemorrhoides. The branches 
of the Cava are inward or outward. Inward, seminal or 
emulgent Outward, in the head, arms, feet, &c, and have 
several names. 

FihrcBj Fat, Flesh,] Fibrae are strings, white and solid, 

1 In theoe they obserre tha beating of the pulse. 

200 Dissitnilar Parts. [Part. I. sec. l 

dispersed through the whole memher, and right, oblique, 
transverse, all which have their several uses. Fat is a 
similar part, moist, without blood, composed of the most thick 
and unctuous matter of the blood. The ^ skin covers the 
rest, and hath Outiculum, or a little skin under it Flesh is 
soft and ruddy, composed of the congeattng of blood, &c 

SuBSECT. IV. — Dissimilar Parts. 

Dissimilar parts are those which we call organical, or 
instrumental, and they be inward or outward. The chiefest 
outward parts are situate forward or backward; — ^forward, 
the crown and foretop of the head, skull, face, forehead, 
temples, chin, eyes, ears, nose, &c, neck, breast, chest, upper 
and lower part of the belly, hypochondries, navel, groin, 
flank, &c. ; backward, the hinder part of the head, back, 
shoulders, sides, loins, hipbones, os sc^prum, buttocks, &c. Or 
joints, arms, hands, feet, legs, thighs, knees, &c. Or com- 
mon to both, which, because they are obvious and well 
known, I have carelessly repeated, eaque prcecipua et 
grandiora tantum ; quod reliquum ex lihris de animd qui 
voletj accipiat. 

Inward organical parts, which cannot be seen, are divers 
in number, and have several names, functions, and divisions ; 
but that of ^ Laurentius is most notable, into noble or ignoble 
parts. Of the noble there be three principal parts, to which 
all the rest belong, and whom they serve — ^brain, heart, 
liver ; according to whose site, three regions, or a threefold 
division, is made of the whole body. As first of the head, in 
which the animal organs are contained, and brain itself, which 
by his nerves give sense and motion to the rest, and is, as it 
were, a privy counsellor and chancellor to the heart The 
second region is the chest, or middle belly, in which the heart 
as king keeps his court, and by his arteries communicates 
life to the whole body. The third region is the lower belly, 

I Cu^UB est iMirs simulariR a yi oati- rls est et permlgata partium diTisio in 
flea ut interiora muniat. Gapivac. Anat. priacipes et ignobiles partes, 
pag. 262. a Anat. lib. 1, c. 19. Celeb- 

Mem. 2, snbs. 4.] Anatomy of the Body. 201 

in which the liver resides as a Legat a latere^ with the rest of 
those natural organs, serving for concoction, nounshment, 
expelling of excrements. This lower region is distinguished 
&om the upper by the midriff, or diaphragma, and is sub- 
divided again by ^some into three concavities or regions, 
upper, middle, and lower. The upper of the hypochondries, 
in whose right side is the liver, the left the spleen ; from 
which is denominated hypochondriacal melancholy. The 
second of the navel and flanks, divided from the first by the 
rim. The last of the water course, which is again subdivided 
into three other parts. The Arabians make two parts of this 
region, Epigastrium and Hypogastrium, upper or lower. 
JEpiga^strium they call Mira^h, from whence comes Mirachi- 
cdi8 Melancholia, sometimes mentioned of them. Of these 
several regions I will treat in brief apart ; and first of the 
third region, in which the natural organs are contained. 

De Animd. — The Lower Region, Natural Organ^J] But 
you that are readers in the mean time, " Suppose you were 
now brought into some sacred temple, or majestical palace 
(as ^ Melancthon saith), to behold not the matter only, but 
the singular art, workmanship, and counsel of this our great 
Creator. And it is a pleasant and profitable speculation, if it 
be considered aright." The parts of this region, which pre- 
sent themselves to your consideration and view, are such as 
serve to nutrition or generation. Those of nutrition serve to 
the first or second concoction ; as the oesophagus or gullet, 
which brings meat and drink into the stomach. The ventricle 
or stomach, which is seated in the midst of that part of the 
belly beneath the midriff, the kitchen, as it were, of the first 
concoction, and which turns our meat into chylus. It hath 
two jnouths, one above, another beneath. The upper is 
sometimes taken for the stomach itself; the lower and nether 
door (as Wecker calls it) is named Pylorus. This stomach 
is sustained by a large kell or kaull, called omentum ; which 

1 D. Crook out of Gblen and others, um quoddBin ros duci putetbi, &c. Soar 
Yofl Tero Teluti in templum ao sacrarl- tIb et utilis cognitio. 

202 Anatomy of the Body. [Part. L sec l 

some will have the same with peritoneum, or rim of the belly. 
From the stomach to the very fundament are produced the 
guts, or intestina, which serve a little to alter and distribute 
the chylus, and convey away the excrements. They are 
divided into small and great, by i*eason of their site and sub- 
stance, slender or thicker; the slender is duodenum, or 
whole gut, which is next to the stomach, some twelve inches 
long, saith ^ Fuschius. Jejunum, or empty gut continuate to 
the other, which hath many meseraic veins annexed to it, 
which take part of the chylus to the liver from it. Ition the 
third, which consists of many crinkles, which serves with the 
rest to receive, keep, and distribute the chylus from the 
stomach. The thick guts are three, the blind gut, colon, and 
right gut. The blind is a thick and short gut, having one 
mouth, in which the ilion and colon meet ; it receives the 
excrements, and conveys them to the colon. This colon hath 
many windings, that the excrements pass not away too fast ; 
the right gut is straight, and conveys the excrements to the 
fundament, whose lower part is bound up with certain 
muscles called sphincters, that the excrements may be the 
better contained, until such time as a man be willing to go to 
the stool. In the midst of these guts is situated the mesen- 
terium or midriff, composed of many veins, arteries, and 
much fat, serving chiefly to sustain the guts. All these parts 
serve the first concoction. To the second, which is busied 
either in refining the good nourishment or expelling the bad, 
is chiefly belonging the liver, like in colour to congealed 
blood, the shop of blood, situate in the right hypercondry, in 
figure like to a half-moon — Generomm memln^m, Melancthon 
styles it, a generous part; it serves to turn the chylus to 
blood, for the nourishment of the body. The excrements of 
it are either choleric or watery, which the other subordinate 
parts convey. The gall placed in the concave of the liver, 
extracts choler to it ; the spleen, melancholy ; which is sit- 
uate on the left side, over against the liver, a spongy matter 

1 Lib. 1, cap. 12, Sect. 6. 


Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Anatomy of the Body. 203 

that draws this black choler to it by a secret virtue, and feeds 
upon it, conveying the rest to the bottom of the stomach, to 
stir up appetite, or else to the guts as an excrement That 
watery matter the two kidneys expurgate by those emulgent 
veins and ureters. The emulgent draw this superfluous 
moisture from the blood; the two ureters convey it to the 
bladder, which by reason of his site in the lower belly, is apt 
to receive it, having two parts, neck and bottom ; the bottom 
holds the water, the neck is constringed with a muscle, which, 
as a porter, keeps the water from running out against our 

Members of generation are common to both sexes, or pe- 
culiar to one ; which, because they are impertinent to my 
purpose, I do voluntarily omit. 

Mxddk JReyionJ] Next in order is the middle region, or 
chest, which comprehends the vital faculties and parts ; which 
(as I have said) is separated from the lower belly by the 
diaphragma or midriff, which is a skin consisting of many 
nerves, membranes ; and amongst other uses it hath, is the 
instrument of laughing. There is also a certain thin mem- 
brane, full of sinews, which covereth the whole chest within, 
and is called pleura, the seat of the disease called pleurisy, 
when it is inflamed ; some add a third skin, which is termed 
Mediastinus, which divides the chest into two parts, right and 
left ; of this region the principal part is the heart, which is 
the seat and fountain of life, of heat, of spirits, of pulse and 
respiration — the sun of our body, the king and sole com- 
mander of it — ^the seat and organ of all passions and affec- 
tions. Primum vivens, uUimum moriens, it lives first, and 
dies last in all creatures. Of a pyramidical \form, and not 
much unlike to a pineapple ; a part worthy of ^ admiration, 
that can yield such variety of affections, by whose motion it 
is dilated or contracted, to stir and command the humours in 
the body. As in sorrow, melancholy ; in anger, choler ; in 

1 HiBo res est pneelpni digna admlra- tnr, cor, quod omnes res tristes et Iftte 
tione, quod tAntA afTectuum varietate cie- statim conla feriunt et moTent. 

204 Anatomy of the Body. [Part. I. sec. L 

joy, to send the blood outwardly ; in sorrow, to call it in ; 
moving the humours, as horses do a chariot. This heart, 
though it be one sole member, yet it may be divided into two 
creeks right and lefL The right is like the moon increasing, 
bigger than the other part, and receives blood from Vena cava 
distributing some of it to the lungs to nourish them ; the rest 
to the lefl side, to engender spirits. The left creek hath the 
form of a cone, and is the seat of life, which, as a torch doth 
oil, draws blood unto it, begetting of it spirits and fire ; and 
as fire in a torch, so are spirits in the blood ; and by that 
great artery called aorta, it sends vital spirits over the body, 
and takes air from the lungs by that artery which is called 
venosa ; so that both creeks have their vessels, the right two 
veins, the lefl two arteries, besides those two common anfi'ac- 
tuous ears, which serve them both ; the one to hold blood, 
the other air, for several uses. The lungs is a thin spongy 
part, like an ox hoof (saith * Femelius), the town-clerk or 
crier (^ one terms it), the instrument of voice, as an orator to 
a king ; annexed to the heart, to express their thoughts by 
voice. That it is the instrument of voice, is manifest, in that 
no creature can speak, or utter any voice, which wanteth 
these lights. It is besides the instrument of respiration, or 
breathing ; and its office is to cool the heart, by sending air 
unto it, by the venosal artery, which vein comes to the lungs 
by that aspera arteria, which consists of many gristles, mem- 
branes, nerves, taking in air at the nose and mouth, and by 
it likewise exhales the fumes of the heart. 

In the upper region serving the animal faculties, the chief 
organ is the brain, which is a soft, marrowish, and white sub- 
stance, engendered of the purest part of seed and spirits, in- 
cluded by many skins, and seated within the skull or brain- 
pan ; and it is the most noble organ under heaven, the 
dwelling-house and seat of the soul, the habitation of wisdom, 
memory, judgment, reason, and in which man is most like 

1 Physio. 1. 1, 0. 8. * Ut orator regi : sic pnlmo Tods instnunentTim anneetitar 
cordi, &c. Melancth. 


Mem. 2, subs. 5.] Anatomy of the Soul. 205 

unto God ; and therefore nature hath covered it with a skull 
of hard bone, and two skins or membranes, whereof the one 
is called dura mater, or meninx, the other pia mater. The 
dura mater is next to the skull, above the other, which in- 
cludes and protects the brain. When this is taken away, the 
pia mater is to be seen, a thin membrane, the next and im- 
mediate cover of the brain, and not covering only, but enter- 
ing into it. The brain itself is divided into two parts, the 
fore and hinder part ; the fore part is much bigger than the 
other, which is called the little brain in respect of it This 
fore part hath many concavities distinguished by certain ven- 
tricles, which are the receptacles of the spirits, brought 
hither by the arteries from the heart, and are there refined 
to a more heavenly nature, to perform the actions of the soul. 
Of these ventricles there are three — right, left, and middle. 
The right and left answer to their sight, and beget animal 
spirits ; if they be any way hurt, sense and motion ceaseth. 
These ventricles, moreover, are held to be the seat of the 
common sense. The middle ventricle is a common concourse 
and concavity of them both, and hath two passages — the one 
to receive pituita, and the other extends itself to the fourth 
creek ; in this they place imagination and cogitation, and so 
the three ventricles of the fore part of the brain are used. 
The fourth creek behind the head is common to the cerebel 
or little brain, and marrow of the backbone, the last and 
most solid of all the rest, which receives the animal spirits 
from the other ventricles, and conveys them to the marrow 
in the back, and is the place where they say the memory is 

SuBSECT. V. — 0/ the Soul and her Faculties. 

According to * Aristotle, the soul is defined to be hre^A" 
Xeia, perfectio et actus primus corporis organici, vitam habentis 
in potentia ; the perfection or first act of an organical body, 
having power of life, which most ^philosophers approve. 

1 De anim. o. 1. * Scalig. exerc. 807. Tolet. in lib. de anima. cap. 1, &e. 

206 Anatomy of the SouL [Part I. see. s. 

But many doubts arise about tbe essence, subject, seat, dis^ 
iinction, and subordinate ^ulties of it For the essence and 
particular knowledge, of all other things it is most hard (be it 
of man or beast) to discern, as i Aristotle himself, * Tally, 
•Picus Mirandula, *Tolet, and other Neoteric philosophers 
confess : — ^ " We can understand all things by her, but what 
she is we cannot apprehend." Some therefore make one 
soul, divided into three principal faculties ; others, three 
distinct souls. Which question of late hath been much 
controverted by Picolomineus and ZabareL • Paracelsus will 
have four souls, adding to the three grand faculties a spiritual 
soul ; which opinion of his, Campanclla, in his book de senm 
rerum,* much labours to demonstrate and prove, because car- 
casses bleed at the sight of the murderer ; with many such 
arguments : And ^ some again, one soul of all creatures what- 
soever, differing only in organs ; and that beasts have reason 
as well as men, though, for some defect of organs, not in such 
measure. Others make a doubt whether it be all in all, and 
all in every part; which is amply discussed in Zabarel 
amongst the rest The <> common division of the soul is 
into three principal faculties — ^vegetal, sensitive, and rational, 
which make three distinct kinds of living creatures — vegetal 
plants, sensible beasts, rational men. How these three prin- 
cipal faculties are distinguished and connected, Humoaio in- 
genio inaccessum videtur, is beyond human capacity, as 
•Taurellus, Philip, Flavins, and others suppose. The in- 
ferior may be alone, but the superior cannot subsist without 
the other ; so sensible includes vegetal, rational both ; which 
are contained in it (saith Aristotle) ut trigorms in tetragono, 
as a triangle in a quadrangle. 

Vegetal SotdJ] Vegetal, the first of the three distinct fac- 
ulties, is defined to be " a substantial act of an organical body, 

1 1, Be anima. cap. 1. > Tuscul. queest. r CoeUns, lib. 2, c. 81. Plutarch, in 

3 Lib. 6, Doct. Va. Q«util. c. 18, pag. 1216. Grillo lips. Cen. 1, ep. 60. Jossius de 

* Aristot. s Anim& quaeque intelligi- lUsu et Fletu, Ayerroes, Campanella, &«. 

mus, et tamen quss sit ipsa intelligere 8 Philip, de Anima. ca. 1. Coelios 20, 

non yalemus. o Spiritualem animam a antiq. cap. 8. Plutarch, de placit. philos. 

reliquis distinctam tuetur, etiam in ca- 9 i>e yit. et mort. part. 2, c. 8, prop. 1, de 

dayere inhaerentem post mortem per aU- yit. et mort. 2, c. 22. 
luot menses. *Lib. 8, cap. 81. 

Mem. 2, snbs. 6.] Anatomy of the Soul, 207 

by which it is nourished, augmented, and begets anothei like 
unto itself." In which definition, three several operations are 
specified — altrix, auctrix, procreatrix ; the first is * nutrition, 
whose object is nourishment, meat, drink, and the like ; his 
organ the liver in sensible creatures ; in plants, the root or 
sap. His office is to turn the nutriment into the substance 
of the body nourished, which he performs by natural heat 
This nutritive operation hath four other subordinate functions 
or powers belonging to it — attraction, retention, digestion, 

Attraction.^ "Attraction is a ministering faculty, which, 
as a loadstone doth iron, draws meat into the stomach, or as 
a lamp doth oil ; and this attractive power is very necessary 
in plants, which suck up moisture by the root, as another 
mouth, into the sap, as a like stomach. 

RetentionJ] Retention keeps it, being attracted into the 
stomach, until such time it be concocted ; for if it should pass 
away straight, the body could not be nourished. 

Digestion^] Digestion is performed by natural heat ; for 
as the flame of a torch consumes oil, wax, tallow, so doth it 
alter and digest the nutritive matter. Indigestion is opposite 
unto it, for want of natural heat. Of this digestion there be 
three differences — maturation, elixation, assation. 

Maturation,'] Maturation is especially observed in the 
fruits of trees; which are then said to be ripe, when the 
seeds are fit to be sown again. Crudity is opposed to it, 
which gluttons, epicures, and idle persons are most subject 
unto, that use no exercise to stir natural heat, or else choke 
it, as too much wood puts out a fire. 

ElixationJ] Elixation is the seething of meat in the stom- 
ach, by the said natural heat, as meat is boiled in a pot ; to 
which corruption or putrefaction is opposite. 

AssationJ] Assation is a concoction of the inward moisture 
by heat ; his opposite is a semiustulation. 

Order of Concoction fourfotdJ] Besides these three sev- 

iNntritio est alimenti transmntatio. tIto naturaliB. Seal, ezeic. 101, fleo. 17. 
Bee more of Attiaotion in Seal. ezer. 818. 

208 AncUomy of the Soul. [Part. I. sec. i 

eral operations of digestion, there is a fourfold order of con- 
coction : — ^mastication, or chewing in the mouth ; chilification 
of this so chewed meat in the stomach ; the third is in the 
liver, to turn this chylus into blood, called sanguification ; the 
last is assimulation, which is in every part. 

JElxptdston,^ Expulsion is a power of nutrition, by which 
it expels all superfluous excrements, and relics of meat and 
drink, by the guts, bladder, pores ; as by purging, vomiting, 
spitting, sweating, urine, hairs, nails, &c. 

Augmentation,^ As this nutritive faculty serves to nourish 
the body, so doth the augmenting faculty (the second opera- 
tion or power of the vegetal faculty) to the increasing of it 
in quantity, according to all dimensions, long, broad, thick, 
and to make it grow till it come to his due proportion and 
perfect shape ; which hath his period of augmentation, as of 
consumption ; and that most certain, as the poet observes : — 

" Stat sua caique dies, breve et irreparabile tempus 
Omnibus est vitee." 

" A term of life is set to every man, 
Which is but short, and pass it no one can." 

Generatton,li The last of these vegetal faculties is gener- 
ation, which begets another by means of seed, like unto itself, 
to the perpetual preservation of the species. To this faculty 
they ascribe three subordinate operations : — the first to turn 
nourishment into seed, &c. 

I/ife and Death concomitants of the Vegetal Faculties,'] 
Necessary concomitants or affections of this vegetal faculty 
are life and his privation, death. To the preservation of life 
the natural heat is most requisite, though siccity and humid- 
ity, and those first qualities, be not excluded. This heat is 
likewise in plants, as appears by their increasing, fructifying, 
&c., though not so easily perceived. In all bodies it must 
have radical ^ moisture to preserve it, that it be not con- 
sumed ; to which preservation our clime, countiy, tempera- 
ture, and the good or bad use of those six non-natural things 
avail much. For as this natural heat and moisture decay S| 

1 Vita consistit in calido et humido. 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] AncUomy of the SouL 209 

so doth our life itself; and if not prevented before by some 
violent accident, or interrupted through our own default, is 
in the end dried up by old age, and extinguished by death 
for want of matter, as a lamp for defect of oil to maintain it. 

SuBSECT. VI. — Of the sensible Sotd. 

Next in order is the sensible faculty, which is as far be- 
yond the other in dignity as a beast is preferred to a plant, 
having those vegetal powers included in it. 'Tis defined an 
*' Act of an organical body by which it lives, hath sense, ap- 
petite, judgment, breath, and motion.'* His object in general 
is a sensible or passible quality, because the sense is affected 
with it The general organ is the brain, from which princi- 
pally the sensible operations are derived. This sensible soul 
is divided into two parts, apprehending or moving. By the 
apprehensive power we perceive the species of sensible things 
present, or absent, and retain them as wax doth the print of 
a seal. By the moving, the body is outwardly carried from 
one place to another ; or inwardly moved by spirits and 
pulse. The apprehensive faculty is subdivided into two 
parts, inward or outward. Outward, as the hve senses, of 
touching, hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, to which you may 
add Scaliger's sixth sense of titillation, if you please ; or that 
of speech, which is the sixth external sense, according to 
Lullius. Inward are three — common sense, fantasy, mem- 
ory. Those ^ye outward senses have their object in outward 
things only and such as are present, as the eye sees no colour 
except it be at hand, the ear sound. Three of these senses 
are of commodity, hearing, sight, and smell ; two of necessity, 
touch, and taste, without which we cannot live. Besides, the 
sensitive power is active or passive. Active in sight, the eye 
sees the colour ; passive when it is hurt by his object, as the 
eye by the sunbeams. According to that axiom, Visibile forte 
destruit sensum} Or if the object be not pleasing, as a bad 
sound to the ear, a stinking smell to the nose, &c 

1 " Too bright an object destroys the organ." 
VOL. I. 14 

210 AtMUomy of the SovL [Part. I. sec. L 

Sighl,'\ Of these five senses, sight is held to be most 
precious, and the best, and that bj reason of his object, it 
sees the whole body at once. Bj it we learn, and discern 
aU things, a sense most excellent for use ; to the sight three 
things are required ; the object, the organ, and the medium. 
The object in general is visible, or that which is to be seen, 
as colours, and all shining bodies. The medium is the illu- 
mination of the air, which comes from ^ light, commonly 
called diaphanum ; for in dark we cannot see. The organ is 
the eye, and chiefly the apple of it, which by those optic 
nerves, concurring both in one, conveys the sight to the com- 
mon sense. Between the organ and object a true distance 
is required, that it be not too near, nor too far off. Many 
excellent questions appertain to this sense, discussed by phi- 
losophei*s ; as whether this sight be caused intra mittendo, vel 
extra mittendo, S^c, by receiving in the visible species, or 
sending of them out, which ^ Plato, * Plutarch, * Macrobius, 
' Lactantius, and others dispute. And besides it is the sub- 
ject of the perspectives, of which Alhazen the Arabian, Vi- 
teUio, Roger Bacon, Baptista Porta, G-uidus Ubaldus, Aqui- 
lonius, &c, have written whole volumes. 

JTearingJ] Hearing, a most excellent outward sense, ^' by 
which we learn and get knowledge." His object is sound, 
or that which is heard ; the medium, air; organ the ear. To 
the sound, which is a collision of the air, three things are 
required ; a body to strike, as the hand of a musician ; the 
body struck, which must be solid and able to resist; as a 
bell, lutestring, not wool, or sponge; the medium, the air; 
which is inward, or outward; the outward being struck or 
collided by a solid body, still strikes the next air, until it 
come to that inward natural air, which as an exquisite organ 
is contained in a little skin formed like a drum-head, and 
struck upon by certain small instruments like drum-sticks, 
owiveys the sound by a pair of nerves, appropriated to that 

1 Lumen est actus penpicui. Lumen pract. Philofl. 4. * Lao. cap. 8, de cpif 
k luce provenit, lux est in corpore lucido. Dei. 1. 
a Satur. 7, c. 14. ^InPhflddon «De 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Anatomy of ^ Soul. 211 

use, to the common sense, as to a judge of sounds. There is 
great variety and much delight in them ; for the knowledge 
of which, consult with Boethius and other musicians. 

SmeUtngJ] Smelling is an " outward sense, which appre- 
hends by the nostrils drawing in air ; " and of all the rest it 
is the weakest sense in men. The organ in the nose, or two 
small hollow pieces of flesh a little above it ; the medium tlie 
air to men, as water to fish ; the object, smell, arising from a 
mixed body resolved, which, whether it be a quality, fume, 
vapour, or exhalation, I will not now dispute, or of their 
differences, and how they are caused. This sense is an organ 
of health, as sight and hearing, saith ^ Agellius, are of dis- 
cipline; and that by avoiding bad smells, as by choosing 
good, which do as much alter and affect the body many times, 
as diet itself. 

TasteJ] Taste, a necessary sense, "which perceives all 
savours by the tongue and palate, and that by means of a 
thin spittle, or watery juice." His organ is the tongue with 
his tasting nerves ; the medium, a watery juice ; the object, 
taste, or savour, which is a quality in the juice, arising from 
the mixture of things tasted. Some make eight species or 
kinds of savour, bitter, sweet, sharp, salt, &c., all which sick 
men (as in an ague) cannot discern, by reason of their organs 

Totichirig,'] Touch, the last of the senses, and most ignoble, 
yet of aa great necessity as the other, and of as much pleas- 
ure. This sense is exquisite in men, and by his nerves 
dispersed all over the body, perceives any tactile quality. 
His organ the nerves ; his object those first qualities, hot, 
dry, moist, cold ; and those that follow them^ hard, soft, thick, 
thin, &c Many delightsome questions are moved by phi- 
losophers about these five senses ; their organs, objects^ 
mediums, which for brevity I omit. 

1 Lib. 19, cap. 2. 

212 Anatomy of the SouL [Part I. see. L 

SuBSECT. VII. — Of the Inward Senses. 

Common Sensed] Inner senses are three in number, so 
called, because thej be within the brain-pan, as common 
sense, fantasy, memory. Their objects are not onlj things 
present, but thej perceive the sensible species of things to 
come, past, absent, such as were before in the sense. This 
common sense is the judge or moderator of the rest, by 
whom we discern all differences of objects ; for by mine 
eye I do not know that I see, or by mine ear that I hear, but 
by my common sense, who judgeth of sounds and colours ; 
they are but the organs to bring the species to be censured ; 
80 that all their objects are his, and all their offices are his. 
The fore part of the brain is his organ or seat 

FantasyJ] Fantasy, or imagination, which some call esti- 
mative, or cogitative (confirmed, saith ^Femelius, by fi-e- 
quent meditation), is an inner sense which doth more fully 
examine the species perceived by common sense, of things 
present or absent, and keeps them longer, recalling them to 
mind again, or making new of his own. In time of sleep 
this faculty is free, and many times conceives strange, 
Btupend, absurd shapes, as in sick men we commonly observe. 
His organ is the middle cell of the brain ; his objects all the 
species communicated to him by the common sense, by com- 
parison of which he feigns infinite other unto himself. In 
melancholy men this faculty is most powerful and strong, and 
often hurts, producing many monstrous and prodigious things, 
especially if it be stirred up by some terrible object, pre- 
sented to it from common sense or memory. In poets and 
painters imagination forcibly works, as appears by their 
several fictions, antics, images ; as Ovid's house of sleep. 
Psyche's palace in Apuleius, &c. In men it is subject and 
governed by reason, or at least should be ; but in brutes it 
hath no superior, and is ratio bnUorumy all the reason they 

1 Phis. 1. 6, c. 8. 


Mem. 2, subs. 8.] Anatomy of the SotiL 213 

Memory J] Memory lays up all the species which the senses 
have brought in, and records them as a good register, that 
they may be forthcoming when they are called for by fan- 
tasy and reason. His object is the same with fantasy, 
his seat and organ the back part of the brain. 

Affections of the Senses, sleep and waMngJ] The affec- 
tions of these senses are sleep and waking, common to all 
sensible creatures. " Sleep is a rest or binding of the out- 
ward senses, and of the common sense, for the preservation 
of body and soul " (as ^ Scaliger defines it) ; for when the 
common sense resteth, the outward senses rest also. The 
fantasy alone is free, and his commander reason; as ap- 
pears by those imaginary dreams, which are of divers kinds, 
natural, divine, demoniacal, &c., which vary according to 
humours, diet, actions, objects, &c., of which Artemidorus, 
Cardanus, and Sambucus, with their several interpreters, 
have written great volumes. This ligation of senses pro- 
ceeds from an inhibition of spirits, the way being stopped by 
which they should come ; this stopping is caused of vapours 
arising out of the stomach, filling the nerves, by which the 
spirits should be conveyed. When these vapours are spent, 
the passage is open, and the spirits perform their accustomed 
duties; so that "waking is the action and motion of the 
senses, which the spirits dispersed over all parts cause." 

SuBSECT. Vni. — Of the Moving FacvUy, 

Appetite,"] This moving faculty is the other power of the 
sensitive soul, which causeth all those inward and outward 
animal motions in the body. It is divided into two faculties, 
the power of appetite, and of moving from place to place. 
This of appetite is threefold, so some will have it ; natural, as 
it signifies any such inclination, as of a stone to fall downward, 
and such actions as retention, expulsion, which depend not 
on sense, but are vegetal, as the appetite of meat and drink ; 

1 Ezerdt. 280. 

214 Anatomy of the SouL [Part. L mo. l 

hanger and thirst. Sensitive is common to men and brutes. 
Voluntary, the third, or intellective, which commands the 
other two in men, and is a curb unto them, or at least should 
be, but for the most part is captivated and overruled bj 
them ; and men are led like beasts by sense, giving reins to 
their concupiscence and several lusts. For bj this appetite 
the soul is led or inclined to follow that good which the 
senses shall approve, or avoid that which they hold evil ; his 
object being good or evil, the one he embraceth, the other ho 
rejecteth ; according to that aphorism. Omnia appetunt honum, 
all things seek their own good, or at least seeming good. 
This power is inseparable from sense, for where sense is, 
there are likewise pleasure and pain. His organ is the same 
with the common sense, and is divided into two powers, or 
inclinations, concupiscible or irascible ; or (as ^ one translates 
it) coveting, anger, invading, or impugning. Concupiscible 
covets always pleasant and delightsome things, and abhors 
that which is distasteful, harsh, and unpleasant. Irascible, 
* quasi aversans per iram et odium, as avoiding it with anger 
and indignation. All affections and perturbations arise out 
of these two fountains, which, although the Stoics make light 
of, we hold natural, and not to be resisted. The good affec- 
tions are caused by some object of the same nature ; and if 
present, they procure joy, which dilates the heart and pre- 
serves the body ; if absent, they cause hope, love, desire, and 
concupiscence. The bad are simple or mixed; simple for 
some bad object present, as sorrow, which contracts the heart, 
macerates the soul, subverts the good estate of the body, 
hindering all the operations of it, causing melancholy, and 
many times death itself; or future, as fear. Out of these 
two arise these mixed affections and passions of anger, which 
is a desire of revenge ; hatred, which is inveterate anger ; 
zeal, which is offended with him who hurts that he loves ; 
and kmxaipeKOKiaf a compound affection of joy and hate, when 
we rejoice at other men's mischief, and are grieved at theii 

1 T. W. Jesuite, in his PMsians of fhe Miude. > Velcurio. 

Mem. 2, sabs. 8.] Anaiomy of the SovL 215 

prosperity ; pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, &c, of 
which elsewhere. 

Moving from pkice to place, is a faculty necessarily follow- 
ing the other. For in vain were it otherwise to desire and 
to abhor, if we had not likewise power to prosecute or eschew, 
by moving the body from place to place ; by this faculty, 
therefore, we locally move the body, or any part of it, and go 
from one place to another. To the better performance of 
which, three things are requisite : that which moves ; by 
what it moves ; that which is moved. That which moves, is 
either the efficient cause, or end. The end is the object, 
which is desired or eschewed ; as in a dog to catch a hare, 
&c. The efficient cause in man is reason, or his subordinate 
fantasy, which apprehends good or bad objects ; in brutes 
imagination alone, which moves the appetite, the appetite this 
faculty, which, by an admirable league of nature, and by me- 
diation of the spirit, commands the organ by which it moves ; 
and that consists of nerves, muscles, cords, dispersed through 
the whole body, contracted and relaxed as the spirits will, 
which move the muscles, or * nerves in the midst of them, 
and draw the cord, and so per consequens, the joint, to the 
place intended. That which is moved, is the body or some 
member apt to move. The motion of the body is divers, as 
going, running, leaping, dancing, sitting, and such like, re- 
ferred to the predicament of situs. Worms creep, birds fly, 
fishes swim ; and so of parts, the chief of which is respiration 
or breathing, and is thus performed. The outward air is 
drawn in by the vocal artery, and sent by mediation of the 
midriff to the lungs, which, dilating themselves as a pair of 
bellows, reciprocally fetch it in, and send it out to the heart 
to cool it ; and from thence now being hot, convey it again, 
still taking in fresh. Such a like motion is that of the pulsC; 
of which, because many have written whole books, I will say 

1 Neiri i uplritn moTentur, spiritas ab anima, Melanct. 


216 Anatomy of the SotiL [Part. L sec. 1. 

SuBSECT. IX. — Of the Rational SauL 

In the precedent subsections I have anatomized those in- 
ferior faculties of the soul ; the rational remaineth, ^ a pleas- 
ant but a doubtful subject " (as ^ one terms it), and with the 
like brevity to be discussed. Many erroneous opinions are 
about the essence and original of it ; whether it be fire, as 
Zeno held ; harmony, as Aristoxenus ; number, as Xenocra- 
tes ; whether it be organical, or inorganical ; seated in the 
brain, heart or blood ; mortal or immortal ; how it comes into 
the body. Some hold that it is ex traduce, as PhU, \,de 
AnimOy TertuUian, LactarUius de opific, Dei, cap. 19. Hugo, 
lib. de Spiritu et Anima, Vincentius BeUavic. spec, naturaL 
lib. 23, cap. 2, et 11. Hippocrates, Avioenna, and many 
' late writers ; that one man begets another, body and soul ; 
or as a candle from a candle, to be produced from the seed ; 
otherwise, say they, a man begets but half a man, and is 
worse than a beast that begets both matter and form ; and 
besides the three faculties of the soul must be together in- 
fused, which is most absurd as they hold, because in beasts 
they are begot, the two inferior I mean, and may not be well 
separated in men. ' Galen supposeth the soul crasin esse, to 
be the temperature itself; Trismegistus, Musseus, Orpheus, 
Homer, Pindarus, Phaerecides Syrus, Epictetus, with the 
Chaldees and Egyptians, affirmed the soul to be immortal, 
as did those British * Druids of old. The * Pythagoreans 
defend Metempsychosis ; and Palingenesia, that souls go from 
one body to another, epotd prius Lethes undd, as men into 
wolves, bears, dogs, hogs, as they were inclined in their lives, 
or participated in conditions. 

t *' inque ferinas 
Possnmos ire domus, pecndumque in corpora condi." 

1 Velcurio. Jucundum et anoepe snb- * Read iBneas Gaaens dial, of the immor- 

jectum. s Qoclenius in irvxoX. pag* tality of the Soul. t O^id. Met. 15. 

802. Bright In Phyg.8crib. 1.1. David " We, who may take up our abode in wild 

Orudus, Melancthon, Hippiua Hemiua, ^^, or be lodged In the breastB of cat- 

Levinus Lemnius, &c. * Lib. an mores ^^^'^ 
lequantur, &c. « Cnsar. 6, com. 

Mem. 2, subs. 9.] Anatomy of the Soul. 217 

* Lucian's cock was first Euphorbus a captain : 

" Ifle ego (nam memini) Trojani tempore belli. 
Panthoides Euphorbus eram.'* 

A horse, a man, a sponge. ^Julian the Apostate thought 
Alexander's soul was descended into his body : Plato in 
Timaeo, and in his Phaedon (for aught I can perceive), differs 
not much from this opinion, that it was from Grod at first, and 
knew all, but being inclosed in the body, it forgets, and learns 
anew, which he calls remimscentta, or recalling, and that it 
was put into the body for a punishment ; and thence it goes 
into a beast's, or man's, as appears by his pleasant fiction de 
sortitione animarumj lib. 10, de rep. and after ' ten thousand 
years is to return into the former body again. 

* '* post varios annos, per mUle figuras, 
Rursus ad humause fertur primordia vitse." 

Others deny the immortality of it, which Pomponatus of 
Padua decided out of Aristotle not long since, Plinius Avun- 
culus, cap. 1, lib. 2, et lib. 7, cap. 55 / Seneca, UK 7, epist. ad 
Lucilium epist. 55 / Dicearchus in IMl. Tusc. Epicurus^ 
Aratus, Hippocrates, Galen, L/acretius, lib. 1. 

" (Praeterek gigni pariter cum corpore, et una 
Grescere sentimus, pariterque senescere mentem.)*' f 

Averroes, and I know not how many Neoterics. % " This 
question of the immortality of the soul, is diversely and won- 
derfully impugned and disputed, especially among the Italians 
of late," saith Jab. Golerus, lib. de immort. animce, cap. 1. 
The popes themselves have doubted of it ; Leo Decimus, that 
Epicurean pope, as § some record of him, caused this ques- 
tion to be discussed pro and con before him, and concluded 
at last, as a profane and atheistical moderator, with that 

1 In Oallo. Idem. > Nicephorus, hist, with the body, grows with it, and decays 

lib. 10, cap. 85. s Phsedo. * Clan- with it." t Haec quaestio multos per 

dian, lib. 1, derap. Proserp. t"Be- annos Tari^, ao mirablUter impugnata, 

sides, we observe tliat the mind is bom &o. § Colerus, ibid. 

218 Anatomy of the SauL [Part. I. sec. l. 

verse of Cornelius Grallas, JSi redU in nihUum, quodfuit ante 
nihiL It began of nothing, and in nothing it ends. Zeno 
and his Stoics, as * Austin quotes him, supposed the soul so 
long to continue, till the bodj was fully putrefied, and re- 
solved into materia prima ; but after that, in fumos evanes- 
cere, to be extinguished and vanished ; and in the mean time, 
whilst the bodj was consuming, it wandered all abroad, ei e 
hnginquo muUa annunciare, and (as that Clazomenian Her- 
motimus averred) saw pretty visions, and suffered I know not 
what t Arrant exangues sine corpore et ossihus umhrcB, 
Others grant the immortality thereof, but they make many 
fabulous fictions in the mean time of it, afler the departure 
from the body ; like Plato's Elysian fields, and that Turkey 
paradise. The souls of good men they deified ; the bad 
(saith ^ Austin) became devils, as they supposed ; with many 
such absurd tenets, which he hath confuted. Hierome, Aus- 
tin, and other Fathers of the Church, hold that the soul is 
immortal, created of nothing, and so infused into the child or 
embryo in his mother's womb, six months after the ^ concep- 
tion ; not as those of brutes, which are ex traduce, and dying 
with them vanish into nothing. To whose divine treatises, 
and to the Scriptures themselves, I rejourn all such atheis- 
tical spirits, as TuUy did Atticus, doubting of this point, to 
Plato's Phaedon. Or if they desire philosophical proofs and 
demonstrations, I refer them to Niphus, Nic. Faventinus's 
tracts of this subject. To Fran, and John Picus in digress ; 
sup. 3, de Anima, Tholosanus, Eugubinus, to Soto, Canas, 
Thomas, Peresius, Dandinus, Colerusj, to that elaborate tract 
in Zancbius, to Tolet's Sixty Reasons, and Lessius's Twenty- 
two Arguments, to prove the immortality of the soul. (7am- 
paneUalib. de Sensu rerwn, is large in the same discourse, 
Albertinus the Schoolman, Jacob. Nactantus, tom. 2, op. 
handleth it in four questions, Antony Brunus, Aonius Pale- 
arius, Marinus Marcennus, with many others. This reason- 

* De eocles. dog. cap. 16. t Ovid. 4, rum lares, malorum vero larvu et lem- 
Met. " The bloodless shades without ures. > Some saj at three days, some 
either body or bones wander." ^ Bono- six weeks, others otherwise. 

Mem. 2, subs. 10.] Anatomy of the Soul. 21 £ 

able soul, which Austin calls a spiritual substance moving 
itself, is defined by philosophers to be ^ the first substantial 
act of a natural, humane, organical body, hj which a man 
lives, perceives, and understands, freely doing all things, and 
with election." Out of which definition we may gather, that 
this rational soul includes the powers, and performs the duties 
of the other two, which are contained in it, and all three fac- 
ulties make one soul, which is inorganical of itself, although 
it be in all parts, and incorporeal, using their organs, and 
working by them. It is divided into two chief parts, differ- 
ing in office only, not in essence. The understanding, which 
is the rational power apprehending ; the will, which is the 
rational power moving ; to which two, all the other rational 
powers are subject and reduced. 

SuBSECT. X. — Of the Understanding 

"Understanding is a power of the soul, 'by which we 
perceive, know, remember, and judge as well singulars, as 
universals, having certain innate notices or beginnings of arts, 
a reflecting action, by which it judgeth of his own doings, and 
examines them." Out of this definition (besides his chief 
office, which is to apprehend, judge all that he performs, 
without the help of any instruments or organs) three difier- 
ences appear betwixt a man and a beast. As first, the sense 
only comprehends singularities, the understanding universal- 
ities. Secondly, the sense hath no innate notions. Thirdly, 
brutes cannot reflect upon themselves. Bees indeed make 
neat and curious works, and many other creatures besides ; 
but when they have done, they cannot judge of them. His 
object is God, JEns, all nature, and whatsoever is to be under- 
stood ; which successively it apprehends. The object first 
moving the understanding, is some sensible thing ; after by 
discoursing, the mind finds out the corporeal substance, and 
from thence the spiritual. His actions (some say) are appre- 
hension, composition, division, discoursing, reasoning, memory, 

1 Melancthon. 

220 Anatomy of the SouL [Part I. sec. 1. 

which some include in invention, and judgment. The com- 
mon divisions are of the understanding, agent, and patient ; 
speculative, and practical ; in habit, or in act ; simple, or 
compound. The agent is that which i^ called the wit of man, 
acumen or subtiltj, sharpness of invention, when he doth 
invent of himself without a teacher, or learns anew, which 
abstracts those intelligible species from the fantasy, and 
transfers them to the passive understanding, * " because there 
is nothing in the understanding, which was not first in the 
sense." That which the imagination hath taken from the 
sense, this agent judgeth of, whether it be true or false ; and 
being so judged he commits it to the passible to be kept 
The agent is a doctor or teacher, the passive a scholar ; and 
his office is to keep and further judge of such things as are 
committed to his charge ; as a bare and rased table at first, 
capable of all forms and notions. Now these notions are two- 
fold, actions or habits ; actions, by which we take notions of, 
and perceive things ; habits, which are durable lights and 
notions, which we may use when we will. Some reckon up 
eight kinds of them, sense, experience, intelligence, faith, 
suspicion, error, opinion, science; to which are added art, 
prudency, wisdom ; as also ^ synteresis, dictamen rationis^ 
conscience; so that in all there be fourteen species of the 
understanding, of which some are innate, as the three last 
mentioned ; the other are gotten by doctrine, learning, and 
use. Plato will have all to be innate ; Aristotle reckons up 
but ^ye intellectual habits ; two practical, as prudency, whose 
end is to practise ; to fabricate ; wisdom to comprehend the 
use and experiments of all notions and habits whatsoever. 
Which division of Aristotle (if it be considered aright) is all 
one with the precedent ; for three being innate, and ^\q 
acquisite, the rest are improper, imperfect, and in a more 
strict examination excluded. Of all these I should more 
amply dilate, but my subject will not permit Three of them 

1 Nihil in intellectu, quod non priuB fUeiat in sensu. Velcurio. s xhe pure p«rt 
of the conscience. 

Mem. 2, subs. 11.] Anatomy of the Soul, 221 

I will only point at, as more necessary to my following dis- 

Synteresis, or the purer part of the conscience, is an innate 
habit, and doth signify " a conversation of the knowledge of 
the law of God and Nature, to know good or evil." And (as 
our divines hold) it is rather in the understanding than in the 
will. This makes the major proposition in a practical syllo- 
gism. The dictamen rationis is that which doth admonish us 
to do good or evil, and is the minor in the syllogism. The 
conscience is that which approves good or evil, justifying or 
condemning our actions, and is the conclusion of the syllo- 
gism ; as in that familiar example of Regulus the Eoman, 
taken prisoner by the Carthaginians, and suffered to go to 
Rome, on that condition he should return again, or pay so 
much for his ransom. The synteresis proposeth the ques- 
tion; his word, oath, promise, is to be religiously kept, 
although to his enemy, and that by the law of nature. ^ " Do 
not that to another which thou wouldest not have done to 
thyself." Dictamen applies it to him, and dictates this or the 
like : Regulus, thou wouldst not another man should falsify 
his oath, or break promise with thee ; conscience concludes, 
therefore, Regulus, thou dost well to perform thy promise, 
and oughtest to keep thine oath. More of this in Religious 

SuBSECT. XL — Of the Will. 

Will is the other power of the rational soul, ^ " which 
covets or avoids such things as have been before judged and 
apprehended by the understanding." If good, it approves ; 
if evil, it abhors it ; so that his object is either good or evil. 
Aristotle calls this our rational appetite ; for as, in the sensi- 
tive, we are moved to good or bad by our appetite, ruled and 
directed by sense ; so in this we are carried by reason. Be- 
sides, the sensitive appetite hath a particular object, good or 

1 Quod tibi fieri non vis, alter! ne fece- cipit, vel rejicit ; approbat, vel improbat, 
ris. s Res ab intelleotu monstratas re- Philip. Ignoti nulla cupido. 

222 Anatomy of the Soul [Part. L sec. 1. 

bad ; this an universal, immaterial ; that respects onlj things 
delectable and pleasant ; this honest. Again, they differ in 
liberty. The sensual appetite seeing an object, if it be a 
convenient good, cannot but desire it ; if evil, avoid it ; bat 
this is free in his essence, *"much now depraved, obscured, 
and fallen from his first perfection ; yet in some of his opera- 
tions still free," as to go, walk, move at his pleasure, and to 
choose whether it will do or not do, steal or not steal. Other- 
wise, in vain were laws, deliberations, exhortations, counsels, 
precepts, rewards, promises, threats and punishments ; and 
God should be the author of sin. But in ^ spiritual things 
we will no good, prone to evil (except we be regenerate, and 
led by the Spirit), we are egged on by our natural concupis- 
cence, and there is dra^to, a confusion in our powers, • " our 
whole will is averse from God and his law," not in natural 
things only, as to eat and drink, lust, to which we are led 
headlong by our temperature and inordinate appetite, 

^ " Nee no8 obniti contra, nee tendere tanttun 

we cannot resist,, our concupiscence is originally bad, our 
heart evil, the seat of our affections captivates and enforceth 
our will. So that in voluntary things we are averse from 
Gk)d and goodness, bad by nature, by * ignorance worse, by 
art, discipline, custom, we get many bad habits ; suffering 
them to domineer and tyrannize over us ; and the devil is 
still ready at hand with his evil suggestions, to tempt our 
depraved will to some ill-disposed action, to precipitate us to 
destruction, except our will be swayed and counterpoised 
again with some divine precepts, and good motions of the 
spirit, which many times restrain, hinder and check us, when 
we are in the full career of our dissolute courses. So David 
corrected himself, when he had Saul at a vantage. Revenge 

1 Melancthon. Operationes plerumque " We are neither able to contend against 

ferae, etsi libera sit ilia in essentia sua. them, nor only to make way." fi Vel 

s In civilibus libera, sed non in spirituali- propter ignorantiam, quod bonis stiuMis 

bus Osiander. > Tota TOluntas aversa non sit instructa mens at debuit, aat di- 

k Deo. Omnis homo mendaz. * Virg. vinis prseceptis ezculta. 

Hem. a, Bcbe. 11.] Anatomy of the S&al. 22S 

and malice were as two violent oppugnera on the one aide 
but honesty, reli^on, fear of God, withheld him on Ihe other 
The acticma of the will are velU and noUe, to will and nill ; 
which two words comprehend all, and thej are good or bad, 
accordingly as they are directed, and some of them freely per- 
formed by himself; although tlie Stoics absolutely deny it, 
and will have all things inevitably done by destiny, imposing 
a fatal necessity upon us, which we may not resist ; yet we 
eay that our will is free in respect of us, and things condi^ 
gent, howsoever in respect of Glod's determinate counsel, they 
are inevitable and necessary. Some other actions of the will 
are performed by the inferior powers, which obey him, as the 
sensitive and moving appetite ; as to open our eyes, to go 
hither and thither, not to touch a book, to speak fair or foul ; 
but this appetite is many times rebellious in us, and will not 
be contained within the lists of sobriety and temperance. It 
was (as I said) once well agreeing with reason, and there was 
an excellent consent and harm(iny between them, but that is 
now dissolved, they otien jar, reason is overborne by passion : 
faiur equit auriga, nee audit eurrut habenag, as so many 
wild horses ran away with a chariot, and will not be curbed. 
We know many times what is good, but will not do it, as she 

Lust counsels one thing, reason another, there is a new re- 
luctancy in men. 'Odi, nee possum, cupiem, non esse quod 
»di. We cannot resist, but as Phtedra confessed to her nurse, 
' qurn loqueris, vera sunt, sed furor suggeril tequi p^ora ; she 
said well and true, she did acknowledge it, but headstrong 
passion and fury made her to do that which was opposite. 
So David knew the fillhiness of his fact, what a loathsome, 
foul, crying sin adultery was, yet notwithstanding, he would 
commit murder, and take away another man's wife, e: 
ogtunst reason, religion, to follow his appetite. 

224 Definition of Mdancholy, [Part. I. sec. L 

Those natural and vegetal powers are not commanded bj 
will at all ; for " who can add one cubit to his stature ? " 
These other may, but are not ; and thence come all those 
headstrong passions, violent perturbations of the mind ; and 
many times vicious habits, customs, feral diseases ; because 
we give so much way to our appetite, and follow our inclina- 
tion, like so many beasts. The principal habits are two in 
number, virtue and vice, whose peculiar definitions, descrip- 
tions, differences, and kinds, are handled at large in the ethics, 
and are, indeed, the subject of moral philosophy. 


SuBSECT. I. — Definition of Melancholy, Name, Difference. 

Having thus briefly anatomized the body and soul of man, 
as a preparative to the rest ; I may now freely proceed to 
treat of my intended object, to most men's capacity; and 
after many ambages, perspicuously define what this melan- 
choly is, show his name and differences. The name is im- 
posed from the matter, and disease denominated from the 
material cause ; as Bruel observes, ^eTMvxokia quasi Us^xuva 
Xo^, from black choler. And whether it be a cause or an 
effect, a disease or symptom, let Donatus Altomarus and 
Salvianus decide ; I will not contend about it. It hath 
several descriptions, notations, and definitions. * Fracasto- 
rius, in his second book of intellect, calls those melancholy, 
" whom abundance of that same depraved humour of black 
choler hath so misaffected, that they become mad thence, and 
dote in most things, or in all, belonging to election, will, or 
other manifest operations of the understanding." ^ Melanelius 
out of Galen, Ruffus, -^tius, describe it to be "a bad and 

1 Melancholicos rocamus, quos exube- rectam rationem, Toluntatem pertinent, 

rantia Tel pra vitas Melancholia ita male Tel eIectionem,Tel intellect As operationes. 

habet, ut inde insaniant Tel in omnibus, > Pessimum et pertinacissimum morbom 

Tel in pluribus iisque manifestis siTe ad qui homines in bruta d^enerare cogit. 


Mem. 8, subs. 1.] Definition of Melancholy, 225 

peevish disease, which makes men degenerate into beasts : " 
Galen, " a privation or infection of the middle cell of the 
head," &c., defining it from the part affected, which ^ Her- 
cules de Saxonia approves, lib. 1, cap, 16, calling it "a 
depravation of the principal function ;" Fuschius, lib. 1, cap, 
23, Arnoldus Breviar. lib, 1, cap, 18, Guianerius, and others ; 
" Bj reason of black choler," Faulus adds. Halyabbas sim- 
ply calls it a " commotion of the mind/' Aretaeus, ^ " a per- 
petual anguish of the soul, fastened on one thing, without an , 
ague ; " which definition of his, Mercurialis de affect, cap, lib, 
1, cap, 10, taxeth ; but JBlianus Montaltus defends, lib, de 
morb. cap, 1, de Mdan, for sufficient and good. The common 
sort define it to be " a kind of dotage without a fever, having 
for his ordinary companions, fear and sadness, without any 
apparent occasion. So doth Laurentius, cap, 4, Piso, lib, 1, 
cap, 43, Donatus Altomarus, cap, 7, art, medic,^ Jacchinus, 
in com, in lib, 9, Rhasis ad Almansor, cap, 15. Valesius 
exerc, 17, Fuschius, institut, 3, Bee, 1, c, 11, S^c,^ which 
common definition, howsoever approved by most, * Hercules 
de Saxonia will not allow of, nor David Crucius, Theat, morb, 
Herm, lib, 2, cap, 6, he holds it insufficient ; " as * rather 
showing what it is not, than what it is ; " as omitting the 
specific difference, the fantasy and brain ; but I descend 
to particulars. The summum genus is " dotage, or anguish 
of the mind," saith Aretaeus ; " of the principal parts," Her- 
cules de Saxoni§, adds, to distinguish it from cramp fmd palsy, 
and such diseases as belong to the outward sense and motions 
[depraved] * to distinguish it from folly and madness (which 
Montaltus makes angor animi, to separate) in which those 
functions are not depraved, but rather abolisfied ; [without 
an ague] is added by all, to separate it from frenzy, and 
that melancholy which is in a pestilent fever. (Fear and 
sorrow) make it differ from madness ; [without a cause] is 

1 Panth. med. > Angor animi in explicat. * Animae fanctiones immin- 

nna contentione defixns, absque febre. uuntur, in &tuitate, tolluntnr in ma- 

* Gap. 16, 1. 1. * Eorum definitio mor- nia, deprayantur solum in melancholia. 

bus quid non sit potiua qoam quid sit, Heic. de Sax. cap. 1, tract, de Melanch. 

VOL. I. 15 

226 Of the Parts affected, ^c. [Part. I. sec. 1. 

lastly inserted, to specify it from all other ordinary passions 
of [fear and sorrow]. We properly call that dotage, as 

* Laurentius interprets it, " when some one principal faculty 
of the mind, as imagination, or reason, is corrupted, as all 
melancholy persons have." It is without a fever, because 
the humour is most part cold and dry, contrary to putrefac- 
tion. Fear and sorrow are the true characters and insep- 
arable companions of most melancholy, not all, as Her. 
de Saxonia, TVoc^. de posthumo de Melancholia, cap. 2, well 
excepts ; for to some it is most pleasant, as to such as laugh 
most part ; some are bold again, and free from all manner of 
fear and grief, as hereafler shall be declared. 

SuBSECT. II. — Of the Part affected. Affection, Parties 


Some difference I find amongst writers, about the principal 
part affected in this disease, whether it be the brain, or heart, 
or some other member. Most are of opinion that it is the 
brain ; for being a kind of dotage, it cannot otherwise be but 
that the brain must be affected, as a similar part, be it by 

* consent or essence, not in his ventricles, or any obstructions 
in them for then it would be an apoplexy, or epilepsy, as 

* Laurentius well observes, but in a cold, dry distemperature 
of it in his substance, which is corrupt and become too cold, 
or too dry, or else too hot, as in madmen, and such as are in- 
clined to it ; and this ' Hippocrates confirms, Galen, the Ara- 
bians, and most of our new writers. Marcus de Oddis (in a 
consultation of his, quoted by * Hildesheim) and five others 
there cited aje of the contrary part ; because fear and sorrow, 
which are passions, be seated in the heart. But this objection 
is sufiiciently answered by • Montaltus, who doth not deny that 
the heart is affected (as • Melanelius proves out of Galen) by 
reason of his vicinity, and so is the midriff and many other 

1 Cap. 4, de mel. * Per consensam siTe per cerebrum contingat, et prooernm 

rire per essentiam. s Cap. 4, de mel. auctoritate efc ratione stabilitur. * Lib. 

* Sec. 7, de mor. vulgar, lib. 6. * Spi- de Mel. Cor yero vicinitatis ratione unk 

Ml. de melancholia. <> Cap. 3, de mel. afflcitur, aooeptum transversum ac atom- 

pars affecta cerebrum alTe per consensum, achus cum dorsali spina; &c. 


Mem. 3, subs. 2.] Of the Parts affected, Sfc. 227 

parts. They do compati, and have a fellow-feeling by the 
law of nature ; but forasmuch as this malady is caused by 
precedent imagination, with the appetite, to whom spirits 
obey, and are subject to those principal parts, the brain must 
needs primarily be misaffected, as the seat of reason ; and 
then the heart, as the seat of affection. * Cappivaccius and 
Mercurialis have copiously discussed this question, and both 
conclude the subject is the inner brain, and from thence it is 
communicated to the heart and other inferior parts, which 
sympathize and are much troubled, especially when it comes 
by consent, and is caused by reason of the stomach, or 
myrach, as the Arabians term it, whole body, liver, or 
* spleen, which are seldom free, pylorus, meseraic veins, &c. 
For our body is like a clock, if one wheel be amiss, all the 
rest are disordered ; the whole fabric suffers ; with such 
admirable art and harmony is a man composed, such excel- 
lent proportion, as Ludovicus Vives in his Fable of Man 
hath elegantly declared. 

As many doubts almost arise about the ' affection, whether 
it bie imagination or reason alone, or both, Hercules de 
Saxonia proves it out of Galen, -^tius, and Altomarus, that 
the sole fault is in * imagination. Bruel is of the same 
mind ; Montaltus in his 2 cap. of Melancholy confutes this 
tenet of theirs, and illustrates the contrary by many ex- 
amples : as of him that thought himself a shell-fish, of a nun, 
and of a desperate monk that would not be persuaded but 
that he was damned ; reason was in fault as well as imagina- 
tion, which did not correct this error ; they make away them- 
selves oftentimes, and suppose many absurd and ridiculous 
things. Why doth not reason detect the fallacy, settle and 
persuade, if she be free ? * Avicenna therefore holds both 
corrupt, to whom most Arabians subscribe. The same is 
maintained by ^ Areteus, ^ Gorgonius, Guianerius, &c. To 

1 lib. 1, cap. 10. Subjectum est cere- nandi, non cogitandi, nee memorandi 

brum interius. « Raro quisquam tu- Isesa hlo. * Lib. 8, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, 

morem. effugit lienis, qui hoc morbo cap. 8. ^ Lib. 3, cap. 6. ^ Lib Med 

»fflcitur, Piso. Quis affectus. 3 See cap. 19, part. 2, Trac. 16, cap 2. 

ponat. ab Altomar. * Facultas imagi- 

228 Of ihB Parts affected, ^c. [Part. I. sec. 1 

end the controversy, no man doubts of imagination, but that 
it is hurt and misaffected here ; for the other, I determine 
with ^ Albertinus Bottonus, a doctor of Padua, that it is first 
in ^ imagination, and afterwards in reason ; if the disease be 
inveterate, or as it is more or less of continuance ; but by 
accident," as * Her. de Saxonid adds ; ^^ faith, opinion, dis- 
course, ratiocination, are all accidentally depraved by the 
default of imagination." 

Parties affectedJ] To the part affected, I may here add 
the parties, which shall be more opportunely spoken of else- 
where, now only signified* Such as have the moon, Saturn, 
Mercury misafiected in their genitures, such as live in over 
cold, or over hot climes ; such as are bom of melancholy 
parents ; as ofiend in those six non-natural things, are black, 
or of a high sanguine complexion, ^ that have little heads, 
that have a hot heart, moist brain, hot liver and cold stomach, 
have been long sick ; such as are solitary by nature, great 
students, given to much contemplation, lead a life out of 
action, are most subject to melancholy. Of sexes both, but 
men more often ; yet * women misafiected are far more 
violent, and grievously troubled. Of seasons of the year, the 
autumn is most melancholy. Of peculiar times : old age, from 
which natural melancholy is almost an inseparable accident ; 
but this artificial malady is more frequent in such as are of 
a * middle age. Some assign forty years, Gariopontus thirty. 
Jubertus excepts neither young nor old from this adven- 
titious. Daniel Sennertus involves all of all sorts, out of 
common experience, *iw omnibus omnino corporihus ct^tu- 
cunqv£ constituiionis domiriatur. ^tius and Aretius t ascribe 
into the number "not only 'discontented, passionate, and 
miserable persons, swarthy, black; but such as are most 

1 HUdesheim spicel. 2, de Melane. fol. > Aretens, lib. 8, cap. 6. < Qui propi 

207, et fol. 127. Quandoque etiam ra- statum sant. Aret. Mediis oooTenit 

ttonalis si afifectus inveteratos sit. * Lib. setatibus, Piso. & De quartano. 

tMsthumo de Melane. edit. 1620, depriva- f Lib. 1, part. 2, cap. 11. * Priraiu 

tar fides, discursus, opinio, &c., per ad Melanoholiam non tarn moestiu sed 

▼ittnm Imaginatlonis, ex Accidenti. — et hilares, jocosi, cachinnantes, irriaorM, 

> Qui parrnm caput habent, insensati et, qui plerumque praerubri sunt, 
plerique sunt. Arist. in physiognomia. 

&fem. 8, subs. a. J Matter of Melancholy, 229 

merry and pleasant, scoffers, and high coloured." " Genei> 
ally," saith Rhasis, ^"the finest wits and most generous 
spirits, are before other obnoxious to it ; " I cannot except 
any complexion, any condition, sex, or age, but ^ fools and 
Stoics, which, according to ^ Synesius, are never troubled 
with any manner of passion, but as Anacreon's cicada, sine 
sanguine et dolore ; similes fere diis sunt. Erasmus vindi- 
cates fools from this melancholy catalogue, because they have 
most part moist brains and light hearts ; * they are free from 
ambition, envy, shame and fear ; they are neither troubled in 
conscience, nor macerated with cares, to which our whole life 
is most subject. 

SuBSECT. III. — Of the Matter of Melancholy, 

Of the matter of melancholy, there is much question be- 
twixt Avicen and Galen, as you may read in ^ Cardan's 
Contradictions, * Valesius^s Controversies, Montanus, Prosper 
Calenus, Cappivaccius, '^ Bright, ® Ficinus, that have written 
either whole tracts, or copiously of it, in their several trea- 
tises of this subject. • " What this humour is, or whence it 
proceeds, how it is engendered in the body, neither Galen, 
nor any old writer, hath sufficiently discussed^ as Jacchinus 
thinks ; the Neoterics cannot agree. Montanus, in his Con- 
sultations, holds melancholy to be material or immaterial ; and 
so doth Arculanus ; the material is one of the four humours 
before mentioned, and natural. The immaterial or adventi- 
tious, acquisite, redundant, unnatural, artificial ; which * Her- 
cules de Saxonia will have reside in the spirits alone, and to 
proceed from a " hot, cold, dry, moist distemperature, which, 

1 Qui Bunt Bubtilifi ingenii, et multse 8an]t tuenda. > Quisye aut qualU sit 

perspicacitatis de facili incidunt in Mel- humor, aut quae istius differentite et quo- 

ancholiam, lib. 1, cont. Tract. 9. modo gigoantur in corpore, sorutandum, 

8 Nunquam sanitate mentis excidit aut h2lc emm re multi yeterum laboraverunt, 

dolore capitur. Erasm. 3 Jq laud., nee facile accipere ex Galeno sententiam 

calvit. 4 Vacant conscientias carnifi- ob loquendi varietatem. Leon. Ja«ch. 

oina, nee pudeflnnt, nee yerentur, nee com. in 9, Rhasis cap. 15, cap. 16, in 9, 

dilaoerantur millibus curarum, quibus Rhasis. * Lib. posthum. de Melan. 

totayitaobnoxiaest ^ Lib. 1, tract. 3, edit. Venetiis 1620, cap. 7 et 8. Ab in 

contradic. 18. ^ Lib. 1, cont. 21. temperie oalidA, humida, &c. 

r Bright, ca. 16. ^ Lib. 1, cap. 6, de 

230 Matter of Mdanchdy. [Part. I. seo. 1 

without matter, alter the hrain and functions of it Para- 
celsus wholly rejects and derides this division of four hu** 
mours and complexions, but our Galenists generally approve 
of it, subscribing to this opinion of Montanus. 

This material melancholy is either simple or mixed; of- 
fending in quantity or quality, varying according to his place, 
where it settleth, as brain, spleen, meseraic veins, heart, 
womb, and stomach ; or differing according to the mixture 
of those natural humours amongst themselves, or four unnat- 
ural adust humours, as they are diversely tempered and 
mingled. If natural melancholy abound in the body, which 
is cold and dry, " so that it be more ^ than the body is well 
able to bear, it must needs be distempered," saith Faventius, 
" and diseased ; " and so the other, if it be depraved, whether 
it arise from that other melancholy of choler adust, or from 
blood, produceth the like effects, and is, as Montaltus con- 
tends, if it come by adustion of humours, most part hot and 
dry. Some difference I find, whether this melancholy mat- 
ter may be engendered of all four humours, about the colour 
and temper of it. Galen holds it may be engendered of 
three alone, excluding phlegm, or pituita, whose true asser- 
tion ^Valesius and Menardus stiffly maintain, and so doth 
• Fuschius, Montaltus, * Montanus. How (say they) can 
white become black ? But Hercules de Saxonia, lib. post, de 
mela, c. 8, and ^ Cardan are of the opposite part (it may be 
engendered of phlegm, etsi rard contingaty though it seldom 
come to pass), so is ® Guianerius and Laurentius, c. 1, with 
Melanct. in his Book de Anima, and Chap, of Humours ; he 
calls it Asininam, dull, swinish melancholy, and saith that he 
was an eye-witness of it ; so is "^ Wecker. From melancholy 
adust ariseth one kind ; from choler another, which is most 
brutish ; another from phlegm, which is dull ; and the last 
from blood, which is best Of these some are cold and dry, 

1 SecuDdum ma^s aut minus si in cor- * Concil. 26. ^ Lib. 2, convradic. cap. 11. 

pore fuerit, ad intemperiem plusquam o De feb. tract, diff. 2, cap. 1. non est ne« 

corpus salubriter ferre poterit : inde cor- gandum ex hac fieri Melancholicos. 

pus morbosum effitur. > Lib. 1, con- 7 Iq Syntax, 

farovers. cap. 21. > Lib. 1, sect. 4, cap. 4. 

Mem. 8. subs. 4. J Species of Melancholy. 231 

others hot and dry, * varying according to their mixtures, as 
they are intended, and remitted. And indeed as Rodericus 
a Fons. cons. 12, 1, determines, ichors, and those serous mat- 
ters being thickened become phlegm, and phlegm degenerates 
into choler, choler adust becomes ceruginosa melancholic^ as 
vinegar out of purest wine putrefied or by exhalation of purer 
spirits is so made, and becomes sour and sharp ; and from the 
sliarpness of this humour proceeds much waking, troublesome 
thoughts and dreams, &c., so that I conclude as before. If 
the humour be cold, it is, saith * Faventinus, " a cause of 
dotage, and produceth milder symptoms ; if hot, they are 
rash, raving mad, or inclining to it." If the brain be hot, 
the animal spirits are hot ; much madness follows, with vio- 
lent actions ; if cold, fatuity and sottishness, • Cappivaccius. 
* " The colour of this mixture varies likewise according to 
the mixture, be it hot or cold ; 'tis sometimes black, some- 
times not, Altomarus. The same * Melanelius proves out of 
Galen ; and Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy (if at 
least it be his), giving instance in a burning coal, " which, 
when it is hot, shines ; when it is cold, looks black ; and so 
doth the humour." This diversity of melancholy matter pro- 
duceth divei'sity of effects. If it be within the * body, and 
not putrefied, it causeth black jaundice ; if putrefied, a quar- 
tan ague ; if it break out to the skin, leprosy ; if to parts, 
several maladies, as scurvy, &c. If it trouble the mind, as 
it is diversely mixed, it produceth several kinds of madness 
and dotage ; of which in their place. 

SuBSECT. IV. — Of the species or kinds of Melancholy. 

When the matter is divers and confused, how should it 
otherwise be, but that the species should be divers and con- 
fused ? Many new and old writers have spoken confusedly 

1 Varie adnritar, et mlscetur, unde prseter modum cale&ctus, et alias refrige- 

TariflB amentium speeief, Melanct. < Hu- ratus evadit : nam reoentibus carbonibus 

mor frigidus delirii causa, furoris calidus, el quid simile accidit, qui darante flam- 

&c. 8 Lib. 1, cap. 10, de affect, cap. ma pellucidissime candent, e3l extinota 

^ Nigrescit hie humor, aliquando super- prorsus nigreacunt. Hippocrates, 

ealefactus, aliquando superfirigefactus, * Guianerius, diff. 2, cap. 7. 
ca. 7* ^ Humor hie niger aUquando 

232 Species of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 1 

of it, confounding melancholy and madness, as ^ Heurnias, 
Guianerius, Grordonius, Salustius, Salvianus, Jason Praten- 
sis, Savanarola, that will have madness no other than melan- 
choly in extent, differing (as I have said) in degrees. Somo 
make two distinct species, as Ruffus Ephesius, an old writer, 
Constantinus Africanus, Aretseus, " Aurelianus, ^ Paulas JEgi- 
neta ; others acknowledge a multitude of kinds, and leave 
them indefinite, as ^tius in his Tetrabiblos, ^Avicenna, lib, 
8, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, cap. 18. Arculanus, cap. 16, in 9. Rasis, 
Montanus, med. part. 1. ' " If natural melancholy be adust, 
it maketh one kind ; if blood, another ; if choler, a third, dif- 
fering from the first ; and so many several opinions there are 
about the kinds, as there be men themselves." * Hercules 
de Saxoni^ sets down two kinds, ^ material and immaterial ; 
one from spirits alone, the other from humours and spirits." 
Savanarola, Utib. 11, TVact. 6, cap. 1, de cegritud. capitis^ 
will have the kinds to be infinite ; one from the myrach, 
called myrachialis of the Arabians ; another stomachalis, 
from the stomach ; another from the liver, heart, womb, 
hemrods ; ® " one beginning, another consummate." Melanc- 
thon seconds him, ^ " as the humour is diversely adust and 
mixed, so are the species divers ; " but what these men speak 
of species I think ought to be understood of symptoms, and so 
doth ® Arculanus interpret himself ; infinite species, id est, 
symptoms ; and in that sense, as Jo. Gorrheus acknowledgeth 
in his medicinal definitions, the species are infinite, but they 
may be reduced to three kinds by reason of their seat ; head, 
body, and hypochondries. This threefold division is approved 
by Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy, (if it be his, which 
some suspect,) by Galen, lib. 3, de he. affectis, cap. 6, by 
Alexander, lib. 1, cap. 16, Basis, lib. 1, Continent. Tract. 9, 
lib. 1, cap. 16, Avicenna, and most of our new writers. Th. 

1 Non est mania, nisi extensa melan- et tot Boctorum sententiae, qnot ipsi nti- 

eholia. 3 Cap. 6, lib. 1. s 2 Ser. 2. mero sunt. * Tract, de mel. cap. 7. 

cap. 9. Morbus hie est omni&rius. ^ Quacdam incipiens queedam consum- 

< Species indefinitee sunt. 6 gi adnra- mata. 7 Oap. de humor, lib. de aiiima. 

tur naturalis melancholia, alia fit species, varie aduritur et miscetur ipsa melan- 

si sanguis alia, si flavabilLs alia, diyersa k eholia, unde variae amentium species, 

primis : maxima est inter has differentia, * Oap. 16, in 9 Raais. 


Mem. 3 subs. 4.] Species of Melancholy, 233 

Erastus makes two kinds ; one perpetual, which is head mel- 
anclioly ; the other interrupt, which comes and goes by fits, 
which he subdivides into the other two kinds, so that all 
comes to the same pass. Some again make four or five kinds, 
with Iloder:cus k Castro, de morbis mvlier. lib, 2, cap, 3, and 
liod. Mercatus, who, in his second book de muUer. affect, 
cap. 4, will have that melancholy of nuns, \vidows, and more 
ancient maids, to be a peculiar species of melancholy differing 
from the rest ; some will reduce enthusiasts, ecstatical and 
demoniacal persons to this rank, adding ^ love melancholy to 
the first, and lycanthropia. The most received division is 
into three kinds. The first proceeds from the sole fault of 
the brain, and is called head melancholy ; the second sympa- 
thetically proceeds from the whole body, when the whole tem- 
perature is melancholy; the third ariseth from the bowels, 
liver, spleen, or membrane, called mesenterium, named h}'po- 
chondriacal or windy melancholy, which ^ Laurentius sub- 
divides into three parts, from those three members, hepatic, 
splenetic, meseraic. Love melancholy, which Avicenna calls 
Ilisha ; and Lycanthropia, which he calls cucubuthe, are com- 
monly included in head melancholy ; but of this last, which 
Gerardus de Solo calls amoreus, and most knight melancholy, 
with that of religious melancholy, virginum et viduarum^ main- 
tained by Rod. k Castro and Mercatus, and the other kinds 
of love melancholy, I will speak of apart by themselves in 
my third partition. The three precedent species are the 
subject of my present discourse, which I will anatomize and 
treat of through all their causes, symptoms, cures, together 
and apart ; that every man that is in any measure affected 
with this malady, may know how to examine it in himself, 
and apply remedies unto it 

It is a hard matter, I confess, to distinguish these three 
species one from the other, to express their several causes, 
symptoms, cures, being that they are so oflen confounded 
funongst themselves, ^ having such affinity, that they can 

1 Laurentiiu, cap. 4, de mel. * Oap. 18. 

234 Species of Melancholy, [Part I. seo. 1. 

scarce be discerned by the most accurate physicians; and 
so oflen intermixed with other diseases that the best ex- 
perienced have been plunged. Montanus consiL 26, names a 
patient that had this disease of melancholy and caninus appe- 
titus both together ; and constl. 23, with vertigo, ^ Julius CaB- 
sar Claudinus, with stone, gout, jaundice. Trincavellius with 
an ague, jaundice, *caninus appetitus, &c. ^ Paulus Regolinc, 
a great doctor in his time, consulted in this case, was so con- 
founded with a confusion of symptoms, that he knew not to 
what kind of melancholy to refer it ' Trincavellius, Fallo- 
pius, and Francanzanus, famous doctors in Italy, all three 
conferred with about one party, at the same time, gave three 
different opinions. And in another place, Trincavellius being 
demanded what he thought of a melancholy young man to 
whom he was sent for, ingenuously confessed that he was 
indeed melancholy, but he knew not to what kind to reduce 
it In his seventeenth consultation there is the like disagree- 
ment about a melancholy monk. Those symptoms, which 
others ascribe to misaffected parts and humours, * Here, de 
Saxonia attributes wholly to distempered spirits, and those 
immaterial, as I have said. Sometimes they cannot well dis- 
cern this disease from others. In Reinerus Solinander's 
counsels, (Sect consiL 5,) he and Dr. Brande both agreed, 
that the patient's disease was hypochondriacal melancholy. 
Dr. Matholdus said it was asthma, and nothing else. * Soli- 
nander and Guarionius, lately sent for to the melancholy 
Duke of Cleve, with others, could not define what species it 
was, or agree amongst themselves. The species are so con- 
founded, as in CaBsar Claudinus, his forty-fourth consultation 
for a Polonidn Count, in his judgment * " he laboured of head 
melancholy, and that which proceeds from the whole temper- 
ature both at once." I could give instance of some that have 
had all three kinds semel et simul, and some successively. So 
that I conclude of our melancholy species, as f many politicians 

1 480 et 116, consult, consil. 12. 13, tract, posth. de melan. * Ouarion. 
s Hildesheim, spicel. 2, fbl. 166. 8 Trin- cons. med. 2. 6 Laboravit per essen- 

cavellius torn. 2, consil. 15 et 16. * Cap. tiam et a toto corpore. t MachiaTol, 


Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy, 235 

do of their pure forms of commonwealths, monarchies, aris- 
tocracies, democracies, are most famous in contemplation, but 
in practice they are temperate and usually mixed, (so * Po- 
lybius informeth us,) as the Lacedemonian, the Roman of old, 
German now, and many others. What physicians say of dis- 
tinct species in their books it much matters not, since that in 
their patients' bodies they are commonly mixed. In such ob- 
scurity, therefore, variety and confused mixture of symptoms, 
causes, how difficult a thing is it to treat of several kinds 
apart ; to make any certainty or distinction among so many 
casualties, distractions, when seldom two men shall be like 
affected 'per omnia ? *Tis hard, I confess, yet nevertheless I 
will adventure through the midst of these perplexities, and, 
led by the clue or thread of the best writers, extricate my- 
self out of a labyrinth of doubts and errors, and so proceed 
to the causes. 


SuBSECT. I. — Causes of Melancholy. God a cause. 

"It is in vain to speak of cures, or think of remedies, 
until such time as we have considered of the causes," so 
* Galen prescribes Glauco ; and the common experience of 
others confirms that those cures must be imperfect, lame, 
and .to no purpose, wherein the causes have not first been 
searched, as ^ Prosper Calenius well observes in his tract de 
atrd bile to Cardinal Caesius. Insomuch that ® " Fernelius puts 
a kind of necessity in the knowledge of the causes, and without 
which it is impossible to cure or prevent any manner of dis- 
ease." Empirics may ease, and sometimes help, but not thor- 

&c., Smlthns de rep. Angl. cap. 8, lib. 1. hortari videtur, nam alioqui earum cura- 

Buscoldus discur. polit. cUscurs. 5. cap. 7. tio manca et inutilis esset. 3 Path. lib. 

Arist. 1. 8, polit. cap. ult. Keckerm. 1, cap. 11. Rerum cognoscere causae, 

alii, &c. * Lib. 6. ^ Primo artis medicis imprimis necessarium, sine qua 

curatiyae. ^ Nostri primum sit propos- nee morbum curare, nee praecayere licet. 
Iti affectionum caus&s indagare ; res ipsa 

236 Causes of Melancholy, [Part. L sec. 2. 

oughly root out ; sublata causa toUitur ejffectus, as the saying 
is, if the cause be removed, the effect is likewise vanquished. 
It is a most difficult thing (I confess) to be able to discern 
these causes whence tliey are, and in such * variety to say 
what the beginning was. * He is happy that can perform it 
aright. I will adventure to guess as near as I can, and rip 
them all up, from the first to the last, general and particular, 
to every species, that so they may the better be descried. 

General causes are either supernatural or natural. " Su- 
pernatural are from God and his angels, or by God's per- 
mission from the devil " and his ministers. That God him- 
self is a cause for the punishment of sin, and satisfaction of 
his justice, many examples and testimonies of holy Scriptures 
make evident unto us, Ps. cvii. 17. " Foolish men are 
plagued for their offence, and by reason of their wickedness.** 
G^hazi was strucken with leprosy, 2 Reg. v. 27. Jehoram 
with dysentery and flux, and great diseases of the bowels, 2 
Chron. xxi. 15 David plagued for numbering his people, 
1 Par. 21. Sodom and Gomorrah swallowed up. And this 
disease is peculiarly specified, Psalm cxxvii. 12. " He 
brought down their heart through heaviness." Deut. xxviii. 
28. " He struck them with madness, blindness, and aston- 
ishment of heart" ' ** An evil spirit was sent by the Lord 
upon Saul, to vex him." * Nebuchadnezzar did eat gi*ass 
like an ox, and his " heart was made like the beasts of the 
field." Heathen stories are full of such punishments. Ly- 
curgus, because he cut down the vines in the country, was 
by Bacchus driven into madness ; so was Pentheus and his 
mother Agave for neglecting their sacrifice. * Censor Fulvius 
ran mad for untiling Juno's temple, to cover a new one of his 
own, which he had dedicated to Fortune, • " and was con- 
founded to death, with grief and sorrow of heart." When 
Xerxes would have spoiled * Apollo's temple at Delphos of 

1 Tanta enim morbi vaiietas ao diffe- cap. 8. * Mente captos, et summo ani« 

rentia, ut non fkcile cUgnoscatair uade mi moerore consumptus. * Munster. 

Initium morbus Rumpserit. Melanelioa 6 oosmog. lib. 4, cap. 43, de coelo substerne- 

Oaleno. s Felix qui potuit rerum cog- bantur, tanquam in^tni de sazis pneci]^ 

bosoero causas. ^ i gam. xvi. 14. tati, &c. 

Dan. 7. 21. i Lactant. ioBtit. lib. 2. 


Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 237 

those infinite riches it possessed, a terrible thunder came irom 
heaven and struck four thousand men dead, the rest ran mad. 
* A little after, the like happened to Brennus, lightning, thun- 
der, earthquakes, upop such a sacrilegious occasion. If we 
may believe our pontifical writers, they will relate unto us 
many strange and prodigious punishments in this kind, in- 
flicted by their saints. How *Clodoveus, sometime King of 
France, the son of Dagobert, lost his wits for uncovering the 
body of St. Denis; and how a * sacrilegious Frenchman, that 
would have stolen a silver image of St. John, at Birgburge, 
became frantic on a sudden, raging, and tyrannizing over his 
own flesh ; of a ® Lord of Rhadnor, that coming from hunt- 
ing late at night, put his dogs into St. Avan's church, (Llan 
Avan they called it), and rising betimes next morning, as 
hunters use to do, found all his dogs mad, himself being sud- 
denly stricken blind. Of Tyridates, an ^Armenian king, for 
violating some holy nuns, that was punished in like sort, with 
loss of his wits. But poets and papists may go together for 
fabulous tales ; let them free their own credits ; howsoever 
they feign of their Nemesis, and of their saints, or by the 
devil's means may be deluded ; we find it true, that uUor a 
tergo Deus,^^' He is Grod the avenger,*' as David styles him; 
and that it is our crying sins that pull this and many other 
maladies on our own heads. That he can by his angels, 
which are his ministers, strike and heal (saith • Dionysius) » 
whom he will ; that he can plague us by his creatures, sun, 
moon, and stars, which he useth as his instruments, as a hus- 
bandman (saith Zanchius) doth a hatchet ; hail, snow, winds, 
i&c. '"^^ conjurati veniunt in classica venti;" as in 
Joshua's time, as in Pharaoh's reign in Egypt ; they are but 
as so many executioners of his justice. He can make the 
proudest spirits stoop, and cry out with Julian the apostate, 

1 LiTiiLB^lib. 88. * Oaguin. 1. 8,c.4, moia sacrile^s mentis inops, atque in 

quod Dionymi corpus discoopemerat, in semetinsftniensinpropriosartasdesnyit 

inaaniam incidit. « Idem, Hb. 9, sub. » Oiraldus Cambrensis lib. 1, c. 1, Itinerar 

Carol. 6, sacrorum contemptor, templl Cambrise. * Delrio, torn. 8, lib. 6, sect 

fbribus effractis, dum D. Johannis argen- 8, qusest. 8. * Psal. xlir. 1. « Lib 

(eum simulacrum rapere contendit, simu- 8, cap. de ffierar. 7 ClawUan. 
lacnim aTersSl iacie dorsum ei Tersat, nee 

238 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. L sec. 2. 

Vicisti, Galilcee ; or with Apollo's priest in ^ Chrysostom, 
ccdum ! 6 terra ! unde hosiis hie f What an enemy is this ? 
And pray with David, acknowledging his power, "I am 
weakened and sore broken, I roar for the grief of mine 
heart, mine heart panteth,'' &&, Psalm xxxviii. 8. '' O 
Lord rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chastise me 
in thy wrath," Psalm xxxviii. 1. "Make mo to hear 
joy and gladness, that the bones which thou hast broken, 
may rjjoice," Psalm li. 8 ; and verse 12, " Restore to 
me the joy of thy salvation, and stablish me with thy free 
spirit.'* For these causes belike * Hippocrates would have a 
physician take special notice whether the disease come not 
from a divine supernatural cause, or whether it follow the 
course of nature. But this is farther discussed by Fran. 
Valesius de sacr. philos. cap. 8. • Femelius, and * J. Caesar 
Claudinus, to whom I refer you, how this place of Hippoc- 
rates is to be understood. Paracelsus is of opinion, that 
such spiritual diseases (for so he calls them) are spiritually 
to be cured, and not otherwise. Ordinary means in such 
cases will not avail ; Nbn est reluctandum cum Deo (we must 
not struggle with God). When that monster-taming Her- 
cules overcame all in the Olympics, Jupiter at last in an 
unknown shape wrestled with him ; the victory was uncer- 
tain, till at length Jupiter descried himself, and Hercules 
yielded. No striving with supreme powers. Nil juvat im' 
mensos Oratero promittere montesy physicians and physic can 
do no good,* "we must submit ourselves unto the mighty 
hand of God," acknowledge our offences, call to him for 
mercy. If he strike us, una eademque manus mdnus Opemr 
que ferety as it is with them that are wounded with the spear 
of Achilles, he alone must help ; otherwise our diseases are 
incurable, and we not to be relieved. 

1 De Babili Martyre. s Lib. cap. 6, Bis. ^ Bespoiu. med. 12, resp. * ] 
prog. s Lib. 1, de Abditis rerum cau- Pet. y. 6. 

Mem. 1, anbs. 2.] Nature of Devils, 239 

SuBSECT. 11. — A Digression of the nature of Spirits^ haa 
Angels, or Devils, and how they cause Melancholy. 

How far the power of spirits and devils doth extend, and 
whether thej can cause this, or any other disease, is a serious 
question, and worthy to be considered ; for the better under- 
standing of which, I will make a brief digression of the nature 
of spirits. And although the question be very obscure, ac- 
cording to * Postellus, " full of controversy and ambiguity,'' 
beyond the reach of human capacity, fateor excedS¥e vires 
intentionis mece, saith * Austin, I confess I am not able to 
understand \{,finitum de infinito non potest statuere, we can 
sooner determine with Tully, de not, deorum, quid non sint 
quam quid sint, our subtle schoolmen. Cardans, Scaligers, 
profound Thomists, Fracastoriana and Ferneliana ctcies, are 
weak, dry, obscure, defective in these mysteries, and all our 
quickest wits, as an owl's eyes at the sun's light, wax dull, 
and are not sufficient to apprehend them ; yet, as in the rest, 
I will adventure to say something to this point. In former 
times, as we read Acts xxiii., the Sadducees denied that 
there were any such spirits, devils, or angels. So did Galen 
the physician, the Peripatetics, even Aristotle himself, as 
Pomponatius stoutly maintains, and Scaliger in some eort 
grants. Though Dandinus the Jesuit, com, in lib. 2, de 
animd, stiffly denies it ; substantice separata and intelligences, 
are the same which Christians call angels, and Platonists 
devils, for they name all the spirits, dcemones, be they good 
or bad angels, as Julius Pollux Onomasticon, lib. 1, cap. 1, 
observes. Epicures and atheists are of the same mind in 
general, because they never saw them. Plato, Plotinus, 
Porphyrins, Jamblichus, Proclus, insisting in the steps of 
Trismegistus, Pythagoras and Socrates, make no doubt of it ; 
nor Stoics, but that there are such spirits, though much 
erring from the truth. Concerning the first beginning of 

1 Ub. 1, e. 7, de orbis coneordla. In qn&m de dnmonibus et gubstantiis sep 
nulIA re major fait altercatio, ma^r ob- aratia. * Lib. 8, de Trinit. cap. 1 
flOTiritas, minor opinionum ooncordia, 

240 Nature of Devils. [Part. L sec. % 

' them, the ^ Talmudists saj that Adam had a wife called Lilis, 
before he married Eve, and of her he begat nothing but devils. 
The Turks* ' Alcoran is altogether as absurd and ridiculous 
in this point ; but the Scripture informs us Christians, how 
Lucifer, the chief gf them, with his associates, 'fell from 
heaven for his pride and ambition ; created of God, placed 
in heaven, and sometimes an angel of light, now cast down 
into the lower aerial sublunary parts, or into hell, " and de- 
livered into chains of darkness (2 Pet. ii. 4), to be kept unto 

Nature of Devils.^ There is a foolish opinion which some 
hold, that they are the souls of men departed, good and more 
noble w^ere deified, the baser grovelled on the ground, or in 
the lower parts, and were devils, the which with TertuUian, 
Porphyrius the philosopher, M. Tyrius ser. 27 maintains. 
** These spirits," he * saith, ** which we call angels and devils, 
are nought but souls of men departed, which either through 
love and pity of their friends yet living, help and assist them, 
or else persecute their enemies, whom they hated," as Dido 
threatened to persecute -^neas : 

" Omnibus umbra locis adero : dabis, improbe, poenas." 

" My angry ghost arising from the deep, 
8hall haunt thee waking, and disturb thy sleep ; 
At least my shade thy punishment shall know, 
And Fame shall spread the pleasing news below." 

They are (as others suppose) appointed by those higher 
powers to keep men from their nativity, and to protect or 
punish them as they see cause ; and are called honi et mali 
Genii by the Romans. Heroes, lares, if good, lemures or 
larvae if bad, by the Stoics, governors of countries, man, 
cities, saith f Apuleius, Deos appellant qui ex hominum nu- 
mero juste ac prudenter vitce curricuio gubemato, pro numine, 

^ Pcreriua in Genesin, lib. 4, in cap. 8, pore deposito priorem mtseTat! vlttun, 

V. 23. 3 See Strozzius Oicogna omnifariae. cognatis succurrunt commoti misericor- 

Mag. lib. 2, c. 15. Jo. Aubanas, Breden- dia, &c. f Be Deo Socratis. All those 

bachius ^ Angelas per superbiam mortals are called gods, who, the course 

geparatus 4. Deo, qui in veritate non of lif^ being prudently guided and gOT- 

stetit. Austin. * Nihil aliud sunt emed, are honored by men with teniplep 

Dnmones quam nudas animsB qua cor- and sacrifices, as Osiris in iEgypt, fcc. 

Mem. 1. subs. 2.J Nature of Devils. 241 

postea ah hominihus praditi fanis et ceremoniis vulgd admiU 
tuntur, ut in ^gypto Osyris, S^c. PrcestiteSy Capella calls 
them, " which protected particular men as well as princes ; " 
Socrates had his Dcemonium Satuminum et ignium, which 
of all spirits is hest, ad sublimes cogitationes animum eri- 
gentem, as the Platonists supposed ; Plotinus his, and we 
Christians our assisting angel, as Andreas Victorellus, a 
copious writer of this subject, Lodovicus de La-Cerda, the 
Jesuit, in his voluminous tract de Angela Oustode, Zanchius, 
and some divines think. But this absurd tenet of Tyreus, 
Proclus confutes at large in his book de Animd et dcemone. 
^Psellus, a Christian, and sometimes tutor (saith Cuspin- 
ian) to Michael Parapinatius, Emperor of Greece, a great 
observer of the nature of devils, holds they are ^ corporeal, 
and have " aerial bodies, that they are mortal, live and die,'* 
(which Martianus Capella likewise maintains, but our Chris- 
tian philosophers explode,) "that *they are nourished arid 
have excrements, they feel pain if they be hurt (which Car- 
dan confirms, and Scaliger justly laughs him to scorn for; 
Si pascantur asre, cur non pugnant oh puriorem aera f S^c.) 
or stroken ; " and if their bodies be cut, with admirable 
celerity they come together again. Austin, in Gen. lib. iii. 
lib. arbit., approves as much, mutata casu corpora in deteri- 
orem qualitatem aeris spissioHs, so doth Hierome. Com- 
ment, in epist. ad Ephes. cap. 3, Origen, Tertullian, Lac- 
tantius, and many ancient fathers of the Church; that iu 
their fall their bodies were changed into a more aerial and 
gross substance. Bodine, lib. 4, Theatri Naturae, and David 
Crusius, Hermeticae Philosophiae, lib. i. cap. 4, by several 
arguments proves angels and spirits to be corporeal ; quic- 
quid continetur in loco Gorporeum est : At spiritus continetur 
in locoy ergo.* Si spiritus sunt quanti, erunt Gorporei : At 
funt quanti, ergo. Sunt finiti, ergo quanti, S^c, f Bodine 

1 He lived 600 yean since. ^ Apu- soUdo percuaaa corpora. * Whatever 

leins : spiritus animalia sunt animo pas- occupies space is corporeal : — spirit occu- 

sibilia, mente rationalia, corpore aeria, pies space, therefore^ so. &c. t ^ ^^^' 4 

tempore sempiterna. ^ Nutriuntur, et Tbieol. nat. fol. 686. 
ezcramenta liabent, quod pulsata doleant 

VOL. I. 16 

342 Nature of Demh» [Part I. sec. t 

goes farther jei^ and will have these, Anii^MS separat^E ^enii^ 
spirits, angek, devils, and so likewise souls of men departed, 
if corporeal (which he most eagerly contends) to be of some 
shape, and that absdjitelj round, like Sun and Moon, be* 
canse that is the most perfect form, qiue nihil habet axperi" 
taHsj nihil angvlis incisumy nihil anfraetilms involutum, 
nihil eminent, sed inter corpora perfe<Aa est perfectissimum ;^ 
therefore all spirits are corporeal he concludes, and in their 
proper shapes round. That they can assume other aerial 
bodies, all manner of shapes at their pleasures, appear in 
what likeness they will themselves, that they are most swift 
in motion, can pass many miles in an instant, and so likewise 
'transform bodies of others into what shape they please, and 
with admirable celerity remove them from place to place 
(as the Angel did Habakkuk to Daniel, and as Philip the 
deacon was carried away by the Spirit, when he had bap- 
tized the eunuch ; so did Pythagoras and Apollonius remove 
•themselves and others, with many such feats) ; that they 
\X«an represent castles in the air, palaces, armies, spectrums, 
prodigies, and such strange objects to mortal men's eyes^ 
^ cause smells, savours, &c., deceive all the senses ; most writ^ 
«rs of this subject credibly believe ; and that they can foretell 
future events, and do many strange miracles. Juno's image 
spake to Camillus, and Fortune's statue to the Roman 
matrons, with many such. Zanchius, Bodine, Spondanus, 
and others, are of opinion that they cause a true meta- 
. morphosis, as Nebuchadnezzar was really translated into a 
beast, Lot's wife into a pillar of salt ; Ulysses's companions 
into hogs and dogs, by Circe's charms ; turn themselves and 
others, as they do witches into cats, dogs, hares, crows, <&c. 
Strozzius Cicogna hath many examples, lib. iii. omnif. mag. 
cap. 4 and 5, which he there confutes, as Austin likewise 

1 Which has no lougbness, angles, Stroalas CAcogna, lib. 3, cap. 4, omnir. 

fractures, prominences, but is the most mag. Per aera subduoere et in sublime 

perfect amongst perfect bodies. > Cyp- corpora ferre poasunt, Biarmanus. Per* 

xianus in Bpist. montes etiam et ani- cussi dolent et uruntur in conspicuos ci- 

malia transferri possunt : as the devil did neres, Agrippa, lib. 8, cap. de occult. Phi- 

Christ to the top of the pinnacle; and los. * A^jpippa de oocult. Philoa. lib. 8| 

witches are often translated. See more in cap. 18. 

Mem. 1, subs. %.] J^ature of Devik, 243 

doth, de civ. Dei, lib. xviii. That they can be seen whei^ 
and in what shape, and to whom they will; saith Fsellus^ 
Tametsi nil tale viderim, nee optem mdere, though he him- 
self never saw them nor desired it ; and use sometimes car- 
nal copulation (as elsewhere I shall ^ prove more at large) 
with women and men. Many will not believe they can be 
seen, and if any man shall say, swear, and stiffly maintain, 
though he be discreet and wise, judicious and learned, that 
be hath seen them, they account him a timorous fool, ai 
melancholy dizzard, a weak fellow, a dreamer, a sick or a 
mad man, they contemn him, laugh him to scorn, and yet 
Marcus of his credit told Psellus that he had often seen them. 
And Leo Suavius, a Frenchman, c. 8, in Commentar. L 1, 
Paracelai de viid longd, out of some Platonists, will have the 
air to be as full of them as snow falling in the skies, and that 
they may be seen, and withal sets down the means how men 
may see them ; Si irreverberoHs ocvlis sole tplendente versus 
codum corUinuaverint ohtiUits, S^c,,* and saith moreover he 
tried it, pramissorum feci experimentum^ and it was true, 
that the Platonists said. Paracelsus confesseth that he saw 
them divers times, and conferred with them, and so doth 
Alexander ab * Alejandro, " that he so found it by experi- 
ence, when as before he doubted of it" Many deny it, saith 
Lavater de spectris, part i. c 2, and part ii. c 11, ^^ because 
they never saw them themselves ; " but as he reports at 
large all over his book, especially c. 19, part 1, they are 
often seeii and heard, and familiarly converse with men, as 
Lod. Vives assureth us, innumerable records, histories, and 
testimonies evince in all ages, times, places, and ' all travel- 
lers besides; in the West Indies and our northern climes, 
Nihil famiUarius qxiam in (igris et urhihus spiriUis videre, 
audire qui vetent, jubeani, Sfc, Hieronimus vit& Pauli, Basil 
ser. 40, Nicephorus, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomenus, t Jaco- 

1 Part. 8, Sect. 2, Mem. 1, Subf. 1, Ita sibl visam et compertnm quum prius 

IfOye Melancholy. * " By gadnff gtead- an ement ambigerot : Fidem suam llberet 

fitstly on the sun illaminated with hii > Li. 1, de verit. Fidei. Benzo, &o. f Lili 

brightest rays." > Genial, dierum. de Diyinatione et magift. 

244 Nature of Devils, [Part. I. sec. 2. 

bus Boissardus in his tract de spirituum apparitionihus^ 
Petrus Loyerus 1. de spectris, Wierus 1. 1, have infinite 
yarietj of such examples of apparitions of spirits, for him to 
read that farther doubts, to his ample satisfaction. One 
alone I will briefly insert. A nobleman in Germany was 
sent ambassador to the King of Sweden (for his name, the 
time, and such circumstances, I refer you to Boissardus, 
mine ^Author). After he had done his business, he sailed to 
Livonia, on set purpose to see those familiar spirits, which are 
there said to be conversant with men, and do their drudgery 
works. Amongst other matters one of them told him where 
his wife was, in what room, in what clothes, what doing, and 
brought him a ring from her, which at his return, non sine 
omnium admirationey he found to be true ; and so believed 
that ever after, which before he doubted of. Cardan L 19, 
de subtil, relates of his father, Facius Cardan, that after the 
accustomed solemnities, An. 1491, 13 August, he conjured 
up seven devils, in Greek apparel, about forty years of age, 
some ruddy of complexion, and some pale, as he thought ; 
he asked them many questions, and they made ready answer, 
that they were aerial devils, that they lived and died as men 
did, save that they were far longer lived (700 or 800 ^ years); 
they did as much excel men in dignity as we do juments, 
and were as far excelled again of those that were above 
them; our * governors and keepers they are moreover, 
which t Plato in Critias delivered of old, and subordinate to 
one another, Ut enim homo homini, sic dcemon dtemoni 
dominatur, they rule themselves as well as us, and the 
spirits of the meaner sort had commonly such offices, as we 
make horse-keepers, neat-herds, and the basest of us, over- 
seers of our cattle ; and that we can no more apprehend their 
natures and functions, than a horse a man's. They knew all 
things, but might not reveal them to men; and ruled and 

1 Cap. 8. Transportayit in Liyoniam liores hominibus, qnanto hi bmtis ani- 

enpiditate yidendi, &c. s gic Hesiodus mantibus. t Pnesides. Pastoretf 

de Nymphis vivere didt 10 setates phoe- Gabernatoies hominmn, et illi animft- 

nieum rel 9, 7, 20. * Oustodes homi- Uam. 
unm et proyinciarnm, &c., tanto me- 


Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits* 245 

domineered over us, as we do over our horses ; the best 
kings amongst us, and the most generous spirits, were not 
comparable to the basest of them. Sometimes they did 
instruct men, and communicate their skill, reward and cher- 
ish, and sometimes, again, terrify and punish, to keep them 
in awe, as they thought fit, Nihil magis cvpientes (saith 
ILysius, Phis. Stoicorum) quam adorationem hominum,* 
The same Author, Cardan, in his Hyperchen, out of the 
doctrine of Stoics, will have some of these Genii (for so he 
calls them) to be ^ desirous of men's company, very affable 
and familiar with them, as dogs are ; others, again, to abhor as 
serpents, and care not for them. The same belike Tritemius 
calls Ignios et sublunares, qui nunquam demergunt ad inferi- 
ora^ avi vix uUum hahent in terris commercium ; ^ " Gener- 
ally they far excel men in worth, as a man the meanest 
worm ; though some of them are inferior to those of their 
own rank in worth, as the blackguard in a prince's court, 
and to men again, as some degenerate, base, rational creatures, 
are excelled of brute beasts." 

That they are mortal, besides these testimonies of Cardan, 
Martianus, &c., many other divines and philosophers hold, 
post prolixum tempus moriuntur omnes; The 'Platonists, 
and some Rabbins, Porphyrius and Plutarch, as appears by 
that relation of Thamus : * " The great god Pan is dead ; " 
Apollo Pythius ceased ; and so the rest. St. Hierome, in 
the life of Paul the Hermit, tells a story how one of them 
appeared to St. Anthony in the wilderness, and told him as 
much. ** Paracelsus of our late writers stiffly maintains that 
they are mortal, live and die as other creatures do. Zozimus, 
1. 2, further adds, that religion and policy dies and alters with 
them. The ^G^ntiles' gods, he saith, were expelled by Con- 
stantine, and together with them. Imperii Romani majestas, 

* " Coveting nothing more than the &c. s Cibo et potn uti et yenere cum 
admiration of mankind." i Natura hominibus ao tandem mori, Cicogna. 1, 
fSimiliares ut canes hominibus multi part. lib. 2, c. 8. * Plutarch, de defect. 
ETersantur et abhorrent. ^ Ab homine oraculorum. ^ Lib. de Zilphis et Pig- 
plus distant quam homo ab ignobllisslmo mels. ^ du gentium a Constantio prof- 
verne. et tamen quidam ex his ab ho- ligati sunt, &c. 
minibus superantur ut homines 4 ferls, 

S46 Nature of Spirits. [Pnt. L see. t 

ttfortwna interiit, et profU^a e$t ; The fortune and majesty 
of the Roman Empire decayed and yanished, as that heathen' 
in * Minutius formerly bragged, when the Jews were over- 
Come by the Romans, the Jews* God was likewise captivated 
by that of Rome ; and Rabsakeh to the Israelites, no God 
should deliver them out of the hands of the Assyrians. But 
these paradoxes of their power, corporeity, mortality, taking 
of shapes, transposing bodies, and carnal copulations, are suf- 
ficiently confuted by Zanch. c. 10, 1. 4. Pererius in his com- 
ment, and Tostatus questions on the 6th of Gen. Th. Aquin., 
St. Austin, Wierus, Th. Erastus, Delrio, lom. 2, 1. 2, quaest. 
29 ; Sebastian Michaelis, c. 2, de spiritibus, D. Reinolds Lect 
47. They may deceive the eyes of men, yet not take true 
bodies, or make a real metamorphosis ; but as Cicogna proves 
at large, they are ^ lUusoria et pnBstigiatrices transformch 
Hones, omnif, mag, lib. 4, cap. 4, mere illusions and cozen- 
ings, like that tale of Pasetis ohulus in Suidas, or that of 
Autolicus, Mercury's son, that dwelt in Parnassus, who got 
so much treasure by cozenage and stealth. His father Mer- 
cury, because he could leave him no wealth, taught him many 
fine tricks to get means, ffor he could drive away men*8 
cattle, and if any pursued him, turn them into what shapes 
he would, and so did mightily enrich himself, hoc astu maxi^ 
mam prcedam est adsecutus. This, no doubt, is as true as 
the rest ; yet thus much in general. Thomas, Burand, and 
others, grant that they have understanding far beyond men, 
can probably conjecture and * foretell many things ; they can 
cause and cure most diseases, deceive our senses ; they have 
excellent skill in all Arts and Sciences ; and that the most 
illiterate devil is Quovis homine scientior (more knowing 
than any man), as • Cicogna maintains out of others. They 

* Octoyian dial. Judaeorum deum fa- que fonuas yertebat Pausanias, Hygious. 

iflUe Romanortifn nmninibuB una cum * Austin in 1. 2, de G«n. adliteram, cap. 

gente captfyum. ^ Omnia spiritibus !?• Partim qute subtilioris sensus actt- 

plena, ^t ex eorum concordia et discordia mine, padrtim sclentia calidiore yigent el 

omnes boni et mall effectus promanant, expeiientia propter magiMm longltudt* 

omnia htmiana ret^ntur : paradoza yete- nem Tittle, partim ab Angt^lis discunt, Sto. 

rum de quo Cicogna. omnif. mag. 1. 2, c. 8. > Lib. 8, omnif. mag. cap. 8. 
t Oyes quas abaoturus erat in quascun- 

Mem. 1, aubs. 2.] Nature of Spirits, 24T 

know the virtues of ierbs^ plants^ stones, minerals^ &c. ; of 
aJU creatures,, birds, beasts, the four elements, stars, planets^ 
can aptly apply and make use of them as they see good ; 
perceiving the causes of all meteors, and the like ; Dard se 
eohrihus (as * Austin hath it) accommodant se jigurisy ad- 
harent sonis^ subjiciunt se adorihis, infundtmt se saporihus^ 
omnes sensus etiam ipsam inteUigentiam cUemones falluntf 
they deceive all our senses, even our understanding itself 
at once. ^They can produce miraculous alterations in the 
air, and most wonderful effects, conquer armies, give vic^ 
tories, help, further, hurt, cross and alter human attempts 
and projects {Dei permissu) as they see good themselves, 
t When Charles the Great intended to make a channel be- 
twixt the Rhine and the Danube^ look what his workmen did 
in the day, these spirits flung down in the night, Ui conatu 
Rex desisteret, pervieere. Such feats can they do. But that 
which Bodine, 1. 4, Theat. nat., thinks (following Tyrios 
belike, and the Platonists,) they can tell the secrets of a 
man's heart, aut cogitationes hominum, is most false ; hi» 
reasons are weak, and sufficiently confuted by Zanch. lib. 4y 
cap. 9, Hierom. lib. 2, com. in Mat. ad capw 15, Athanasius 
qusest 27, and Antiochum Frincipem, and others. 

Orders.'] As for those orders c^ good and bad Devils, 
which the Platonists hold, is altogether erroneous, and those 
Ethnics Jxmi et mali Genii, are to be exploded ; these hea- 
then writers agree not in this point among themselves, as 
Dandinus notes. An sint Jwio/t non conveniunt, some wiU 
have all spirits good or bad to us by a mistake, as if an Ox 
or Horse could discourse, he ^ould say the Butcher was hia 
enemy because he killed him, the Grazier his friend because 
he fed him ; a Hunter preserves and yet kills his game, and 
is hated nevertheless of his game ; nee piseaiorem piscis 

* L. 18, quest, i Qawn tanti sit et mo, Cicogna. t Ayeatinus, quicquld 

tarn profiinda spiritum sclentia, mirum interdiu ezhauriebatur, noctu expleba- 

noQ est tot tantasqae res visu admirab- tur. Inde payefiMsti curatores, &c. 

lies ab ipsis patrari, et quldem remm t In lib. 2 de Anima text. 29. Homenu 

naturalinm ope qnas multo melius faitel- discriminatim omnes spiritos deemonM 

llgunt, mnltoqne perltius snis locis et vocat. 
temporibus appUcaro nomnt, quam ho- 

248 NoJtwrt of Sprits. [Part. I. sec. S. 

amare potest, Sfc> Bat Jamblichus, Psellus, Plutarch, and 
most Platonists acknowledge bad, et ab eorum maleficits • 
cavendum, and we should beware of their wickedness, for 
they are enemies of mankind, and this Plato learned in 
Egypt, that they quarrelled with Jupiter, and were driven 
by him down to hell.* That which ^Apuleius, Xenophon, 
and Plato contend of Socrates' Dsemonium, is most absurd ; 
That which Plotinus of his, that he had likewise Deum pro 
Dcemonio ; and that which Porphiry concludes of them all in 
general, if they be neglected in their sacrifice they are angry ; 
nay more, as Cardan in his Hyperchen will, they feed on 
men's souls, EUmenta sunt plantU aUmentum, animalihus 
plantce, homimhus ammalia, erunt et homines edits, nan 
atUem diis, nimis enim remota est eorum natura a nostra, 
quapropter dcemonibas ; and so belike that we have so many 
battles fought in all ages, countries, is to make them a feast, 
and their sole delight ; but to return to that I said before, if 
displeased they fret and chafe (for they feed belike on the 
souls of beasts, as we do on their bodies), and send many 
plagues amongst us ; but if pleased, then they do much good ; 
is as vain as the rest and confuted by Austin, 1. 9, c 8, de 
Civ. Dei, Euseb. 1. 4, praepar. Evang. c 6, and otliers. Yet 
thus much I find, that our Schoolmen and other ^ Divines 
make nine kinds of bad spirits, as Dionysius hath done of 
Angels. In the first rank are those false gods of the Gen- 
tiles, which were adored heretofore in several Idols, and gave 
Oracles at Delphos, and elsewhere ; whose Prince is Beelze- 
bub. The second rank is of Liars and JBquivocators, as 
Apollo Pythius, and the like. The third are those vessels 
of anger, inventors of all mischief ; as that Theutus in Plato ; 
Esay calls them • vessels of fury ; their Prince is BeliaL 
The fourth are malicious revenging Devils ; and their Prince 
is Asmodseus. The fiflh kind are cozeners, such as belong 

* A Jove ad ioferos pulsl, &o. i De nonnunquam instar ovis, Plato. 

Deo Socratia. adest mihi dirina sorte > Agrippa. lib. 8, de occult, ph. c. 18, 

Deemonium quoddam ^ prima pueritia Zanch. Pictorus, Pereriua Gicogna. ^ 8, 

me secutom, siepe dissuadet, impellit cap. 1. > Vasa ine. c. 18. 

Mem, 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 249 

to Magicians and Witches ; their Prince is Satan. The 
' sixth are those aerial devils that * corrupt the air and cause 
plagues, thunders, fires, &c ; spoken of in the Apocalypse, 
and Paul to the Ephesians names them the Princes of the 
air ; Meresin is their Prince. The seventh is a destroyer, 
Captain of the Furies, causing wars, tumults, combustions, 
uproars, mentioned in the Apocalypse ; and called Abaddon. 
The eighth is that accusing or calumniating Devil, whom the 
Greeks call Aia^o2jog, that drives men to despair. The ninth 
are those tempters in several kinds, and their Prince is Mam- 
mon. Psellus makes six kinds, yet none above the Moon ; 
Wierus in his Pseudomonarchia Daemonis, out of an old 
book, makes many more divisions and subordinations, with 
their several names, numbers, offices, &c., but Gazaeus cited 
by ^ Lipsius will have all places full of Angels, Spirits, and 
Devils, above and beneath the Moon,* ethereal and aerial, 
which Austin cites out of Varro 1. viL de Civ. Dei, c. 6. 
" The celestial Devils above, and aerial beneath,** or, as some 
will, gods above, Semidei or half gods beneath, Lares, He- 
roes, Genii, which climb higher, if they lived well, as the 
Stoics held ; but grovel on the ground as they were baser 
in their lives, nearer to the earth ; and are Manes, Lemures, 
LamiaB, &c. * They will have no place but all full of Spirits, 
Devils, or some other inhabitants ; Plenum Ccelum, aer, aquoy 
terra, et omnia sub terra, saith ^ Gazseus ; though Anthony 
Rusca in his book de Inferno, lib. v. cap. 7, would confine 
them to the middle Region, yet they will have them every- 
where. " Not so much as a hair-breadth empty in heaven, 
eai'th, or waters, above or under the earth." The air is not 
so full of flies in summer, as it is at all times of invisible 
devils ; this • Paracelsus stiffly maintains, and that they have 
every one their several Chaos, others will have infinite worlds, 
and each world his peculiar Spirits, Gk>ds, Angels, and Devils 
to govern and punish it 

1 Qaibus datnm est nooere terrse et heroAS, lares, genios. < Mart. Capella. 

marl, &;c. > Physiol. Stoicorum i & Nihil Tacuamab his nbi yelcapillnm In 

Senec. lib. 1, cap. 28. > Usque ad aere vel aqua jaceas. ^ Lib. de Zilp. 
tunam animaii esse sethereas yocarique 

250 Digr9$non of Sprits, [PaiL L sec t 

" Singak * noniralli erednnt qnoque tid#n potae 
Dici orbes, terrarnqne appellaot stduB opacom, 
Cai minimus divCLm proeait** 

^ ** Some persons believe each star to be a world, aod this earth an opaque 

star, over which the least of the gods presides." 

^Gregorius Tbolsanua makes seven kinds of ethereA} 
Spirits or Angels, according to the number of the seven 
Planets, Saturnine, Jovial, Martial, of which Cardan dis- 
oourseth lib. xx. de subtiL he calls them iubstantias primate 
Olympicos damonss IVitemtus, gut prastint Zodtaco, S^c,^ 
and will have them to be good Angels above, Devik 
beneath the Moon, their several names and offices he there 
sets down, and which Dionysius of Angels, will have several 
spirits for several countries, men, offices, &C., which live about 
them, and as so many assisting powers cause their operations, 
will have in a word, innumerable, as many of them as there 
be Stars in the Skies, f Marcilius Ficinus seems to second 
this opinion, out of Plato, or from himself. I know not, (still 
ruling their inferiors, as they do those under them again, all 
subordinate, and the nearest to the earth rule us, whom we 
subdivide into good and bad angels, call gods or devils, as 
they help or hurt us, and so adore, love or hate) but it is 
most likely from Plato, for he relying wholly on Socrates, 
quern mori potius qtuim mentiri voluisse scribit, whom he 
says would rather die than tell a falsehood out of Socrates's 
authority alone, made nine kinds of them ; which opinion 
belike Socrates took from Pythagoras, and be from Trismegis- 
tus, he from Zoroasties, first God, second idea, 3. Intelli- 
gences ; 4. Archangels ; 5. Angels ; 6. Devils ; 7. Heroes ; 
8. Principalities ; 9. Princes ; of which some were abso- 
lutely good, as gods, some bad, some indifferent inter deot 
et homtneSy as heroes and daemons, which ruled men, and 
were called genii, or as | Proclus and Jamblichus will, the 

* PalingenixiB. i lib. 7, cap. d4 et 6. tes, ut habet noafcra. t Lib. de Arnica. 

Bvntax. art. mirab. f Comment in et diemone med. inter deoe et homines, 

dial. Plat, de amore, cap. 6. Ut spluera dicta ad nos et nostra seqiulitef ad deos 

quSBlibet nuper nos, ita prsBstantiores ftrnnt. 
habent habitatores sua sphnm oonsor- 


Mem. 1, subs. &.] Digression of Spirits. 1251 

middle betwixt Gk)d and men. Principalities and Princes, 
which commanded smd swayed Kings and countries; and 
had several placed in the Spheres perhaps, for as every 
sphere is higher, so hath it more excellent inhabitants; 
which belike is that Gralilaeus k Galileo and Kepler aims at 
in his Nuncio Sjderio, when he will have ^ Satumme and 
Jovial inhabitants; and which Tjcbo Brahe doth in some 
sort touch or insinuate in one of his Epistles; but these 
things * Zanchius justly explodes, cap. 3, lib< 4, P. Martyr, 
in 4 Sam. 28. 

So that according to these men the number of ethereal 
spirits must needs be infinite ; for if that be true that some 
of our mathematicians say \ if a stone could fall from the 
starry heaven, or eighth sphere, and should pass every hour 
an hundred miles, it would be sixty-five years or more, before 
it would come to ground, by reason of the great distance of 
heaven from earth, which contains, as some say, one hundred 
and seventy millions eight hundred and three miles, besides 
those other heavens, whether they be crystalline or watery 
which Maginus adds, which peradventure holds as much 
more, how many such spirits may it contain ? And yet for 
all this ' Thomas Albertus, and most hold that there be far 
more angels than devils. 

Sublunary devils, and their kinds*'] But be they more or 
less. Quod supra nos nihil ad nos (what is beyond our com- 
prehension does not concern us). Howsoever as Martianus 
foolishly supposeth, .JStherii Damones non curant res hu" 
tnanas, they care not for us, do not attend our actions, or look 
for us, those ethereal spirits have other worlds to reign in 
belike or business to follow. We are only now to speak in 
brief of these sublunary spirits or devils; for the rest, our 
divines determine that the Devil had no power over stars, or 
heavens ; ' Garminibus codo possunt deducere lunam, SfC. (by 
their charms [verses] they can seduce the moon from the 

1 SatttmiiiM et Joriales accolas. * In general! tesertftnttur. * i- 86, art. 9. 
l6ca detrnBi sunt infra caeleetes orbes > Viig. 8 Eg. 
In aerem aciUeet et infra nbi Jadido 

252 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

heavens). Those are poetical fictions, and that thej can 
^sistere agiiam Jluviis, et vertere sidera retro, S^c. (stop rivers 
and turn the stars backwards in their courses) as Canadia in 
Horace, 'tis all false. ^ They are confined until the day of 
judgment to this sublunary world, and can work no farther 
than the four elements, and as Grod permits them. Where- 
fore of these sublunary devils, though others divide them 
otherwise according to their several places and ofiices, Psel- 
lus makes six kinds, fiery, aerial, terrestrial, watery, and 
subterranean devils, besides those fairies, satyrs, nymphs, &c. 
Fiery spirits or devils are such as commonly work by 
blazing stars, fire-drakes, or ignes fatui ; which lead men 
often in Jlumina ant pracipitia, saith Bodine, lib. 2, Theat. 
naturae, fol. 221. Quos inquit arcere si volunt vicUores, clard 
voce Deum appeUare, aut pronam facie terram contingente 
adorare oportet^ et hoc amuletum majorihus nostris acceptum 
ferre debemus, Sfc, (whom if travellers wish to keep off they 
must pronounce the name of God with a clear voice, or adore 
him with their faces in contact with the ground, &c.) ; like- 
wise they counterfeit suns and moons, stars oftentimes, and 
sit on ship masts: In navigiorum summitatibus visuntur; 
and are called dioscuri, as Eusebius 1, contra Philosophos, 
c xlviii. informeth us, out of the authority of Zenophanes ; 
or little clouds, ad motum nescio quern volantes ; which never 
appear, saith Cardan, but they signify some mischief or other 
to come unto men, though some again will have them to pre- 
tend good, and victory to that side they come towards in sea- 
fights, St. Elmo's fires they commonly call them, and they do 
likely appear after a sea-storm ; Radzivillius, the Polonian 
duke, calls this apparition, Sancti Germani sidus ; and saith 
moreover that he saw the same after in a storm as he was 
sailing, 1582, from Alexandria to Rhodes.* Our stories are 
full of such apparitions in all kinds. Some think they keep 

1 JBn. 4. s Austin : hoc dixl, xi« quia habitare cum Angelis snis nnde lapsum 

ezistimet habitare ibi mala cUemonia ubi credimus. Idem Zanch. 1. 4, c. 8, de 

SolemetLunamet Stellas Deusordinavit, Angel, malis. Pererius in Oen. cap. 6, 

•t alibi nemo arbitraretor Daemonem ooelis lib. 8, in rer. 2. * Perigram. Hierosol. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 253 

their residence in that Hecla, a mountain in Iceland, -3Btna 
jn Sicily, Lipari, Vesuvius, &c These devils were wor- 
shipped heretofore by that superstitious Uvpoftavreia, ^ and the 

Aerial spirits or devils, are such as keep quarter most part 
in the ^air, cause many tempests, thunder, and lightnings, 
tear oaks, fire steeples, houses, strike men and beasts, make 
it rain stones, as in Livy's time, wool, frogs, &c. Counterfeit 
armies in the air, strange noises, swords, &c., as at Vienna 
before the coming of the Turks, and many times in Rome, 
as Scheretzius 1, de spect c. 1, part. 1. Lavater de spect. 
part. 1, c 17. Julius Obsequens, an old Roman, in his book 
of prodigies, ab urb. cond. 505. ' Machiavel hath illustrated 
by many examples, and Josephus, in his book de bello Ju- 
daico, before the destruction of Jerusalem. All which Guil. 
Postellus, in his first book, c. 7, de orbis concordia, useth as 
an efiectual argument (as indeed it is) to persuade them that 
will not believe there be spirits or ^evils. They cause whirl- 
winds on a sudden, and tempestuous storms ; which though 
our meteorologists generally refer to natural causes, yet I am 
of Bodine's mind, Theat. Nat. 1. 2, they are more often caused 
by those aerial devils, in their several quarters ; for Tempes- 
tatihus se ingerunt, saith * Rich. Argentine ; as when a des- 
perate man makes away with himself, which by hanging or 
drowning they frequently do, as Kornmannus observes, de 
mirac. mort. part. 7, c. 76, tripudium agentes, dancing and 
rejoicing at the death of a sinner. These can corrupt the 
air, and cause plagues, sickness, storms, shipwrecks, fires, in- 
undations. At Mons Draconis in Italy, there is a most mem- 
orable example in * Jovianus Pontanus ; and nothing so 
familiar (if we may believe those relations of Saxo Gram- 
maticus, Olaus Magnus, Damianus A. Goes) as for witches 
and sorcerers, in Lapland, Lithuania, and all over Scandia, 

1 Fire-worahip, or diyination by fire. 1. 6, e. 6. > Quest, in Lir. * De 

Domus diruunt, muros dgiciant, im- prsesti^is dsemonum, c. 16. CoDveUi 

miscent ae turbinibus et procelUs et pul- cubnina TidemuB, prostemi sata, &o. 

vwranlnstarcolumneeeTehuiit. Cicc^;iui, ^ De bello Neapolitano lib. 6. 

254 Digresntm of Sprits, [Part I. see. % 

to sell winds to mariners, and cause tempests, which Marcos 
Paulus the Venetian relates likewise of the Tartars. ThesQ 
kind of devils are mugh ^delighted in sacrifices (saith Por* 
phiry), held all the world in awe, and had scTcral names, 
idols, sacrifices, in Rome, Greece, Egypt, and at this day 
tyrannize over, and deceiye those Ethnics and Indians, being 
adored and worshipped for ^gods. For the Gentiles' gods 
were devils (as * Trismegistus confesseth in his Asclepius), 
and he himself could make them come to their images by 
magic spells ; and are now as much ^ respected by our 
papists (saith ' Pictorius) under the name of saints/' These 
are they which Cardan thinks desire so much carnal cop- 
ulation with witches (IncubC and Sueoubi), transform bodies, 
and are so very cold if tliey be touched; and that serve 
magicians. His father had one of them (as he is not 
ashamed to relate^), an aerial devil, bound to him for 
twenty and eight years. As Agrippa's dog had a devil tied 
to his collar; some think that Paracelsus (or else Erastus 
belies him) had one confined to his sword*pummel ; others 
wear them in rings, &c. Jannes and Jambres did many 
things of old by their help; Simon Magus, Cinops, Apollor 
nius Tianeus, Jamblichus, and Tritemius of late, that showe4 
Maximilian the emperor his wife, after she was dead ; J^ 
verrucam in coUo ejus (saith ^Gk)dolman) so much as the wart 
in her neck. Delrio, lib. ii. hath divers examples of their 
feats ; Cicogna, lib. iii. cap. 3, and Wierus in his book d^ 
prcesHg. dcemonum, Boissardus de magie et venefieis. 

Water-devils are those Naiads or water-nymphs which 
have been heretofore conversant about waters and rivers. 
The water (as Paracelsus thinks) is their chaos, wherein they 
live ; some call them fairies, and say that Habundia is their 
queen ; these cause inundations, many times shipwrecks, and 
deceive men divers ways, as Succuba, or otherwise, appear- 

1 SnflltibuB gaudent. Idem Justin. statoM pellexi. < Et nunc sub diTorom 

Martyr Apolog. pro Chiisttanis. > In nomine coluntur & Pontiflciis. * lib. 

Dei iniitationem, saith Eusebius. * Dli II, de rerum yer. & Lib. 8, cap. B, d» 

gentium DaBmonia, &c., ego in eorum magis «t Tfioa&cia, &c. Ner^klM. 

Mem. 1, sobs. 2.] Digression of Spirits, 2$5 

ing most part (saith Tritemius) in women's shapes. ^ Para- 
eelsus hath several stories of them that have lived and been 
married to mortal men, and so continued for certain years 
with them, and after, upon jsome dislike, have forsaken them. 
Such a one as ^geria, with whom Numa was so familiar, 
Diana, Ceres, &e. ^ Olaus Magnus hath a long narration of 
one Hotherus, a king of Sweden, that having lost his com* 
panj, as he was hunting one day, met with these water^ 
nymphs or :&iries, and was feasted by them ; and Hector 
Boethius, of Macbeth, and Banquo, two Scottish lords, that 
as they were wandering in the woods, had their fortunes told 
them by three strange women. To these, heretofore, they 
did use to sacrifice, by that idpo^t/^afreia, or divination by 

Terrestrial devils are those 'Lares, Genii, Fauns, Satyrs, 
* Wood-nymphs, Foliots, Fairies, Eobin Goodfellows, Trulli, 
^., which as they are most conversant with men, so they do 
them most harm. Some think it was they alone that kept 
.the heathen people in awe of old, and had so many idols and 
temples erected to them. Of this range was Dagon amongst 
the Philistines, B^ amongst the Babylonians, Astartes 
amongst the Sidonians, Baal amongst the Samaritans, Isis 
^d Osiris amongst the Egyptians, &c ; some put our f fairies 
into this rank, which have been in former times adored with 
much superstition, with sweeping their houses, and setting of 
a pail of clean water, good victuals, and the like, and then 
they should not be pinched, but find money in their shoes, 
and be fortunate in their enterprises. These are they that 
dance on heaths and greens, as ^ Lavater thinks with Trite* 
mius, and as ^ Olaus Magnus adds, leave that green circle, 
which we commonly find in plain fields, which others hold to 
proceed from a meteor falling, or some accidental rankness 
of the ground, so nature sports herself; they are sometimes 

1 Lib. de Qlphis. < Lib. 8. > Pro « Part. 1, cap. 19. 6 Lib. 8, o»p. 11. 

•alute hominam excubare se rimalant, ElTarum choreas Olaufl, lib 8, Tocat sal* 

•ed in eozum perniciem omnia moliuatur. turn adeo profundi in terras imprimant, 

Aoflt. * Dryades, Oriades, Hamadry^ nt locus insigni deinceps virore orbicn 

adet. t Elyas Olans Toeat, Ub. 8. laris sH, et gramen n<Hi per«at. 

256 Digretiion of Spirits. [Part L sec. 2. 

seen bj old women and children. Hierom. Pauli, in his 
description of the city of Bercino in Spain, relates how they 
have been familiarly seen near that town, about fountains and 
hills ; Nonnunquam (saith Tritemius) in sua latihida monii' 
um stmpliciores homines ducant, stupenda mirantibus astern 
denies miracvla^ nolarum sonittis, spectacula, ^c} GLraldus 
Cambrensis gives instance in a monk of Wales that was so 
deluded. ' Paracelsus reckons up many places in Germany, 
where they do usually walk in little coats, some two feet long. 
A bigger kind there is of them called with us hobgoblins, 
and Robin Goodfellows, that would in those superstitious 
times grind com for a mess of milk, cut wood, or do any 
manner of drudgery work. They would mend old irons in 
those .dSolian isles of Lipari, in former ages, and have been 
often seen and heard. ' Tholosanus calls them Trullos and 
Getulos, and saith, that in his days they were common in 
many places of France. Dithmarus Bleskenius, in his de- 
scription of Iceland, reports for a certainty, that almost in 
every family they have yet some such familiar spirits ; and 
Foelix Malleolus, in his book de crudeL daemon, affirms as 
much, that these Trolli or Telchines are very common in 
Norway, " and * seen to do drudgery work ; " to draw water, 
saith Wierus, lib, i. cap. 22, dress meat, or any such thing. 
Another sort of these there are, which frequent forlorn 
' houses, which the Italians call foliots, most part innoxious, 
* Cardan holds : " They will make strange noises in the night, 
howl sometimes pitifully, and then laugh again, cause great 
flame and sudden lights, fling stones, rattle chains, shave men, 
open doors and shut them, fling down platters, stools, chests, 
sometimes appear in the likeness of hares, crows, black dogs, 
&c" of which read ' Pet. Thyraeus the Jesuit, in his Tract. 

1 Sometimes they seduce too simple gant, patinax mundant, ligna portant, 

men into their mountain retreats^ where equos curant, &c. * Ad ministeiia 

they exhibit wonderful sights to their utuntur. » Where treasure is hid (as 

marrelling eyes, and astonish their ears some think) or some murder, or such like 

by the sound of bells, &c. « Lib. de villany committed. * lib. 16, de re- 

Zilph. et Pigmaeis Olaus, lib. 8. s Lib. rum yarietat. < Vel spiritus sunt hu- 

7, cap. 14, qui et in femulitio Tiris et jusmodi damnatorum, vel i purgatoiio, 

teminis inserviunt, conclayia scopis pur- Tel ipsl dsemones, o. 4. 


Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits, 257 

de locis infestis, part, 1, et cap, 4, who will have them to be 
devils or the souls of damned men that seek revenge, or else 
souls out of purgatory that seek ease; for such examples 
peruse ^ Sigismundus Scheretzius, lib. de spectris, part 1, c 1, 
which he saith he took out of Luther most part ; there be 
many instances. * PUnius Secundus remembers such a house 
at Athens, which Athenodorus the philosopher hired, which 
no man durst inhabit for fear of devils. ' Austin, de Oiv, 
Dei, lib. 22, cap. 1, relates as much of Hesperius the Trib- 
une's house, at Zubeda, near their city of Hippos, vexed with 
evil spirits, to his great hindrance. Cum afflictione aninicUium 
et servorum suorum. Many such instances are to be read in 
Niderius Formicar, lib. 5, cap, xii. 3, &c. Whether I may 
call these Zim and Ochim, which Isaiah, cap. xiii. 21, speaks 
of, I make a doubt. See more of these in the said Scheretz. 
lib, 1, de sped. cap. 4t, he is full of examples. These kinds 
of devils many times appear to men, and affright them out 
of their wits, sometimes walking at ' noonday, sometimes at 
nights, counterfeiting dead men's ghosts, as that of Caligula, 
which (saith Suetonius) was seen to walk in Lavinia's gar- 
den, where his body was buried, spirits haunted, and the 
house where he died, ^ NvMa nox sine terrore transacta, donee 
incendio consumpta; every night this happened, there was 
no quietness, till the house was burned. About Hecla, in 
Iceland, ghosts commonly walk, animas mortuorum simtdan^ 
tes, saith Job. Anan. lib. 3, de not, dtsm. Olaus, lib, 2, cap, 2, 
Natal. TaUopid. lib, de apparit. spir, Kommannus de mirac, 
mort. part. 1, cap, 44, such sights are frequently seen circa 
sepvlchra et monasteria, saith La vat. lib, 1, cap, 19, in monas- 
teries and about churchyards, loca paludinosa, ampla adijiciaj 
solitaria, et ccede hominum notata, S^, (marshes, great build- 
ings, solitary places, or remarkable as the scene of some 
murder.) Thyreus adds, ubi gramtu peccatum est commissum, 

1 Quidam lemnres domesticis faustm- &e. * Bpist. lib. 7. ' Meridtonalef 

mentis noctu ludunt : patinas, ollas, can- Deemones Gicogna eaUs them or Alastorea 

tharas, et alia vasa d^iciunt, et quidam 1. S, ptp. 9. * Soston.. c. 69^ in Ga 

voces emittunt, ejulant, risum emittunt, lignla. 
frc, ut canes nigii, fetes, Tarfis formls, 

VOL. I. 17 

258 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2 

impii pauperum oppressores et nequiter insignes habitant 
(where some very heinous crime was committed, there the 
impious and infamous generally dwell). These spirits oflea 
foretell men's deaths by several signs, as knocking, groanings, 
&c, * though Rich. Argentine, c 18, de pnestigiis dcemonumy 
will ascribe these predictions to good angels, out of the au- 
thority of Ficinus and others ; prodigia in ohitu principum 
saepius contingunt, S^c» (prodigies frequently occur at the 
deaths of illustrious men), as in the Lateran church in 
t Rome, the popes' deaths are foretold by Sylvester's tomb. 
Near Rupes Nova in Finland, in the kingdom of Sweden, 
there is a lake, in which, before the governor of the castle 
dies, a spectrum, in the habit of Arion with his harp, appears, 
and makes excellent music, like those blocks in Cheshire, 
which (they say) presage death to the master of the family ; 
or that ^ oak in Lanthadran park in Cornwall, which fore- 
shows as much. Many families in Europe are so put in 
mind of their last by such predictions, and many men are 
forewarned (if we may believe Paracelsus) by familiar spirits 
in divers shapes, as cocks, crows, owls, which often hover 
about sick men's chambers, vel quia morientium faditatem 
sentiunty as ^ Baracellus conjectures, et ideo super tectum in- 
Jirmorum crodtant, because they smell a corse ; or for that 
(as ' Bemardinus de Bustis thinketh) God permits the devil 
to appear in the form of crows, and such like creatures, to 
scare such as live wickedly here on earth. A little before 
TuUy's death (saith Plutarch) the crows made a mighty noise 
about him, tumuJUuose perstrepentes, they pulled the pillow 
from under his head. Rob. Gaguinus hist. Franc lib. 8, 
telleth such another wonderful story at the death of Johannes 
de Monteforti, a French lord, anno 1345, tanta corvorum 
mukitudo cedihus morientis insedity quantam esse in Gallia 
nemo judicdsset (a multitude of crows alighted on the house 
of the dying man, such as no one imagined existed in France). 

• StroKdttS CicogDA, lib. 8, mag. G»p. 5. Geniali, folio 187. > Part. 1, c. 19. 
t Idem c. 18. i M. Carew, Survey of Abducant eoe 4 recta yia, et viam iter 

Cornwall, lib. 2, folio 140. > Horto £&cientibu0 intereludunt. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits, 259 

Such prodigies are very frequent in authors. See more of 
these in the said Lavater, Thyreus de locis infestis, part 3, 
cap. 58. PictoriuSy Delrio, Gicogna, lib. 3, cap. 9. Necro- 
mancers take upon them to raise and lay them at their pleas- 
ures ; and so likewise those which Mizaldus calls Ambulones, 
that walk about midnight on great heaths and desert places, 
which (saith ^ Lavater) " draw men out of the way, and lead 
them all night a by-way, or quite bar them of their way ; " 
these have several names in several places; we commonly 
call them Pucks. In the deserts of Lop, in Asia, such illu- 
sions of walking spirits are often perceived, as you may read 
in M. Paulus, the Venetian his travels ; if one lose his 
company by chance, these devils will call him by his name, 
and counterfeit voices of his companions to seduce him. 
Hieronym. Pauli, in his book of the hills of Spain, relates 
of a great ^ mount in Cantabria, where such spectrums are 
to be seen ; Lavater and Cicogna have variety of examples 
of spirits and walking devils in this kind. Sometimes they 
sit by the highway side, to give men falls, and make their 
horses stumble and start as they ride (if you will believe the 
relation of that holy man Ketellus in * Nubrigensis, that had 
an especial grace to see devils, Gratiam divinittis coUatamy 
and talk with them, M impavidtts cum spiritibus sermonem 
miscere, without offence,) and if a man curse or spur his horse 
for stumbling, they do heartily rejoice at it ; with many such 
pretty feats. 

Subterranean devils are as common as the rest, and do as 
much harm. Olaus Magnus, lib. 6, cap. 19, makes six kinds 
of them ; some bigger, some less. These (saith * Munster) 
are commonly seen about mines of metals, and are some of 
them noxious ; some again do no harm. The metal-men in 
many places account it good luck, a sign of treasure and rich 

1 Lib. 1, cap. 44. Daemonnm oemnn- * lAb. 2, cap. 21. Offondicnla ftciunt 

turetaudianturibifireqaentesilliuiones, tzanseuntibas in Yia, et petulanter rldet 

unde viatoribas cayendum ne ee dimo- cum yel hominem vel jumentum cjuB 

cient, aut k tergo maneant, voces enim pedes atteretv fiidant, et maximi si homo 

Angunt sociorum, ut k recto itinere ab- maledictis et calcaribiu sceriat. * In 

ducant, &c. * Mons sterilJs et niyosus, Cosmogr. 
ubi intempesta noote umbrcB apparent. 

260 Digresnan of Spirits. [Part. L sec. a 

ore when they see them. Greorgias Agrioola, in his book 4ie 
9ubterranei$ animantibus, cap, 37, reckons two more notable 
kinds of them, which he calls ^ Getuli and Cobali, both ^ are 
clothed afler the manner of metal-men, and will many times 
imitate their works." Their office, as Pictorius and Paracel- 
sus think, is to keep treasure in the earth, that it be not all 
at once revealed ; and besides, ^ Cicogna avers that they are 
the frequent causes of those horrible earthquakes '^ which 
often swallow up, not only houses, but whole islands and 
cities ; " in his third book, cap. 11, he gives many instances. 

The last are conversant about the centre of the earth to 
torture the souls of damned men to the day of judgment; 
their egress and regress some suppose to be about ^tna, 
Lipari, Mons Hecla in Iceland, Vesuvius, Terra del Fuego, 
&c., because many shrieks and fearful cries are continually 
heard thereabouts, and familiar apparitions of dead men, 
ghosts and goblins. 

Their Offices, Operations^ Study."] Thus the devU reigns, 
and in a thousand several shapes, ^'as a roaring lion still 
seeks whom he may devour," 1 Pet. v., by earth, sea, land, 
air, as yet unconfined, though * some will have his proper 
place the air ; all that space between us and the moon for 
them that transgressed least, and hell for the wickedest of 
them, Hie velui in carcere ad Jinem mundi, tunc in locum 
fimestiorem trudendi, as Austin holds de OiviL Dei, c. 22, lib» 
14, cap. 3 et 23 ; but be where he will, he rageth while he 
may to comfort himself, as 'Lactantius thinks, with other 
men*s falls, he labours all he can to bring them into the same 
pit of perdition with him. " For * men's miseries, calamities) 
and ruins are the devil's banqueting dishes." By many 
temptations and several engines, he seeks to captivate our 

1 Vestiti more metalliooriun, gestiu et bus. Idem Thjnceas de loeis inftetis. 

«pera eorum imitantvir. a umnino In ^ laeteDtins 2, de origine erroris, oap. 15, 

teme carceres yento honibiles tome mo- hi malignl spiritus per manMU terraoi 

tas efflciunt, quibus seepe non domofl Tagantur, et sol&tiam perdidonis sua 

modo et turres, sed cbitates intogrsB et perdendu h<Mniiiib\ifl openntur. ^Hor- 

Insulae haustse sunt. • Hierom. in 8 talium ealamitates epuke sunt maloram 

Kphes. Idem Slichaelis, o. 4, de spiriti- dwmonum, Synedus. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digresnon of Spit its, 261 

souls. The Lord of Lies, saith ^Austin, "As he was de- 
ceived himself, he seeks to deceive others, the ringleader tc 
all naughtiness, as he did by Eve and Cain, Sodom and Gk>- 
morrah, so would he do by all the world. Sometimes he 
tempts by covetousness, drunkenness, pleasure, pride, &c., 
errs, dejects, saves, kills, protects, and rides some men, as 
they do their horses. He studies our overthrow, and gen- 
erally seeks our destruction ; " and although he pretend many 
times human good, and vindicate himself for a god by curing 
of several diseases, cegris sanitatem, et ccecis luminis usum 
rcstituendo, as Austin declares, lib. 10, de CiviL Dei, cap. 6, 
as Apollo, JEsculapius, Isis, of old have done ; divert plagues, 
assist them in wars, pretend their happiness, yet nihil his 
impurivs, scelestius, nihil humano generi infestius, nothing so 
impure, nothing so pernicious, as may well appear by their 
tyrannical and bloody sacrifices of men to Saturn and Moloch, 
which are still in use among those barbarous Indians, their 
several deceits and cozenings to keep men in obedience, their 
false oracles, sacrifices, their superstitious impositions of fasts, 
penury, &c. Heresies, superstitious observations of meats, 
times, &c., by which they ^ crucify the souls of mortal men, 
as shall be showed in our Treatise of Religious Melancholy. 
Modico adhuc tempore sinitur mcdignari, as "Bernard ex- 
presseth it, by God's permission he rageth awhile, hereafter 
to be confined to hell and darkness, " which is prepared for 
him and his angels," Mat. xxv. 

How far their power doth extend it is hard to determine ; 
what the ancients held of their effects, force and operations, 
I will briefly show you : Plato in Critias, and after him his 

1 Dominus mendacii k seipso deceptus, odoret. in 11. Cor. ep. 22. Chrys. horn, 

alios decipere cupit, adyersarios humani 68, in 12 Qen. Greg, in 1, c. John. Bar^ 

generis, Inventor mortis, superbise insti- thol. de prop. 1. 2, c. 20. Zanch. 1. 4, de 

tutor, radix malitiae, scelerum capat, malls angelis. Perer. in Gen. 1. 8, in o. 

princeps omnium vitiorum, fuit inde in 6, 2 Origen. ssBpe prseliis intersunt, 

Dei contumeliam, hominum perniciem: itinera et negotia nostra qusecunque 

de tiorumconatibuset operationibus lege dfrigunt, claidestinis subsidiis optatofl 

Epiphanium. 2 Tom. lib. 2. Dionysium. ssepe praebent successus. Pet. Mar. in 

e. 4. Ambros. Epistol. lib. 10, ep. et 84. ^m. &c., Ruacam de inferno. * Bl 

August, de civ. Dei, lib. 5, c. 9, lib. 8, cap. velut mancipia clrcumfert Psellus. 

22, lib. 9, 18, lib. 10, 21. Theophil. in 12. < Lib. de trans, mut. Malac. ep. 
Mat. Paail. ep. 141. Leonem Ser. The- 

262 Digression of Spirits. [Part. L sec. S. 

followers, gare out that these spirits or devils, '^ were men's 
governors and keepers, our lords and masters, as we are of 
our cattle." *"They govern provinces and kingdoms by 
oracles, auguries, dreams, rewards," and punishments, prophe- 
cies, inspirations, sacrifices, and religious superstitions, varied 
in as many forms as there be diversity of spirits ; they send 
wars, plagues, peace, sickness, health, dearth, plenty, ^Ac^ 
stantes hie jam nobis, spectantes, et arbiirantes, S^Cj as appears 
by those histories of Thucydides, Livius, Dionysius Halicar- 
nassus, with many others that are full of their wonderful 
stratagems, and were therefore by those Roman and Greek 
commonwealths adored and worshipped for gods with prayers 
and sacrifices, &c. ' In a word, Nihil nuigis gtuBrunt quam 
metum et cuimirationem hominum ; ^ and as another hath it, 
Did n(m potest, quam impotenJti ardcyre in homines dominium, 
et Divinos cuUos maligni spiritus (iffectentJ^ Tritemius in his 
book de septem secundis, assigns names to such angels as are 
governors of particular provinces, by what authority I know 
not, and gives them several jurisdictions. Asclepiades a 
Grecian, Rabbi Achiba the Jew, Abraham Avenezra, and 
Rabbi Azariel, Arabians (as I find them cited by * Gicogna) 
farther add, that they are not our governors only, Sed ex 
eorum concordid et discordid, honi et mali ctffectus promananty 
but as they agree, so do we and our princes, or disagree; 
stand or fall. Juno was a bitter enemy to Troy, Apollo a 
good friend, Jupiter indifferent, .jiEqua Venus Teucris, PaUas 
iniqua fait ; some are for us still, some against us, Premente 
Deo,fert Deus alter opem. Religion, policy, public and pri- 
vate quarrels, wars are procured by them, and they are 
' delighted perhaps to see men fight, as men are with cocks, 
bulls, and dogs, bears, &c., plagues, dearths depend on them, 
our bene and male esse, and almost all our other peculiar 

1 Onstodes sunt hominiiin, et eomm, and admiration of men." ' ft ^' It is 

nt noB animaliom : timi et proyinciis scarcely possible to describe the impotent 

pmpoeiti regunt angnriis, somniis, orac- ardour with which these malignant spir- 

ulis, praemiis, &c. * Lypsius Physiol, its aspire to the honour of being dirinehr 

Stoic, lib. 1, cap. 19. ^Leo Suavis. worshipped." >0mnif. mag. lib. 2, 

Idem et Tritemius. * '^ They seek cap. 28. ^ Ludus deorum sumus. 
nothing m(ne earnestly than the fear 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 263 

actions, for (as Anthony Rusca contends, lib. 5, cap, 18, 
every man hath a good and a bad angel attending on him 
in particular, all his life long, which Jamblichus calls dcemo^ 
nem,) preferments, losses, weddings, deaths, rewards, and 
punishments, and as ^ Proclus will, all offices whatsoever, 
alii genetricem^ alii opijlcem potestatem habent, ^c, and sev- 
eral names they give them according to their offices, as Lares 
Indijetes, Praestites, &c When the Arcades in that battle 
at Cheronse, which was fought against King Philip for the 
liberty of Greece, had deceitfully carried themselves, long 
after, in the very same place, Diis Grmdm tiUorihus (saith 
mine author) they were miserably slain by Metellus the 
Roman ; so likewise, in smaller matters, they will have 
things fall out, as these honi and mjoli genii favour or dis- 
like us ; Satumi rum conveniurU Jovialibus, S^c. He that is 
Saturninus shall never likely be preferred. ^ That base fel- 
lows are often advanced, undeserving Gnathoes, and vicious 
parasites, whereas discreet, wise, virtuous and worthy men are 
neglected knd unrewarded ; they refer to those domineering 
spirits, or subordinate Genii ; as they are inclined, or favour 
men, so they thrive, are ruled and overcome ; for as * Liba- 
nius supposeth in our ordinary conflicts and contentions, 
Geniits Genio cedit et obtemperai, one genius yields and is 
overcome by another. All particular events almost they 
refer to these private spirits ; and (as Paracelsus adds) they 
direct, teach, inspire, and instruct men. Never was any man 
extraordinary famous in any art, action, or great commander, 
that had not familiarem dcemonem to inform him, as Numa, 
Socrates, and many such, as Cardan illustrates, cap. 128, 
Arcanis prudentice civilis, * Speciali siquidem gratia, si a 
Deo donari asserunt magi, d Geniis ccdestibus instrui, ab 
iis doceri. But these are most erroneous paradoxes, inepUB 

1 Lib. de anima et diemoDe. * Quo- losophi non remnnerentur, oum souraa et 

ties fit, ut Principes norltiam aulioum ineptus ob insulsum jocum ssepe prte- 

diTitii8 et dignitatibus pene obruant, et mium reportet, inde fit, &c. ^ Lib. ds 

multorum annorum ministmm, qui non Cruent. Cadaver. ^ Boiasardiu c. 6. 

•emel pro hero periculum subiit, ne te- magia. 
rantio donent, &c. Idem. Quod Phi- 

264 . Nature of Spirits. [Part L see. a. 

€l fabulo$€R nugiBj rejected by our divines and Cbiistian 
churches. 'Tis true they have, by God's permission, power 
over us, and we find by experience, that they can ^ hurt not 
our fields only, cattle, goods, but our bodies and minds. At 
Hammel in Saxony, An. 1484, 20 Junii, the devil, in like* 
ness of a pied piper, carried away one hundred and thirty 
children that were never after seen. Many times men are 
* affrighted out of their wits, carried away ^ quite, as Sche- 
retzius illustrates, Uh. 1 c. iv., and severally molested by his 
means, Flotinus the Platonist, Uh. 14, cdvers. Gnos. laughs 
them to scorn, that hold the devil or spirits can cause any 
such diseases. Many think he can work upon the body, but 
not upon the mind. But experience pronounceth otherwise, 
that he can work both upon body and mind. Tertullian ia 
of this opinion, c. 22. ' '^ That he can cause both sickness and 
health," and that secretly. *Taurellu3 adds "by dancular 
poisons he can infect the bodies, and hinder the operations 
of the bowels, though we perceive it not, closely creeping into 
them," saith ' Lipsius, and so crucify our souls : M nodva 
mdancholia fariosos efficiL For being a spiritual body, he 
struggles with our spirits, saith Rogers, and suggests (accord* 
ing to ^ Cardan, verba sine voce, species sine visu, envy, lust, 
anger, &c.) as he sees men inclined. 

The manner how he peiforms it, Biarmannus, in his Ora- 
tion against Bodine, sufficiently declares. ^ " He begins first 
with the fantasy, and moves that so strongly, that no reason 
is able to resist. Now the fantasy he moves by mediation 
of humours ; although many physicians are of opinion, that 
the devil can alter the mind, and produce this disease of him- 

1 Oodelmaaus cap. 8, lib. 1, de Magii. et venenis nobis ignotis corpus inficera. 

Idem Zanchius lib. 4, cap. 10 et 11, de 6 Irrepentes corporibus occultd morbos 

mails angelis. s Nociva Mel'inchoUa flngunt, mentes terrent, membra distor- 

fUriosos efficit, et qiiandoque penitus in- quent. Lips. Phil. Stoic. 1. 1, c. 19. o De 

terficit. G. PicolomineusIdemqueZanch. rerum var. 1. 16, c. 98. ? Quum mens 

flap. 10, lib. 4, si Deus permittat, corpora immediate decipi nequit, primum movet 

nostra moTere possunt, alterare, quovis phantasiam, et ita obfirmat Tanis concep- 

morborum et malorum genere afflcere, tibus aut nt ne quern £icultati sestima- 

imo et in ipsa penetrare et ssevire. ^ In- tivae ration! locum relinquat. Spiritos 

ducere potest morbos et sanitates. * Vis- malus inradit animam, turbat sensus, in 

oerum actiones potest inhibere latenter, farorem coiyicit. Austin, de yit. Beat. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 265 

self. Quibusdam medtcorum visum^ saith ^Avicenna, quod 
Melancholia coTitingat a dcemonio. Of the same mind is 
Psellus and Rhasis the Arab. lib. 1, Tract. 9, Cont, ^ " That 
this disease proceeds especially from the devil, and from him 
alone." Arculanus, cap, 6 in 9, Rhasis, ^lianus Montaltus 
in his 9 cap,, Daniel Sennertus, lib, 1, part 2, cap, 11, con- 
firm as much, that the devil can cause this disease ; by reason 
many times that the parties affected prophesy, speak strange 
language, but non sine interventu humoris, not without the 
humour, as he interprets himself; no more doth Avicenna, 
si contingat d dcemonio, sufficit nobis tU convertat complex^ 
ionem ad chokram nigram, et sit causa ^'us propinqua cholera 
nigra ; the immediate cause is choler adust, which * Pompo- 
natius likewise labours to make good ; Galgerandus of Man- 
tua, a famous physician, so cured a daemoniacal woman in his 
time, that spake all languages, by purging black choler, and 
thereupon belike this humour of Melancholy is called Bal- 
neum Diaboli, the Devil's Bath ; the devil spying his oppor- 
tunity of such humours drives them many times to despair, 
fury, rage, &c., mingling himself amongst these humours. 
This is that which TertuUian avers, Corporibus infliguni 
acerbos casus, animceque repentinos, membra distorquent, OC' 
cuke repentes, S^c, and which Lemnius goes about to prove, 
Immiscent se mali Genii prams humoribus, atque atrce bili^ 
Sfc, And ^ Jason Pratensis, " that the devil, being a slender, 
incomprehensible spirit, can easily insinuate and wind him- 
self into human bodies, and cunningly couched in our bowels 
vitiate our healths, terrify our souls with fearful dreams, and 
shake our mind with furies.*' And in another place, " These 
unclean spirits settled in our bodies, and now mixed with our 
melancholy humours, do triumph as it were, and sport them- 
selves as in another heaven." Thus he argues, and that they 

1 Ub. 8, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, o. 18. ' A Titiare, somniis animas terrere et mentes 

Daemone maxime proflciaci, et ewepe solo, furoribus quatere. Insinuant se melachol- 

* lib. de incant. ^ Ctep. de mania lib. icomm penetralibns, intus ibique consi- 

de morbis cerebri ; Dsemones, qunm sint dunt et deliciantur tanquam in regione 

tenues et incomprehensibiles spiritus, se olarissimorum siderum, coguntque ani- 

iosinuare corporibus humanis possunt, et mom fturere. 
occulte in Tisoeribus operti, yaletudinem 

266 Nature of SpiriU. [Pmt. I. seo. a. 

go in and out of our bodies, as bees do in a hive, and so pro- 
voke and tempt us as they perceive our temperature inclined 
of itself, and most apt to be deluded. ^ Agrippa and ^ Lava- 
ter are persuaded, that this humour invites the devil to it, 
wheresoever it is in extremity, and of all other, melandiolj 
persons are most subject to diabolical temptations and illu- 
sions, and most apt to entertain them, and the devil best able 
to work upon them. But whether by obsession, or posses- 
sion, or otherwise, I will not determine ; 'tis a difficult ques- 
tion. Delrio the Jesuit, Tom, B, Kb, 6, Springer and his 
colleague, malL nudef. Pet. Thyreus the Jesuit, lib, de dttm- 
onicunSf de locis infestis, de TerrificaHontbus noctumts, 
Hieronimus Mengus FlageL deem, and others of that rank 
of pontifical writers, it seems, by their exorcisms and conjura- 
tions approve of it, having forged many stories to that pur- 
pose. A nun did eat a lettuce * without grace, or signing 
it with the sign of the cross, and was instantly possessed. 
Durand. lib. 6, Rationall. c. 86, numb. 8, relates that he saw 
a wench possessed in Bononia with two devils, by eating an 
unhallowed pomegranate, as she did afterwards confess, when 
she was cured by exorcisms. And therefore our Papists do 
sign themselves so often with the sign of the cross, Ne daemon 
ingredi atmt, and exorcise all manner of meats, as being un- 
clean or accursed otherwise, as Bellarmine defends. Many 
such stories I find amongst pontifical writers, to prove their 
assertions, let them free their own credits ; some few I will 
recite in this kind out of most approved physicians. Corne- 
lius Gemma, lib. 2, de not. mirac. c. 4, relates of a young 
maid, called Katherine Gualter, a cooper's daughter, An. . 
1571, that had such strange passions and convulsions, three 
men could not sometimes hold her ; she purged a live eel, 
which he saw a foot and a half long, and touched it himself; 
but the eel afterwards vanished ; she vomited some twenty- 
four pounds of fulsome stuff of all colours, twice a day for 

1 Lib. 1, cap. 6, occult. Philos. part 1, sanctificatione sio & dnmone obscessa. 
cap. 1, de spectrifl. * Sine cruoe et dial. & Greg. pag. c. 9. 


-^ I M i M- .i^gl— l«jB 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 267 

fourteen days ; and after that she voided great balls of hair, 
pieces of wood, pigeons' dung, parchment, goose dung, coals ; 
and after them two pounds of pure blood, and then again 
coals and stones, of which some had inscriptions bigger than 
a walnut, some of them pieces of glass, brass, &c., besides 
pai'oxysms of laughing, weeping, and ecstasies, &c. Et hoc 
(inquit) cum horrore vidi, this I saw with horror. They 
could do no good on her by physic, but left her to the clergy. 
Marcellus Donatus, lib, 2, c. 1, de med. mirab. hath such an- 
other story of a country fellow, that had four knives in his 
belly, Instar serrce dentatos, indented like a saw, every one a 
span long, and a wreath of hair like a globe, with much bag- 
gage of like sort, wonderful to behold ; how it should come 
into his guts, he concludes, Certe non alio quam dcemonis aS" 
tutid et dolo, (could assuredly only have been through the 
artifice of the devil). Langius, JSpist. med. lib, 1, Epist. 38, 
hath many relations to this effect, and so hath Christopherus 
h, Vega ; Wierus, Skenkius, Scribonius, all agree that they 
are done by the subtlety and illusion of the devil. If you 
shall ask a reason of this, 'tis to exercise our patience ; for as 
* TertuUian holds. Virtus non est virtus^ nisi comparem habet 
aliqtiem, in quo superando vim suam ostendat, 'tis to try us 
and our faith, 'tis for our offences, and for the punishment of 
our sins, by God's permission they do it, Gamifices vindictce 
justce Dei, as ^Tolosanus styles them, Executioners of his 
will ; or rather as David, Ps. 78, ver. 49. " He cast upon 
them the fierceness of his anger, indignation, wrath, and vexa- 
tion, by sending out of evil angels ;" so did he afflict Job, Saul, 
the Lunatics and demoniacal persons whom Christ cured, 
Mat. iv. 8, Luke iv. 11, Luke xiii., Mark ix., Tobit viii. 8, 
&c. This, I say, happeneth for a punishment of sin, for their 
want of faith, incredulity, weakness, distrust, &c. 

* Penult, de opiflo. Dei. i Lib. 28, cap. 26, torn. 2. 

268 Causes of Mdancholy, [Part. I. sec. « 

SuBSECT. III. — Of Witches and MagidanSy how they cause 


You have heard what the devil can do of himself, now you 
shall hear what he can perform by his instruments, who are 
many times worse (if it be possible) than he himself, and to 
satisfy their revenge and lust cause more mischief, MuUa enim 
mala rum egisset damon, nisi provocatus a sagis^ as ^ Erastus 
thinks ; much harm had never been done, had he not been 
provoked by witches to it He had not appeared in Samuel's 
shape, if the Witch of Endor had let him alone ; or repre- 
sented those serpents in Fharo's presence, had not the magi- 
cians urged him unto it ; Nee morbus vel hominibusy vel hrutis 
infligeret (Erastus maintains) «t «a^^ ^tV<ceren^;* men and 
cattle might go free, if the witches would let him alone. 
Many deny witches at all, or if there be any they can do no 
harm ; of this opinion is Wierus, lib, 8, cap, 53, de prtestig. 
dam. Austin Lerchemer, a Dutch writer, Biarmannus, Ewich- 
ius, Euwaldus, our countryman Scot ; with him in Horace, 

" Soiiinia, terrores Magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Noctumos Lemnres, portentaqne Thessala risa 

Say, can you laugh indignant at the schemes 
Of magic terrors, visionary dreams, 
Portentous wonders, witching imps of Hell, 
The nightly goblin, and enchanting spell ? 

They laugh at all such stories ; but on the contrary are most 
lawyers, divines, physicians, philosophers, Austin, Hemingius, 
DansBus, Chytraeus, Zanchius, Aretius, &c., Delrio, Springer, 
* Niderius lib. 5, Fornicar. Cuiatius, Bartolus, consil. 6, torn. 
1, Bodine dcemoniant. lib. 2, cap. 8, Godelman, Damhode- 
rius, &c., Paracelsus, Erastus, Scribanius, Camerarius, &c. 
The parties by whom the devil deals, may be reduced to 
these two, such as command him in show at least, as con- 
jurors, and magicians, whose detestable and horrid mysteries 

1 De Lunlis. • Bt quomodo Tendioi fiant enarrat. 


Mem. 1, snbs. 8.] OaiLses of Melancholy, 269 

are contained in their book called * Arbatell ; dcemo^es enim 
advocati prcesto sunt, seque exorcismis et conjurationihus 
qttasi cogi patiuntur, vi miserum magorum genus, in impie' 
tate detineant. Or such as are commanded, as witches, that 
deal ex parte implictte, or explicite, as the ^ king hath well de- 
fined ; many subdivisions there are, and many several species 
of sorcerers, witches, enchanters, charmers, &c. They have 
been tolerated heretofore some of them ; and magic hath been 
publicly professed in former times, in * Salamanca, t Cracow, 
and other places, though after censured by several * Uni- 
versities, and now generally contradicted, though practised 
by some still, maintained and excused, Tanquam res seereta 
qv€e non nisi viris magnis et peculiari heneficio de Godo 
instructts communicatur (I use J Boesartus his words) and 
so far approved by some princes, Ut nihil ami aggredi in 
politicis, in sacrts, in consiliis, sine eorum arhitrio ; they 
consult still with them, and dare indeed do nothing without 
their advice. Nero and Heliogabalus, Maxentius, and Juli- 
anus Apostata, were never so much addicted to magic of 
old, as some of our modem princes and popes themselvea 
are nowadays. Erricus King of Sweden had an Sen- 
chanted cap, by virtue of which, and some magical murmur 
or whispering terms, he could command spirits, trouble the 
air, and make the wind stand which way he would, insomuch 
that when there was any great wind or storm, the common 
people were wont to say, the king now had on his conjuring 
cap. But such examples are infinite. That which they can 
do, is as much almost as the devil himself, who is still ready 
to satisfy their desires, to oblige them the more unto him. 
They can cause tempests, storms, which is familiarly prac- 
tised by witches in Norway, Iceland, as I have proved. 
They can make friends enemies, and enemies friends by 
philters ; * Turpes amoves conciliare, enforce love, tell any 

* De quo plum legaa fn B(ri88ardo lib. 1, P. Lombardl. t Pne&t. de magls ei 

de pneetig. i Rex Jacobus Dsemonol. Teneficis. $ Rotatunri Pileum habebat, 

1. 1, c. 8- < An nniyeniity In Spain in quo rentos violentos (ieret, aerem tui^ 

old Castile. t The chief town in Po- baret, et in quam parte p, &o. * Eiaa- 

land. s Oxford and Paris, see flnem tus. 

270 Causes of Melancholff, [Part. I. sec. a. 

man where his friends are, about what employed though in 
the most remote places ; and if they will, * " bring their 
sweethearts to them by night, upon a goat's back flying in 
the air." Sigismund Scheretzius, part 1, cap. 9, de specL, 
reports confidently, that he conferred with sundry such, that 
had been so carried many miles, and that he heard witches 
themselves confess as much ; hurt and infect men and beasts, 
vines, com, cattle, plants, make women abortive, not to 
conceive, f barren, men and women unapt and unable, mar- 
ried and unmarried, fifty several ways, saith Bodine, lib. 2, 
c. 2, fly in the air, meet when and where they will, as 
Cicogna proves, and La vat de spec, part, 2, c. 17, " steal 
young children out of their cradles, mimsterio dtemonum, 
and put deformed in their rooms, which we call changelings, 
saith X Scheretzius, jE>arf. 1, c. 6, make men victorious, fortu- 
nate, eloquent; and therefore in those ancient monomachies 
and combats they were searched of old, ^ they had no magical 
charms ; they can make ^ stick frees, such as shall endure a 
rapier's point, musket shot, and never be wounded ; of which 
read more in Boissardus, cap. 6. de Magta, the manner of 
the adjuration, and by whom 'tis made, where and how 
to be used in expeditionihus bellicts, prcdiis^ dueUts, S^c.^ 
with many peculiar instances and examples ; they can walk 
in fiery furnaces, make men feel no pain on the rack, atU 
altos tarturas sentire ; they can stanch blood, • represent dead 
men's shapes, alter and turn themselves and others into 
several forms, at their pleasures. § Agaberta, a famous 
witch in Lapland, would do as much publicly to all specta- 
tors, Modo Pusilla, modd antis, modd procera ut querctis, 
modd vacca, avis, coluber, S^c. Now young, now old, high, 
low, like a cow, like a bird, a snake, and what not? she 
could represent to others what forms they most desired to 
see, show them friends absent, reveal secrets, maxima 

* Mmisterio hirei noctarni. t Ster- verorum cotO^^^- ^ Milles. > D. 

lies nuptos et inhabiles, vide Petrum de Luther, in primum pneceptum, efc Leon. 

Palude, lib. 4, distinct. 84. Paulum Varius, lib. 1, de Fascino. > Larat. 

Gniclandum. % Infiintes matribus Oic(^. $ Boissaidas de Magte. 

■ufforantur, aliia suppositivis in loonm 

Mem. 1, subs. 8.] Clauses of Melancholy* 271 

iymnium admiratione, S^c. And yet for all this subtlety of 
theirs, as Lypsius well observes, Physiolog. Stoicor. lib. 1, 
cap. 17, neither these magicians nor devils themselves can 
take away gold or letters out of mine or Crassus's chest, et 
Glientelis suis largiri, for they are base, poor, contemptible 
fellows most part : as * Bodine notes, they can do nothing in 
Judicum decreta aut pcenas, in regum concilia vel arcana, 
nihil in rem nummariam a\U thesatiros, they cannot give 
money to their cHents, alter judges' decrees, or councils of 
kings, these minvii Genii cannot do it, aUiores Genii hoc sihi 
adservdrunt, the higher powers reserve these things to them- 
selves. Now and then peradventure there may be some 
more famous magicians like Simon Magus, t-^poUonius 
Tyaneus, Pasetes, Jamblicus, JOdo de Stellis, that for a 
time can build..£astles in the air, represent armies, &c, as 
they are ^ said to have done, command wealth and treasure, 
feed thousands with all variety of meats upon a sudden, 
protect themselves and their followers from all princes' per- 
secutions, by removing from place to place in an instant, 
reveal secrets, future events, tell what is done in far coun- 
tries, make them appear that died long since, and do many 
such miracles, to the world's terror, admiration, and opinion 
of deity to themselves, yet the devil forsakes them at last, 
they come to wicked ends, and rard avit nunquam such im- 
postors are to be found. The vulgar sort of them can work 
no such feats. But to my purpose, they can, last of all, cure 
and cause most diseases to such as they love or hate, and 
this of ^ melancholy amongst the rest. Paracelsus, Tom. 4, 
de morhis, amentium. Tract. 1, in express words affirms; 
Multi fasdnantur in melancholiam, many are bewitched 
into melancholy, out of his experience. The same saith 
Danaeus, lib. 3, de sortiariis. Vidi, inquit, qui Melan- 
cholicos morbos gravissimos induxerwnt: I have seen those 

* Daemon. lib. 8, cap. 8. t Vide < Virg. ^neid. 4. Incantatricem descri- 

Philostratum vita cgus, Boissardum de bens: Hsec se carminibus promittit loi- 

Bfagis. X Nubrigenses lege, lib. 1, c. 19. yere mentes. Quas yelit, ast aliis duraa 

Vide Suidam de Paset. De Cruent. Gada- immittere curaa. 
▼er. I Erastus. Adolphus Soribanius. 


272 Came$ of Melancholy, [Part I. sec. 2. 

that have caused melancholy in the most grieToos manner, 
^ dried up women's paps, cured gout, palsj; this and apo> 
plexy, falling sickness, which no physic could help, 8olo taetu^ 
by touch alone. Ruland, in his 3 Cent. Cura 91, gives an 
instance of one David Helde, a young man, who by eat- 
ing cakes which a witch gave him, mox ddirare cceptty 
began to dote on a sudden, and was instantly mad ; F. H. D. 
in ^ Hildesheim, consulted about a melancholy man, thought 
his disease was partly magical, and partly natural, because 
he vomited pieces of iron and lead, and spake such lan- 
guages as he had never been taught ; but such examples are 
common in Scribanius, Hercules de Saxonia and others. 
The means by which they work are usually charms, images, 
as that in Hector Boethius of King Duffe; characters 
stamped of sundry metals, and at such and such constella- 
tions, knots, amulets, words, philters, &c., which generally 
make the parties affected, melancholy ; as ' Monavius dis- 
courseth at large in an epistle of his to Acolsius, giving 
instance in a Bohemian baron that was so troubled by a 
philter taken. Not that there is any power at all in those 
speUs, charms, characters, and barbarous words ; but that the 
devil doth use such means to delude them. Ui Jideles inde 
magos (saith * Libanius) in officio retineaty turn in consortium 
malefactorum vocet, 

SuBSECT. IV. — J^ars a Cause, Signs from Physiognomgj 

Metoposcopy, Chiromancy* 

Natural causes are either primary and universal, or sec- 
ondary and more particular. Primary causes are the heav- 
ens, planets, stars, &c., by their influence (as our astrologers 
hold) producing this and such like effects. I will not here 
stand to discuss obiter ^ whether stars be causes, or signs ; or 
to apologize for judicial astrology. If either Sextus Empiri- 

1 Ghxlelmaniiiu, cap. 7, Mb. 1, nntrl- fol. 147. ' Omnia philtra etsi inter se 

cam mammas prtericcant, solo tactu cUfferant, hoc habont commune, quod 

podagram, apoplexiam, paralyrin, et alios hominem efBciant melancholicnm ; epist. 

morbos, quos medicina curare non pot- 231. Scholtzii. * De Cruent. (^dar 

erat. > Factus inde Maniacus, spec. 2, Ter. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Causes of Melancholy, 273 

cus, Picus Mirandula, Sextus ab Heminga, Pererius, Erastus, 
Chambers, &c., have so far prevailed with any man, that he 
will attribute no virtue at all to the heavens, or to sun, or 
moon, more than he doth to their signs at an innkeeper's post, 
or tradesman's shop, or generally condemn all such astrologi- 
cal aphorisms approved by experience ; I refer him to Bel- 
lantius, Pirovanus, Marascallerus, Goclenius, Sir Christopher 
Heidon, &c. If thou shalt ask me what I think, I must an- 
swer, nam et doctis hisce errorihus versattis sum (for I am 
conversant with these learned errors), they do incline, but not 
compel ; no necessity at all ; i agunt nan cogunt ; and so 
gently incline, that a wise man may resist them ; sapiens dom- 
inahitur astris ; they rule us, but God rules them. All this 
(methinks) * Job. de Indagine hath comprised in brief, Qjub- 
vis a me qvixxntum in nobis operantur astra f S^c. " Wilt thou 
know how far the stars work upon us ? I say they do but 
incline, and that so gently, that if we will be ruled by reason, 
they have no power over us ; but if we follow our own na- 
ture, and be led by sense, they do as much in us as in brute 
beasts, and we are no better." So that, I hope, I may justly 
conclude, with ^ Cajetan, Ooelum est vehiculum divines virtiUis, 
SfCy that the heaven is God's instrument, by mediation of 
which he governs and disposeth these elementary bodies ; or 
a great book, whose letters are the stars (as one calls it), 
wherein are written many strange things for such as can 
read, * " or an excellent harp, made by an eminent workman, 
on which, he that can but play, will make most admirable 
music." But to the purpose. 

• Paracelsus is of opinion, " that a physician without the 
knowledge of stars can neither understand the cause or cure 
of any disease, either of this or gout, not so much as tooth- 

1 Astra regunt homines, et regit astra lumine et influentia, Deus elementaria 

Deus. s Chirom. lib. qnaeris ^ me corpora ordinat et disponit. Th. de 

quantum operantur astra? dico, in nos Vio. Cajetanus in Psa. 104. ^ Mun- 

nihil astra urgere, sed animos proclives dus iste quasi lyra ab excellentissimo 

trahere : qui sic tamen liberi sunt, ut si quodam artifice eoneinnata, quem qui 

ducem sequantur rationem, nihil efll- ndrit mirabiles eliciet harmonias. J. 

clant, sin rero naturam, id agere quod Dee. Aphorismo 11. s Medic us sine 

in brutis fere. > Coelum yehiculum ooeli peritia nihil est, &c., nisi genes imsci- 

dlrinas virtutis^ cujus mediante motu, yerit, ne tantillum potent, lib. de podag. 

VOL. I. 18 

274 Catues of MeUmchdy. [Part. I. sec. a. 

ache ; except he see the peculiar genitare and scheme of the 
party affected." And for this proper maladj, he will have 
the principal and primary cause of it proceed from the 
heaven, ascribing more to stars than humours, ^ '' and that the 
constellation alone many times piodnceth melancholy, all 
other causes set apart." He gives instance in lunatic persons, 
that are deprived of their wits by the moon's motion ; and in 
another place refers all to the ascendant, and will have the 
true and chief cause of it to be sought from the stars. Nei- 
ther is it his opinion only, but of many Gfdenists and philoso- 
phers, though they do not so peremptorily maintain as much. 
"This variety of melancholy symptoms proceeds from the 
stars," saith ^ Melancthon ; the most generous melancholy, as 
that of Augustus, comes from the conjunction of Saturn and 
Jupiter in Libra; the bad, as that of Catiline's, from the 
meeting of Saturn and the moon in Scorpio. Jovianus Pon- 
tanus, in his tenth book, and thirteenth chapter de rebus coelei' 
UhuSj discourseth to this purpose at large. Ex atrd bile varii 
generantur morbi, Sfc.^ • " many diseases proceed from black 
choler, as it shall be hot or cold ; and though it be cold in its 
own nature, yet it is apt to be heated, as water made 
to boil, and bum as bad as fire ; or made cold as ice ; and 
thence proceed such variety of symptoms, some mad, some 
solitary, some laugh, some rage," &c. The cause of all which 
intemperance he will have chiefly and primarily proceed from 
the heavens, * " from the position of Mars, Saturn, and Mer- 
cury." His aphorisms be these, *" Mercury in any geniture, 
if he shall be found in Virgo, or Pisces, his opposite sign, and 
that in the horoscope, irradiated by those quartile aspects of 

1 Constellatio in eaoaa est; et influen- tametei suftpte natuift ftigida sit. Annon 

tia coeli morbum hunc movet interdum, aqua sio afflcitur a calore ut ardeat ; et a 

omnibus aliis amoiis. £t alibi. Origo fiigore, utinglaciem ooncreficat? et hKc 

ejus 4 Coelo petenda est. Tr. de morbifl Tarietas distinctionum, alii flent, rident, 

amentium. * Lib. de anima, cap. de &c. 4 Hanc ad intemperantiam gig- 

humorib. Ea yarietas in Melancholia, nendam plurimam confert cf et fj po^i- 

babet cselestes causas (^ li et%in n d tufk, &c. ^ $ Quotiee alicujus genitnra 

(f et d in TTI. *Ex atra bile Tarii gen- in III et X ftdverso signo poeitus, horo- 

erantur morbi, perinde ut ipse multum soopum partiliter tenuerit atque etiam a 

oalidi aut frigidi in se liabuerit, qunm cf rel ^2 n radio percussos fneiifc, natufl 

utrique suscipiendo quam aptissuna sit, ab insania yezabitur. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Camei of Melancholy, 275 

Saturn or Mars, the child shall be mad or melancholj." 
Again, ^ ^^ He that shall have Saturn and Mars, the one cul- 
minating, the other in the fourth house, when he shall be 
bom, shall be melancholy, of which he shall be cured in time, 
if Mercury behold them." ^ " If the moon be in conjunction 
or opposition at the birth time with the sun, Saturn or Mars, 
or in a quartile aspect with them (e malo ccdi loco, Leovitiua 
adds), many diseases are signified, especially the head and 
brain is like to b6 misaffected with pernicious humours, to be 
melancholy, lunatic, or mad," Cardan adds, quartd lund natos, 
eclipses, earthquakes. Grarcaeus and Leovitius will have the 
chief judgment to be taken from the lord of the geniture, or 
where there is an aspect between the moon and Mercury, aad 
neither behold the horoscope, or Saturn and Mars shall be 
lord of the present conjunction or opposition in Sagittarius or 
Pisces, of the sun or moon, such persons are commonly epi- 
leptic, dote, dsemoniacal, melancholy ; but see more of these 
aphorisms in the above-named Pontanus. Gkrcaeus, cap, 23, 
de Jvd, geniiur, Schoner, Uh, 1, cap, 8, which he hath fath- 
ered out of ' Ptolemy, Albubater, and some other Arabians, 
Junctine, Ranzovius, Lindhout, Origen, &c. But these men 
you will reject peradventure, as astrologers, and therefore 
partial judges; then hear the testimony of physicians, 
Galenists themselves. *Carto confesseth the influence of 
stars to have a great hand to this peculiar disease, so doth 
Jason Pratensis, Lonicerius protfat, de Apoplexid, Ficinus, 
Femelius, &c * P. Cnemander acknowledgeth the stars an 
universal cause, the particular from parents, and the use of 
the six non-natural things. Baptista Port mag. I, 1, c, 10, 
12, 15, will have them causes to every particular individium. 
Instances and examples, to evince the truth of these aphor- 
isms, are common amongst those astrologian treatises. Car- 

1 Qnt f^ et (f habet, ftltenim la eul- melftncholicoram sympfcomata fidemm 

mine, alterum imo coelo, cum in lucem influentUs. ^ Arte Medica. Acoedont 

v«nerik, melanchotteas erit, 4 qua sanab- ad Iuub eausas aflEectlones sideram. Pln- 

itor, A ^ iilos inadULrit. < Hac con- rimum incitaot ei prorocant infln«n- 

Olf^ratione natos, aut lunaticus, ant tisB eaelostes. Vekurio, lib. 4, cap. 15. 

meote captus. > Ptolomieas oentilo- 6 Hildeiheim, splcel. 2, de meL 
quio, et quadripartito tribuit (Mnninm 

276 Causes of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec. 2. 

dan, in his thirty-seventh geniture, gives instance in Math. 
Bolognius. Camerar. hor. natalit centur. 7, geniL 6 et 7, of 
Daniel Gare, and others; but see Garcaeus, cap. 33, Luc 
Gauricus, Thxct. 6, de Azememsj S^c. The time of this mel- 
ancholy is, when the significators of any geniture are directed 
according to art, as the hon moon, hylech, &c., to the hostile 
beams or terms of $ and ^ especially, or any fixed star of 
their nature, or if ^ by his revolution, or transitus, shall 
ofiend any of those radical promissors in the geniture. 

Other signs there are taken from physiognomy, metopos- 
oopy, chiromancy, which because Joh. de Indagine, and Rot- 
man, the landgrave of Hesse his mathematician, not long 
since in his Chiromancy; Baptista Porta, in his celestial 
Physiognomy, have proved to hold great affinity with astrol- 
ogy, to satisfy the curious, I am the more willing to insert. 

The general notions * physiognomers give, be these ; " black 
colour argues natural melancholy ; so doth leanness, hirsute- 
ness, broad veins, much hair on the brows,** saith * Gratana- 
rolus, cap, 7, and a little head, out of Aristotle, high sanguine, 
red colour, shows head melancholy ; they that stutter and are 
bald, will be soonest melancholy (as Avicenna supposeth), by 
reason of the dryness of their brains ; but he that will know 
more of the several signs of humour and wits out of physiog- 
nomy, let him consult with old Adamantus and Polemus, that 
comment, or rather paraphrase upon Aristotle's Physiognomy, 
Baptista Porta's four pleasant books, Michael Scot de secretis 
naturce, John de Indagine, Montaltus, Antony Zara. anat, %n- 
geniorum, sect, 1, memh, 13, et lib, 4 

Chiromancy hath these aphorisms to foretell melancholy 
Tasneir. lib, 5, cap, 2, who hath comprehended the sum of 
John de Indagine; Tricassus, Corvinus, and others in his 
book, thus hath it; ^"The Saturnine line going from the 
rascetta through the hand, to Saturn's mount, and there inter- 

1 Joh. de Indag. eap. 9. Montaltus, Gkileno. > Satumina & Bascetta per 

cap. 22. * CSapnt parvum qui habent mediam maaum deeurrens, usque ad 

cerebrum et spiritus pleriunque angus- radicem montis Satumi, k parrls lin^ 

toB, fiidle incident in Melancholiam rubi- intersecta, argnit melanohoUcos. Apho- 

cnndi. iBtius Idem Montaltus, o. 21} h riam. 78. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Oattses of Melancholy. 277 

seeled by certain little lines, argues melancholy ; so if the 
vital and natural make an acute angle, Aphorism 100. The 
saturnine, epatic, and natural lines, making a gross triangle 
in the hand, argue as much ; '* which Groclenius, cap. 5 Chiros. 
repeats verbatim out of him. In general they conclude all, 
that if Saturn's mount be full of many small lines and inter- 
sections, ^ '^ such men are most part melancholy, miserable, 
and full of disquietness, care and trouble, continually vexed 
with anxious and bitter thoughts, always sorrowful, fear- 
ful, suspicious ; they delight in husbandry, buildings, pools, 
marshes, springs, woods, walks, &c." Thaddaeus Haggesius, 
in his Metoposcopia, hath certain aphorisms derived from 
Saturn's lines in the forehead, by which he collects a melan- 
choly disposition ; and ^ Baptista Porta makes observations 
from those other parts of the body, as if a spot be over the 
spleen ; • " or in the nails ; if it appear black, it signifieth 
much care, grief, contention, and melancholy ; " the reason 
he refers to the humours, and gives instance in himself, that 
for seven years' space he had such black spots in his nails, 
and all that while was in perpetual lawsuits, controversies 
for his inheritance, fear, loss of honour, banishment, grief, 
care, &c., and when his miseries ended, the black spots van- 
ished. Cardan, in his book de lihris proprits, tells such a 
story of his own person, that a little before his son's death, he 
had a black spot, which appeared in one of his nails ; and 
dilated itself as he came nearer to his end. But I am over 
tedious in these toys, which howsoever, in some men's too 
severe censures, they may be held absurd and ridiculous, I 
am the bolder to insert, as not borrowed from circumforanean 
rogues and gypsies, but out of the writings of worthy philoso- 
phers and physicians, yet living some of them, and religious 
professors in famous universities, who are able to patronize 

1 Agltantur miMriis, continnlfi inquie- lades, &c. Jo. de Indagine, lib. 1. 

tadinibus, neque unquam JL solicitudine * Oselestis Physiofifnom. lib. 10. > cap. 

liberi sunt, anxfe affliguntur amarissimis 14^ lib. 5. Idem : maculsQ in nnguUs 

intra cogitationibus, semper tristes, sus- nigrse, lites, rixas, melancholiam si^iifl 

pitiosi, meticulosi : cogltationes sunt, cant, ab humore in corde tali. 
▼eUe agrum colere, stagna amant et pa- 


278 Game$ of Melanehofy. [Part L sec & 

that which they have said, and vindicate themselyes from all 
eavillers and ignorant persons. 

SuBSECT. y. — Old Age a Cause, 

Secondary peculiar causes efficient, so called in respeet 
of the other precedent, are either congeniUe intenuBy innaU^ 
afl they term them, inward, innate, inbred ; or else outward 
and adventitious, which happen to us after we are bom ; con-' 
genite or bom with us, are either natural, as old age, or 
prater naturam (as ^ Femelius calls it) that distemperature, 
which we have from our parents' seed, it being an hereditary 
disease. The first of these, which is natural to all, and which 
no man living can avoid, is ' old age, which being cold and 
dry, and of the same quality as melancholy is, must needs 
cause it, by diminution of spirits and substance, and increas- 
ing of adust humours ; therefore • Melancthon avers out of 
Aristotle, as an undoubted truth, Senes plerunque delirdsse in 
senectd, that old men familiarly dote, ob atram hilem, for 
black choler, which is then superabundant in them ; and 
Rhasis, that Arabian physician, in his Cont. lib, 1, cap. 9, 
calls it ^ ^ a necessary and inseparable accident," to all old 
and decrepit persons. After seventy years (as the Psalmist 
Baith) * ^ all is trouble and sorrow ; " and common experi- 
ence confirms the truth of it in weak and old persons, especi- 
ally such as have lived in action all their lives, had great 
employment, much business, much command, and many ser- 
vants to oversee, and leave off ex abrupto ; as '^ Charles the 
Fifth did to King Philip, resign up all on a sudden ; they 
are overcome with melancholy in an instant ; or if they do 
continue in such courses, they dote at last (senex bis puer), 
and are not able to manage their estates through common in- 
firmities incident in their age ; full of ache, sorrow and grief, 
ehildren again, dizzards, they carle many times as they sit, 

1 Lib. 1. Path. cap. 11. * Venit * Oap. de humoribos, Ub. de Aninuu 

enim properata malis inopina Beneetus : * Necefliariam aceidens deerepitiSf et in* 

et dolor aetatem Jusslt inesse meam. separabile. * Paa. xc. 10. s Meteram. 

Boethius, met. 1, de consol. Philos. Belg. hist. lib. 1. 

Mem. 1, snbs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy, 279 

aad talk to tkemselves, they are angrj, waspish, displeased 
with everything, " suspicious of all, wayward, covetous, hard 
(saith Tully), self-willed, superstitious, self-conceited, brag- 
gers and admirers of themselves," as ^Balthasar CastaUo 
bath truly noted of them.^ This natural infirmity is most 
eminent in old women, and such as are poor, solitary, live in 
most base esteem and beggary, or such as are witches ; inso- 
much that Wierus, Baptista Porta, Ulricus Molitor, Edwicus, 
do refer all that witches are said to do, to imagination alone, 
and this humour of melancholy. And whereas it is con- 
tix)verted, whether they can bewitch cattle to death, ride in 
the air upon a coulstaff out of a chimney-top, transform them- 
selves into cats, dogs, &c, translate bodies from place to 
place, meet in companies, and dance, as they do, or have 
carnal copulation with the devil, they ascribe all to this re- 
dundant melancholy, which domineers in them, to * somnifer- 
ous potions, and natural causes, the devil's policy. Non 
kedunt omnino (saith Wierus) aut quid ndrum fajdurd (de 
Lamiis^ Uh. 3, cap, 36), ut ptUatur, solam viticUam haheni 
phantastam; they do no such wonders at all, only their 
* brains are crazed. * " They think they are witches, and can 
do hurt, but do not" But this opinion Bodine, Erastus, 
Danaeus, Scribanius, Sebastian Michaelis, Campanella de 
serisu rerum, lib. 4, cap. 9, * Dandinus the Jesuit, lib, 2, de 
Animd, explode ; * Cicogna confutes at large. That witches 
are melancholy, they deny not, but not out of corrupt fan- 
tasy alone, so to delude themselves and others, or to produce 
such effects. 

SuBSECT. VI. — Parents a Cause by Propagation, 

That other inward inbred cause of Melancholy is our 
temperature, in whole or part, which we receive from our 

1 Sunt morosi, anxil, et iracundi et guis inikntam, &c. ^ Corrupta e«t Us 

difllciles senes, si quaerimus, etiam avarl, ab hamore Melancholico phantasia. Ny- 

Tall, de senectate. a Lib. 2. de Aulico. manug. s Putant se Isedere quando 

Senes arari. morosi, jactabundi, philautl, non Isedant. * Qui hsec In imagina- 

deliri, superstitiosi, suspiciosi, &c. Lib. tionls vim referre conati sunt, atfae bilig, 

3, de Lamii8,cap. 17et 18. 8 golanum, inanem prorsus laborem susceperunt 

opium, lupi adeps, lacr. asini, &c., san- 6 Lib. 8, cap. 4, omnif. mag. 

280 Causes of Melaiwholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

parento, which * Femelius calls PtceUr naturam^ or un- 
natural, it being an hereditary disease ; for as he justifies 
^ Quale parentum maxime patris semen obtifferit, tales evadutU 
similares spermoHccBque partes, quocunque etiam morho Pater 
quum generat tenetur, cum semine transfert in Prolem ; such 
as the temperature of the father is, such is the son's, and look 
what disease the father had when he begot him, his son will 
have afler him ; ' ^ and is as well inheritor of Ms infirmities, 
as of his lands.*' ^^And where the complexion and constitution 
of the father is corrupt, there (* saith Roger Bacon) the com- 
plexion and constitution of the son must needs be corrupt, 
and so the corruption is derived from the father to the son." 
Now this doth not so much appear in the composition of the 
body, according to that of Hippocrates, ' " in habit, propor- 
tion, scars, and other lineaments ; but in manners and con- 
ditions of the mind, M patrum in natos aheunt cum semine 

Seleucus had an anchor on his thigh, so had his posterity, 
as Trogus records, 1. 15. Lepidus in Pliny, 1. 7, c 17, was 
purblind, so was his son. That famous family of ^nobarbi 
were known of old, and so sumamed from their red beards ; 
the Austrian lip, and those Indian fiat noses are propagated, 
the Bavarian chin, and goggle eyes amongst the Jews, as 
* Buxtorfius observes ; their voice, pace, gesture, looks, are 
likewise derived with all the rest of their conditions and in- 
firmities ; such a mother, such a daughter ; the very • affec- 
tions Lemnius contends '^ to follow their seed, and the malice 
and bad conditions of children are many times wholly to be 
imputed to their parents ; " I need not therefore make any 
doubt of Melancholy, but that it is an hereditary disease. 
^ Paracelsus in express words affirms it, lib. de morb. amen- 

* Lib. 1, cap. 11, path. i Ut arthrit- comiptio Ji patribns ad Alios. * Non 

ici, epilep. &c. ^ Ut filii non.tam pos- tarn (inquit Hippocrates) gibbos et cica- 

sessionum quam morborum hseredes sint. trices oris et corporis habitum agnoscis 

8 Epist. de secretis artis et naturae, c. 7, ex iis, sed yerum incessum, gestus, mores, 

nam in hoc quod patres corrupti sunt, morbos, &c. ^ Sjnagog. Jud. « Af- 

generant filios corruptee complexlonis, et fectus parentum in fbetus transeunt, et 

eompositionis, et filii eorum eSldem de puerorum malicia parentibus imputanda, 

eansSl se corrumpunt, et sic derivatur Ub. 4, cap. 8, de occult, nat. mirac. 7 £x 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Cavses of Melancholy. 281 

tium^ to, 4, tr» 1 ; so doth * Crato in an Epistle of his to 
Monavius. So doth Bruno Seidelius in his book de morho 
encurab, Montaltus proves, cap. 11, out of Hippocrates and 
Plutarch, that such hereditary dispositions are frequent, et 
hanc (inquit) fieri reor oh participatam melancholicam in- 
temperantiam (speaking of a patient) I think he became so 
by participation of Melancholy. Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1, 
part 2, cap. 9, will have his melancholy constitution denved 
not only from the father to the son, but to the whole family 
sometimes; Qttandoqtie totis familus heredttcUivam ; ^Fores- 
tus, in his medicinal observations, illustrates this point, with 
an example of a merchant, his patient, that had this infirmity 
by inheritance ; so doth Rodericus k Fonseca, torn. 1, consul. 
69, by an instance of a young man that was so affected 
ex matre melanchoUca, had a melancholy mother, et mctu 
melancholico, and bad diet together. Lodovicus Mercatus, 
a Spanish physician, in that excellent Tract which he hath 
lately written of hereditary diseases, tom. 2, oper. lib. 5, 
reckons up leprosy, as those ^ Galbots in Gascony, hereditary 
lepers, pox, stone, gout, epilepsy, &c. Amongst the rest, this 
and madness after a set time comes to many, which he calls a 
miraculous thing in nature, and sticks forever to them as an 
incurable habit. And that which is more to be wondered at, 
it skips in some families the father, and goes to the son, * " or 
takes every other, and sometimes every third in a lineal de- 
scent, and doth not always produce the same, but some like, 
and a symbolizing disease." These secondary causes hence 
derived, are commonly so powerful, that (as ^ Wolphius holds) 
stBpe mutant decreta siderum, they do often alter the primary 
causes, and decrees of the heavens. For these reasons, be- 
like, the Church and commonwealth, human and Divine laws, 
have conspired to avoid hereditary diseases, forbidding such 

Situitosis pituitosi, ex biliosis biliosi, ex tuum. s Lib. 10, observat 15. > Ma- 
enosis et melancholicig melancholici. ginus Geog. * Saepe non eundem, sed 
1 Epist. 174, in Scoltz. nascitur nobiscum similem prodncit effectum, et illseso pa- 
llia aliturque et un^ cum parentibng rente transit in nepotem. 6 Dial, prss- 
habemus malum hunc assem. Jo. Pe- fix. genituris Leoyitii. 
ledus, lib. 2, de cura humanorum affeo- 

282 Causes of MeUmcholy. [Part. I. see. X 

marriages as are any whit allied ; and as Mercatas adviseth 
all families to take such, si fieri possii quuE maxime distant 
natura, and to make choice of those that are most differing 
in complexion from them ; if thej love their own, and respect 
the common good. And sure, I think, it hath been ordered 
bj God's especial providence, that in all ages there should be 
(as usually there is) once in ^ 600 years, a transmigration of 
nations, to amend and purify their blood, as we alter seed 
upon our land, and that there should be as it were an inun- 
dation of those northern Goths and Vandals, and many such 
like people which came out of that continent of Scandia and 
Sarmatia (as some suppose) and overran, as a deluge, most 
part of Europe and Afric, to alter for our good, our com- 
plexions, which were much defaced with hereditary infirmi- 
ties, which by our lust and intemperance we had contracted. 
A sound generation of strong and able men were sent 
amongst us, as those northern men usually are, innocuous, 
f^ee from riot, and free from diseases ; to qualify and make 
us as those poor naked Indians are generally at this day ; 
and those about Brazil (as a late * writer observes), in the 
Isle of Maragnan, free from all hereditary diseases, or other 
contagion, whereas without help of physic they live commonly 
120 years or more, as in the Orcades and many other places. 
Such are the common effects of temperance and intemperance, 
but I will descend to particular, and show by what means, 
and by whom especially, this infirmity is derived unto us- 

Filii ex senibus nati, rard sunt firmi temperamentt, old 
men's children are seldom of a good temperament, as Scolt- 
zius supposeth, consult. 177, and therefore most apt to this 
disease ; and as * Levinus Lemnius farther adds, old men 
beget most part wayward, peevish, sad, melancholy sons, 
and seldom merry. He that begets a child on a full stom- 
ach, will either have a sick child, or a crazed son (as * Cardan 

1 Bodin. de rep. cap. de periodls reip. dna. Idem Hector Boethins de insnUs 

a Olaudlns Abaville Capuohion in hia Orchad. et Damianos k. Goes le Scandia. 

▼oya^ to Maragnan, 1614, cap. 46. Nemo > Lib. 4, o. 3, de ooctilt. nat. mir. Tetri- 

fere segrotus, sane omnes et robusto cor- eos plerumque filioa senes progenerant et 

pore, TiTunt annos 120, 140, sine medi- triiteB, rariuB exhilaratoe. * Gdtiu 

Mem. 1, snbs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy, 288 

thinks), contradict, med, lib. 1, contradict, 18, or if the parents 
be sick, or have any great pain of the head, or megrim, head- 
ache, (Hieronimus Wolfius ^ doth instance in a child of Sebas- 
tian Castalio's) ; if a drunken man get a child, it will never 
likely have a good brain, as Gellius argues, lib. 12, cap. 1. 
.Ebrii gignunt JEbrioSj one drunkard begets another, saith 
* Plutarch, symp. lib, 1, quest. 5, whose sentence * Lemnius 
approves, 1. 1, c 4. Alsarius Crutius Gen. de qui sit med. 
cent, ^tjol, 182. Macrobius, lib. 1. Avicenna, lib. 3. Fen, 
21. Tract 1, cap. 8, and Aristotle himself, sect. 2, prov. 4, 
foolish, drunken, or hair-brain women, most part bring forth 
children like unto themselves, morosos et languidos, and so 
likewise he that lies with a menstruous woman. Intempe- 
rantia veneris, quam in naiitis prcesertim insectatur *Lemnius, 
qui uxores ineunt, nvUd menstrui decursus ratione habitd, nee 
observato interlunio, prcecipua causa est, noona^ pemitiosa, 
concubitum hunc exitialem ided, et pestiferum vocat. * Rod- 
oricus a Castro Lusitanus, detestantur ad unum omnes medici, 
turn et quarto, lund concepti, infcelices plerumqm et amenJtes^ 
deliri, stolidi, morbosi, impuri, invalidi, tetra hie sordidi, min^ 
ime vitales, omnibus bonis corporis atque animi destituti : ad 
laborem nati, si seniores, inquit Eustathius, ut Hercules, et 
alii. ^ Judcd maxime insectantur foedum hunc, et immundum 
apud Ghristianos Concubitum, ut iUicitum abhorrent^ et apud 
8U0S prohibent ; et quod Christiani toties leprosi, amentes, tot 
morbili, impetigines, alphi, psorce, cutis et faciei decohrationes, 
tam muUi morbi epidemici, acerbi, et venenosi sint, in hunc 
immundum concubitum reficiunt, et cmdeles in pignora vocant, 
qui quartd lund profiuemte hdc mensium illume concubitum 
hunc non perhorrescunt. Damnavit olim divina Lex et morte 
rmdctavit hujusmodi homines. Lev. 18, 20, et inde nati, siqui 
deformes aut mutili, pater dilapidaius, quod non contineret ab 
^immundd mtdiere. Gregorius Magnus, petenti Augustino 

Baper repletionem pessimus, et filii qui * Lib. 2, c. 8, de occult, nat. mir. Good 

turn gignuntur, aut morboei sunt, aut Master Schoolmaster do not English this. 

Btolidi. 1 Dial, ^rseftx. Leovito. a l. • De nat. mul. lib. 8, cap. 4. ^ Buxdor* 

de ed. liberis. ^ De occult, nat. mir. phius, c. 81, Synag. Jud. Brnk. 18. 

temulentsB et stolidsB mulieres liberos * Drusius obe. lib. 8, cap. 20. 
plerumque producunt sibi similes. 

284 Oatues of Mdanchofy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

nunquid opud^ Britannos hujusmodi concvJbitum toleraret^ 
severe prokihuit vtris suis turn mtsceri foeminas in consuetU 
suis memtruis, S^c. I spare to English thiis which I have 
said. Another cause some give, inordinate diet, as if a man 
eat garlic, onions, fast overmuch, study too hard, be over- 
sorrowful, dull, heavy, dejected in mind, perplexed in his 
thoughts, fearful, «&c., " their children (saith ' Cardan suhtil 
lib, 18) will be much subject to madness and melancholj, 
for if the spirits of the brain be fusled, or misaffected by such 
means, at such a time, their children will be fusled in the 
brain ; they will be dull, heavy, timorous, discontented all 
their lives." Some are of opinion, and maintain that paradox 
or problem, that wise men beget commonly fools ; Suidas 
gives instance in Aristarchus the Grammarian, duos reUqtUt 
JUios Aristarchum et Aristachorum, ambos stvUos ; and which 
• £rasmus urgeth in his Moria, fools beget wise men. Card. 
mbt* I. 12, gives this cause, Quaniam sptrttus sapierUum 6b 
studtum resolvuntur, et in cerebrum feruntur a corde: because 
their natural spirits are resolved by study, and turned into 
animal ; drawn from the heart, and those other parts to the 
brain. Lemnius subscribes to that of Cardan, and assigns 
this reason, Quod persolvant debitum lanffuide, et obscitanter, 
unde foetus a parentum generositcUe desciscit : they pay their 
debt (as Paul calls it) to their wives remissly, by which 
means their children are weaklings, and many times idiots 
and fools. 

Some other causes are given, which properly pertain, and 
do proceed from the mother : if she be over-dull, heavy, 
angry, peevish, discontented, and melancholy, not only at the 
time of conception, but even all the while she carries the child 
in her womb (saith Femelius, path. 1. 1, 1 1) her son will be 
so likewise affected, and worse, as ^ Lemnius adds, 1. 4, c. 7, 
if she grieve overmuch, be disquieted, or by any casualty be 

1 Beda. Eccl. hist. lib. 1, o. 27, respons. bus tristes, ex jncundis jncnndi nascuii- 

10. ^ Nam spiritus cerebri si tain male tur, &c. ' Fol. 129, mer. Socrates's 

afflciaDtur, tales procreaat, et quales children were fools. Sabel. * De oo- 

ftierint affectus, tales flllorum : ex tristi- col. nat. mir. Pica morbus muJienim. 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] GauLses of Melancholy, 285 

affrighted and terrified by some fearful object heard or seeiij 
she endangers her child, and spoils the temperature of it ; for 
the strange imagination of a woman works effectually upon 
her infant, that as Baptista Porta proves, Physiog, ccelestis 1. 
5, c. 2, she leaves a mark upon it, which is most especially 
seen in such as prodigiously long for such and such meats, 
the child will love those meats, saith Femelius, and be ad- 
dicted to like humours ; ^ " if a great-bellied woman see a 
hare, her child will often have a hare-lip," as we call it. 
Garcceus de Judtcns geniturarum, cap, 33, hath a memora- 
ble example of one Thomas Nickell, born in the city of Bran- 
deburg, 1551, ^ " that went reeling and staggering all the days 
of his life, as if he would fall to the ground, because his 
mother being great with child saw a drunken man reeling in 
the street." Such another I find in Martin Wenrichius com, 
de ortu monslrorum^ c. 17, 1 saw (saith he) at Wittenberg, in 
Germany, a citizen that looked like a carcass ; I asked him 
the cause, he replied, * " His mother, when she bore him in 
her womb, saw a carcass by chance, and was so sore affrighted 
with it, that ex eo foetus ei asstmilatus, from a ghastly impres- 
sion the child was like it." 

So many several ways are we plagued and punished for 
our father's defaults ; insomuch that as Femelius truly saith, 
• " It is the greatest part of our felicity to be well bom, and 
it were happy for human kind, if only such parents as are 
sound of body and mind should be suffered to marry." An 
husbandman will sow none but the best and choicest seed 
upon his land, he will not rear a bull or a horse, except he 
be right shapen in all parts, or permit him to cover a mare, 
except he be well assured of his breed ; we make choice of 
the best rams for our sheep, rear the neatest kine, and keep 
the best dogs, Qtmnto id diligentitis in procreandis liberis 

1 Baptista Porta loco pned. Ex lepo- rem &cie cadayeroea, qui dixit, &c. 

mm intuitu plerique infontes edunt bifi- > Optimum bene nasci, maxima pars fise- 

do superiore labello. ^ Quasi mox in licitatis nostrae bene nasci; quamobrem 

terram collapsurus per omnem yitam pneclard humano generi consultum vide- 

Inoedebat, cum mater gravida ebrium return si soli parentes bene Iiabiti et sani, 

bomkiem sic incedentem yiderat. * Ci- liberis operam darent. 

286 Oautes of Mdanchofy. [Part. L see. 2. 

ob$ervandum f And how careful then should we be in beget- 
ting of our children ? In former times some ^ countries have 
been so chary in this behalf, so stem, that if a child were 
crooked or deformed in body or mind, thej made him awaj ; 
so did the Indians of old by the relation of Curtius, and manj 
other well-governed commonwealths, according to the disci- 
pline of those times. Heretofore in Scotland, saith ^ Hect. 
Boethius, " if any were visited with the fiilling sickness, mad- 
ness, gout, leprosy, or any such dangerous disease, which was 
likely to be propagated firom the father to the son, he was 
instantly gelded ; a woman kept from all company of men ; 
and if by chance having some such disease, she were found 
to be with child, she with her brood were buried alive ; " and 
this was done for the common good, lest the whole nation 
should be injured or corrupted. A severe doom, you will 
say, and not to be used amongst Christians, yet more to be 
looked into than it is. For now by our too much focility in 
this kind, in giving way for all to marry that will, too much 
liberty and indulgence in tolerating all sorts, there is a vast 
confosion of hereditary diseases, no family secure, no man 
almost free from some grievous infirmity or other, when no 
choice is had, but still the eldest must marry, as so many 
stallions of the race ; or if rich, be they fools or dizzards, 
lame or maimed, unable, intemperate, dissolute, exhaust 
through riot, as he said, *jure fuereditario sapere jubentur; 
they must be wise and able by inheritance ; it comes to pass 
that our generation is corrupt, we have many weak persons, 
both in body and mind, many feral diseases raging amongst 
us, crazed families, parentes peremptores ; our fathers bad, 
and we are like to be worse. 

1 Infantes inflrmi nrsecipitio necati. orantes inter eoe, ingenti fiustft indagine, 
Bohemiu, lib. 8, c. 3. Apud Lacones inTentoR, Begensfoedftcontagioneledeie- 
olim. Lyp8iu8, epist. 85, cent, ad Belga«, tur ex iis nata, castraTerunt, muliera 
Dionjtdo Villerio, si quos aliqua mem- higusmodi procul a virorum consortio 
brorum parte inutilea notaTerint, necail ableg&rant, quod A h«ram aliqua eon- 
jubent. s Lib. 1. De Tetemm Scoto- oepime inveniebatar, rimul cum ibeta 
nun moribns. Morbo oomitiali, demen- nondum edito, defodiebatnr TiTa^ SEv. 
ti&f mania, lepra, &c., aut simlU labe, phoxmio Satjr. 
pn«i fiMile in prolem tranamittitus, lab- 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy, 287 

MEMB. 11. 

SuBSECT. I. — Bad Diet a Cause, Substance, Quality of 


According to my proposed method, having opened hith- 
erto Jhese secondary causes, which are inbred with us, I must 
now proceed to the outward and adventitious, which happen 
unto us after we are bom. And those are either evident, 
remote, or inward, antecedent, and the nearest; continent 
causes some call them. These outward, remote, precedent 
causes are subdivided again into necessary and not neces^ 
sary. Necessary (because we cannot avoid them, but they 
will alter us, as they are used, or abused) are those six non- 
natural things, so much spoken of amongst physicians, which 
are principal causes of this disease. For almost in every 
consultation, whereas they shall come to speak of the causes, 
the fault is found, and this most part objected to the patient ; 
Peccavit circa res sex non naturales ; he hath still offended 
in one of those six. Montanus, corml. 22, consulted about a 
melancholy Jew, gives that sentence, so did Frisemelica in 
the same place ; and in his 244 counsel, censuring a mel- 
ancholy soldier, assigns that reason of his malady, ^"he 
offended in all those six non-natural things, which were the 
outward causes, from which came those inward obstructions ; 
and so in the rest 

These six non-natural things are diet, retention, and evac- 
uation, which are more material than the other because they 
make new matter, or else are conversant in keeping or expel- 
ling of it. The other four are air, exercise, sleeping, waking, 
and perturbations of the mind, which only alter the matter. 
The first of these is diet, which consists in meat and drink, 
and causeth melancholy, as it offends in substance, or acci- 

1 Fecit omnia delicta qxifle fieri poflsant cauMe eztriniecse, ezqnibns postea ortee 
circa Tea sex non naturaleg. et eee ftierunt sant obstmetiODes. 


288 Oattses of Melancholy. [Part. L sec. 2. 

dents, that is quantity, quality, or the like. And well it may 
be called a material cause, since that, as ^ Ferneliui holds, 
^ it hath such a power in begetting of diseases, and yields the 
matter and sustenance of them ; for neither air, nor perturba- 
tions, nor any of those other evident causes take place, or 
work this eiffect, except the constitution of body, and prepara- 
tion of humours, do concur. That a man may say, this diet 
is the mother of diseases, let the father be what he will, and 
from this alone, melancholy and frequent other maladies 
arise," Many physicians, I confess, have written copious vol- 
umes of this one subject, of the nature and qualities of all 
manner of meats ; as namely, Galen, Isaac the Jew, Haly- 
abbas, Avicenna, Mesne, also four Arabians, Grordonius, Vil- 
lanovanus, Wecker, Johannes Bruerinus, sitologia de Esculen- 
Us et Poctdentts, Michael Savanarola, Tract 2, c. 8, Anthony 
Fumanellus, lib. de regimine seniim, Curio in his Comment 
on Schola Salema, Grodefridus Stekius arte med., Marsilius 
cognatus, Ficinus, Ranzovius, Fonseca, Lessius, Magninus, 
regim, sanitatts, Frietagius, Hugo Fridevallius, &c., besides 
many other in ^ English, and almost every peculiar physician, 
discourseth at large of all peculiar meats in his chapter of 
melancholy ; yet because these books are not at hand to 
every man, I will briefly touch what kind of meats engender 
this humour, through their several species, and which are to 
be avoided. How they alter and change the matter, spirits 
first, and after humours, by which we are preserved, and the 
constitution of our body, Fernelius and others will show you. 
I hasten to the thing itself : and first of such diet as ofiends 
in substance. 

Beef,] Beef, a sti'ong and hearty meat (cold in the first 
degree, dry in the second, saith Gal, L 3, c. 1, de aUm.fac.) 
is condemned by him and all succeeding authors, to breed 

1 Path. 1. 1, c. 2. Maximam in gig- oonstitutio. Ut semel dicam, una gula 

nendis morbis vim obtinet, pabulum, est omnium, morborum mater, etiamsi 

materiamque morbi suggerens : nam neo alius est genitor. Ab hac morbi sponte 

ab aJSre, nee k perturbationibus, yel aliis ssep^ emanant, du1191 aliSl cogente causft. 

evideutibus causis morbi sunt, nisi con- > Cogan, Eliot, Vauhan, Vener. 
sentlat corporis prseparatio, et humorum 

Hem. 2, snbfi. 1.] Oa'Mes of 6fdancholy» 289 


gross melancholy blood ; good for such as are sound, and of 
a strong constitution, for labouring men if ordered aright, 
corned, young, of an ox (for all gelded meats in every spe- 
cies are held best), or if old, ^ such as have been tired out 
ynth labour, are preferred. Aubanus and Sabellicus com- 
mend Portugal beef to be the most savoury, best and easiest 
of digestion ; we commend ours ; but all is rejected, and 
unfit for such as lead a resty life, any ways inclined to Melan- 
choly, or dry of complexion : Tales (Gralen thinks) de fcunle 
melanchoUcis (B^ritudinihus capiuntur, 

PorkJ] Pork, of all meats, is mast nutritive in his own 
nature, *but altogether unfit for such as live at ease, are 
any ways unsound of body or mind ; too moist, full of hu- 
mours, and therefore noxia ddicatis, saith Savanarola, ex 
earum usu ut dubitetur anfehrU quartana generetur ; nought 
for queasy stomachs, insomuch that frequent use of it may 
breed a quartan ague. 

GoaJt^ Savanarola discommends goat's fiesh, and so doth 
^ Bruerinus, /. 13, c. 19, calling it a filthy beast, and rammish ; 
and therefore supposeth it will breed rank and filthy sub- 
stance ; yet kid, such as are young and tender, Isaac ac- 
cepts, Bruerinus and Galen, L 1, c. 1, (2e alimeirUoTum facul* 

Hart'] Hart and red deer ' hath an evil name : it jdelds 
gross nutriment ; a strong and great grained meat, next unto 
a horse. Which although some countries eat, as Tartars, and 
they of China ; yet * Galen condemns. Young foals are as 
commonly eaten in Spain as red deer, and to furnish their 
navies, about Malaga, especially, often used ; but such meats 
ask long baking, or seething, to qualify them, and yet all will 
not serve. 

Venison^ Fallow DeerJ] All venison is melancholy, and 
begets bad blood ; a pleasant meat ; in great esteem with us 

1 Frietagios. * Isaac. > Non lav- riam suppeditat alimentum. < Lib. de 

datur, quia melancholicam pnebet ali- gnbtilias dieta. Equina caro et asinina 

mentum. 3 Male alit oeryina (inqait equinis danda est homiuibos et assinuis. 
Fri. et agios), erassissimiim et atribila* 

VOL. I. 18 

290 Causes of Mdanchofy. [Part. I. see. l. 

(for we have more parks in England than there are in all 
£un>pe besides) in our solemn feasts. Tib somewhat better 
hunted than otherwise, and well prepared bj cookery ; bat 
generally bad, and seldom to be used. 

Hare,'] Hare, a black meat, melancholy, and hard of di- 
gestion, it breeds incubus, often eaten, and causeth fearftil 
dreams, so doth all venison, and is condemned by a jury of 
physicians. Mizaldus and some others say, that hare is a 
merry meat, and that it will make one fair, as Martial's Epi- 
gram testifies to Gellia ; but this is per accidens, because of 
the good sport it makes, merry company and good discourse 
that 13 commonly at the eating of it, and not otherwise to be 

Conies.2 ^ Conies are of the nature of hares. Magninus 
compares them to beef, pig, and goat, £eg, sanit part. 3, e. 
17 ; yet young rabbits by all men are approved to be good. 

Generally, all such meats as are hard of digestion breed 
melancholy. Areteus, Ub. 7, cap, 5, reckons up heads and 
feet, ^ bowels, brains, entrails, marrow, fat, blood, skins, and 
those inward parts, as heart, lungs, liver, spleen, <&c They 
are rejected by Isaac, lib, 2, part, 3, Magninus, part, 3, cap. 
17, Bruerinus, lib, 12, Savanarola, Eub, 32, I^act, 2. 

AlUk.'] Milk, and all that comes of milk, as butter and 
cheese, curds, &c., increase melancholy (whey only excepted, 
which is most wholesome) ; * some except asses' milk. The 
rest, to such as are sound, is nutritive and good, especially 
for young children, but because soon turned to corruption, 
^ not good for those that have unclean stomachs, are subject 
to headache, or have green wounds, stone, &c. Of all 
cheeses, I take that kind which we call Banbury cheese to be 
the best, ex vetustis pessimiLS, the older, stronger, and harder, 
the worst, as Langius discourseth in his Epistle to Melanc- 
thon, cited by Mizaldus, Isaac, p, 5, Gal. 3, de cibis boni 
Sficci, S^c, 

1 Panun obsnnt k natnra Leponun. * Curio. Frietagius, Maginns. part. 8, 

Bnieriniu, 1. 18, cap. 26. pullornm tene- cap. 17. Mercnrialis, de affect, lib. 1, 

ra et optima. * Illaadabilis sacci nau- c. 10, excepts all milk meats in Hjrpo- 

•eam proYOcant. > Piso. Altomar. chondriacal Melancholy. 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 291 

Fowl,'] Amongst fowl, ^ peacocks and pigeons, all fennjr 
fowl are forbidden, as ducks, geese, swans, herons, cranes, 
coots, didappers, water-hens, with all those teals, curs, shel- 
drakes, and peckled fowls, that come hither in winter out of 
Scandia, Muscovy, Greenland, Friezland, which half the 
year are covered all over with snow, and frozen up. Though 
these be fair in feathers, pleasant in taste, and have a good 
outside, like hypocrites, white in plumes, and soft, their flesh 
is hard, black, unwholesome, dangerous, melancholy meat; 
GravarU et piUrefaciunt stomachum, saith Isaac, part. 5, de 
vol., their young ones are more tolerable, but young pigeons 
he quite disapproves. 

Fishes.] Rhasis and ^ Magninus discommend all flsh, and 
say, they breed viscosities, slimy nutriment, little and humour- 
ous nourishment Savanarola adds, cold, moist ; and phlegm- 
atic, Isaac ; and therefore unwholesome for all cold and mel- 
ancholy complexions ; others make a difference, rejecting only 
amongst fresh-water fish, eel, tench, lamprey, crawfish (which 
Bright approves, cap. 6), and such as are bred in muddy and 
standing waters, and have a taste of mud, as Franciscus Bon- 
suetus poetically defines. Lib. de aquatilihtis. 

" Nam pisces omnes, qui stagna, lacusque freqnentant, 
Semper plus succi deterioris habent." 

** All fish, that standing pools, and lakes frequent, 
Do ever yield bad juice and nourishment." 

Lampreys, Paulus Jovius, c. 34, de pisdhus fluvial, highly 
magnifies, and saith. None speak against them, but inepti et 
scruptdosi, some scrupulous persons; but 'eels, c. 33, "he 
abhorreth in all places, at all times, all physicians detest 
them, especially about the solstice." Gromesius, lib. 1. c. 22, 
de sale, doth immoderately extol sea-fish, which others as 
much vilify, and above the rest, dried, soused, indurate fish, 
as ling, fumados, red-herrings, sprats, stock-fish, haberdine, 
poor-john, all shell-fish. *Tim. Bright excepts lobster and 

I Wecker Syntax, theor. p. 2. Isaac, medici detestantur angnillas, prffisertim 
Broer. lib. 15, cap. 80 et 81. * Cap. 18, circa solfltitiain. Damnaatur turn sanis 
part. 8. > Omni loco et omni tempore tnm aegris. ^ Cap. 6, in his Tract of 

292 Catises of Mekmehofy. [Part L sec. 9. 

crab. Mesarius commends s(klmon, which Bruerinus contra- 
dicts, Ub, 22, c. 17. Magninus rejects conger, sturgeon, tor- 
l bot, mackerel, skate. 

Carp is a fish of which I know not what to determine. 
Franciscus Bonsuetus accounts it a muddy fish. Hippolitus 
Salvianus, in his Book de Pisctum ncUurd et praparationey 
which was printed at Rome in folio, 1554, with most elegant 
pictures, esteems carp no better than a slimy watery meat. 
Paul us Jovius on the other side, disallowing tench, approves 
of it ; so doth Dupravius in his Books of Fish-ponds, Frie- 
tagius ^ extols it for an excellent wholesome meat, and puts 
it amongst the fishes of the best rank ; and so do most of our 
country gentlemen, thaX store their ponds almost with no 
other fish. But this controversy is easily decided, in my 
judgment, by Bruerinus, L 22, c. 13. The difference riseth 
from the site and nature of pools, ^ sometimes muddy, some- 
times sweet ; they are in taste as the place is from whence 
they be taken. In like manner almost we may conclude of 
other fresh fish. But see more in Bondoletius, Bellonius, 
Oribasius, lib. 7. cap. 22, Isaac, /. 1, especially Hippolitus 
Salvianus, who is instar omnium soluSy Src, Howsoever they 
may be wholesome and approved, much use of them is not 
good; F. Forestus, in his medicinal observations^ 'relates, 
that Carthusian friars, whose living is most part fish, are 
more subject to melancholy than any other order, and that 
he found by experience, being sometimes their physician 
ordinary at Delft, in Holland. He exemplifies it with an 
instance of one Buscodnese, a Carthusian of a ruddy colour, 
and well liking, that by solitary living, and fish-eating, be- 
came so misaffected. 

IferbsJ] Amongst herbs to be eaten I find gourds, cucum- 
bers, coleworts, melons, disallowed, but especially cabbage. 
It causeth troublesome dreams, and sends up black vapours 

Melancholy. i Optima nntrit omnium mentorum sortiantur differentias, alibi 

Judicio inter primas notse piaoes giutu sua-viores, alibi lutulentiores. *0b- 

pnestanti. ^ Non est dabium quin, wrvat. 16. lib. 10. 
pro Tuicram aitu ao natorSi, magnas all- 

Mem. 2, snbs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy, 293 

to the brain, Galen, he, affect, I, 3, c, 6, of all herbs con- 
demns cabbage ; and Isaac, lib, 2, c, 1, AnimcB gramtatem 
factt, it brings heaviness to the soul. Some are of opinion 
that all raw herbs and salads breed melancholy blood, except 
bugloss and lettuce. Crato, consiL 21, lib, 2, speaks against 
all herbs and worts, except borage, bugloss, fennel, parsley, 
dill, balm, succory. Magninus, regim, sanitatis, part, 3, cap, 
31. Omnes herbce simplidter malce, via cibi ; all herbs are 
simply evil to feed on (as he thinks). So did that scoflBjig 
cook in ^Plautus hold: 

" Non ego coenam condio ut alii coqui solent, 
Qui mihi condita prata in patinis proferunt, 
Boves qui convivas fe,ciunt, herbaeque aggerant." 

" Like other cooks I do not sapper dress, 
That put whole meadows into a p]atter, 
And make no better of their guests than beeves, 
With herbs and grass to feed them fatter.** 

Our Italians and Spaniards do make a whole dinner of 
^erbs and salads (which our said Plautus calls casnas terres^ 
ires, Horace, comas sine sanguine), by which means, as ho 
follows it, 

* " Hie homines tam brevem vitam colunt 

Qui herbas hujusmodi in alvum suum ccagerant, 

Formidolosum dictu, non esu raod6 

Quas herbas pecudes non edunt, iiomines edunt.** 

" Their lives, that eat such herbs, must needs be short, 
And 'tis a fearful thing for to report. 
That men should feed on such a kind of meat. 
Which very juments would refuse to eat." 

* They are windy, and not fit therefore to be eaten of all 
men raw, though qualified with oil, but in broths, or other- 
wise. See more of these in every * husbandman and herbalist. 

Hoots,^ Roots, Msi quorundam gentium opes sint, saith 
Bruerinus, the wealth of some countries, and sole food, are 

1 Pseudolus, act. 8, seen. 2. > Plan- vol parce d^nut&rit. Kenleius, cap. 4, 

tus, ibid. " Quare rectius valetudini de vero usu mcd. * In Mizaldo d« 

0aee quisque consulet, qui laps (Is priorum Horto P. Crescent. Herbastein, &o. 
parentum memor, eas plane vel omiserit 




294 Causes of Mdanchohf. [Part. I. see. S. 

windj and bad, or troublesome to tbe bead ; as onions, garlic, 
scallionA, turnips, carrots, radisbes, parsnips; Crato, Kb, 2. 
eonsiL 11, disallows all roots, tbougb ^some approve of pars- 
nips and potatoes. ^ Magninus is of Crato's opinion, ' "^ Thej 
trouble the mind, sending gross fumes to the brain, make 
men mad, especially garlic, onions, if a man liberallj feed on 
them a year together." Guianerius, tract, 15, cap. 2, com- 
plains of all manner of roots, and so doth Bruerinns, even 
parsnips themselves, which are the best. Lib 9, cap, 14. 

Fruits.'] Pasttntzcarum ustts succos gignit improbos. Crato, 
cansiL 21, lib. 1, utterly forbids all manner of fruits, as pears, 
apples, plums, cherries, strawberries, nuts, medlars, serves, 
&C. Sanguinem inficiunt, saith Villanovanus, they infect the 
blood, and putrefy it, Magninus holds, and must not therefore 
be taken vid dbi, aut quantitate magna, not to make a meal 
of, or in any great quantity. ^ Cardan makes that a cause 
of their continual sickness at Fessa in Africa, ^ because they 
live so much on fruits, eating them thrice a day.** Lauren- 
tius approves of many fruits, in his Tract of Melancholy^ 
which others disallow, and amongst the rest apples, which 
some likewise commend, sweetings, pearmains, pippins, as 
good against melancholy; but to him that is any way in- 
clined to, or touched with this malady, • Nicholas Piso in his 
Practics, forbids all fruits, as windy, or to be sparingly eaten 
at least, and not raw. Amongst other fruits, ^Bruerinus, 
out of Galen, excepts grapes and figs, but I find them like- 
wise rejected. 

Pulse.] All pulse are nought, beans, peas, vetches, &c., 
they fill the brain (saith Isaac) with gross fumes, breed 
black thick blood, and cause troublesome dreams. And 
therefore, that which Pythagoras said to his scholars of old, 
may be forever applied to melancholy men, A/abis abstinete, 
eat no peas, nor beans ; yet to such as will needs eat them, 

1 Gap. 18, part. 8, Bright in his Tract. 18. Improbi succi sant, cap. 12. ^ Da 

of Mel. s Intellectnm turbant, produ- rerum yarietat. In Fesaa plemmque 

cnnt inaaniam. > AudiTi (inqnit Mag- morbosi, quod fructuB comedant ter in 

nin.) qnod si quia ex iis per annum con- die. & Cap. de Mel. > Lib. 11, o. 8. 
ttanb comedat, in Insaniam caderet, cap. 


Mem. 2} subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy, 295 

I would give this counsel, to prepare them according to those 
rules that Arnoldus Villanovanus, and Frietagius prescribe, 
for eating, and dressing, fruits, herbs, roots, pulse, &c. 

Spices,"] Spices cause hot and head melancholy, and are 
for that cause forbidden by our physicians to such men as are 
inclined to this malady, as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, 
mace, dates, &c., honey and sugar. ^Some except honey; 
to those that are cold it may be tolerable, but * Dulda se in 
Inlem vertunt (sweets turn into bile), they are obstructive, 
Crato therefore forbids all spice, in a consultation of his, for 
a melancholy schoolmaster. Omnia aromatica^ et quicquid 
sanguinem adurit ; so doth Femelius, consil. 45, Guiane- 
rius, tract, 15, cap, 2, Mercurialis, cons, 189. To these I 
may add all sharp and sour things, luscious, and over-sweet, 
or fat, as oil, vinegar, verjuice, mustard, salt ; as sweet things 
are obstructive, so these are corrosive. Gromesius, in his 
books, de scde, I, 1, c, 21, highly commends salt; so doth 
Codronchus in his tract, de sale Absynthii, Lemn. I 3, c, 9, 
de occult, not, mir,, yet common experience finds salt, and 
salt meats, to be great procurers of this disease. And for 
that cause belike those Egyptian priests abstained from salt, 
even so much, as in their bread, ut sine perturbatione anima 
esset, saith mine author, that their souls might be free from 

Bread,'] Bread that is made of baser grain, as peas, 
beans, oats, rye, or * over-hard baked, crusty, and black, is 
oflen spoken against, as causing melancholy juice and wind. 
Job. Mayor, in the first book of his History of Scotland, con- 
tends much for the wholesomeness of oaten bread ; it was 
objected to him then living at Paris in France, that his coun- 
trymen fed on oats, and base grain, as a disgrace ; but he 
doth ingenuously confess, Scotland, Wales, and a third part 
of England, did most part use that kind of bread, that it was 
as wholesome as any grain, and yielded as good nourishment 

1 Bright, c. 6, excepts honey. 'Hor. edas cnistam, cholersm quia gignit 
apud Scoltsdum consil. 186. >Necom- adustam. Scol. Sal. 

296 Ocuues of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

And yet Wecker out of Gralen calls it ho»e-meat, and &ii/&T 
for juments than men to feed on. Bat read Galen himself 
lib. 1, De cihit honi et mali succtf more largely discoursing 
of com and bread. 

Wine.'] All black wines, OTer-hot, compound, strong thick 
drinks, as Muscadine, Malmsey, Alicant, Bumney, Brown-* 
bastard, Metheglen, and the like, of which they have thirty 
several kinds in Muscovy, all such made drinks are hurtful 
in this case, to such as are hot, or of a sanguine choleric com- 
plexion, young, or inclined to head-melancholy. For many 
times the drinking of wine alone causeth it Arculanus, 
c. 16, in 9 Ehasis, puts in ^ wine for a great cause, especially 
if it be immoderately used. Guianerius, tract. 15, c. 2, tella 
a story of two Dutchmen, to whom he gave entertainment in 
his house, ^ that ^ in one month's space were both melancholy 
by drinking of wine," one did nought but sing, the other sigh* 
Galen, I. de catuis morh. c. 3. Matthiolus on Dioscorides, 
and above all other Andreas Bachius, ^ 3, 18, 19, 20, have 
reckoned upon those inconveniences that come by wine ; yet 
notwithstanding all this, to such as are cold, or sluggish 
melancholy, a cup of wine is good physic, and so doth 
Mercurialis grant, eonsiL 25, in that case, if the tempera- 
ture be cold, as to most melancholy men it is, wine is much 
commended, if it be moderately used. 

Oider, Peny.'] Cider and perry are both cold and windy 
drinks, and for that cause to be neglected, and so are all those 
hot spiced strong drinks. 

Beer."] Beer, if it be over-new or over-stale, over-strong, 
or not sodden, smell of the cask, sharp, or sour, is most un- 
wholesome, frets, and galls, &c. Henricus Ayrerus, in a 
' consultation of his, for one that laboured of hypochondriacal 
melancholy discommends beer. So doth ^ Crato in that ex- 
cellent counsel of his. Lib. 2, camil. 21, as too windy, be- 
cause of the hop. But he means belike that thick black 
Bohemian beer used in some other parts of * Grermany, 

1 Vinum tnrbidum. > Bx Tini paten- spicel. fol. 273. * Grassnm mnenk 
tis bibitione. duo Alemani In uno mense sanguinem. 6 About Dantzic in Spruce, 
melancholic! ttycti sunt. * Hildesheim, Ebmburgh, Leipsic. 

Alem. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of MdancJwly. 297 

'* nil spissius ilia 
Dum bibitar, nil clarius est dam mingitnr, undo 
Constat, quod mnltas faeces in corpore linquat.** 

** Nothing comes in so thick, 
Nothing goes out so thin, 
It must needs follow then 
The dregs are left within." 

As that ^old poet scoffed, calling it Stygi<B monstrum cor^ 
forme paUtidi, a monstrous drink, like the river Styx. But 
let them say as they list, to such as are accustomed unto it, 
" 'tis a most wholesome (so ^ Polydor Virgil calleth it) and a 
pleasant drink," it is more subtile and better, for the hop that 
rarefies it, hath an especial virtue against melancholy, as our 
herbalists confess, Fuchsius approves, Idb, 2, sec, 2, tnstit 
cap. 1 1, and many others. 

Waters.^ Standing waters, thick and ill-coloured; such 
as come forth of pools, and moats, where hemp hath been 
steeped, or slimy fishes live, are most unwholesome, putre- 
fied, and full of mites, creepers, slimy, muddy, unclean, cor- 
rupt, impure, by reason of the sun's heat, and still-standing ; 
they cause foul distemperatures in the body and mind of man, 
are unfit to make drink of, to dress meat with, or to be * used 
about men inwardly or outwardly. They are good for many 
domestic uses, to wash horses, water cattle, &c., or in time 
of necessity, but not otherwise. Some are of opinion, that 
such fat, standing waters make the best beer, and that seeth- 
ing doth defecate it, as ^ Cardan holds. Lib. 13, subttL ^* It 
mends the substance, and savour of it," but it is a paradox. 
Such beer may be stronger, but not so wholesome as the 
other, as ^ Jobertus truly justifieth out of Galen, Paradox, 
dec. 1, Paradox 5, that the seething of such impure waters 
doth not purge or purify them, Pliny, lib. 31, c. 3, is of the 
same tenet, and P. Crescentius, agricuk. lib. 1, et lib. 4, c. 11, 
et c. 45. Pamphilius Herilachus, I, 4, de not. aquarum^ such 

1 Henileas Abrineensis. spotuBtttm dm et mal^ olentes, &e. < Innoxitun 

salubrii turn JQcundus, 1. 1. s Galen, reddit et bene olentem. 6 Contendit 

L 1, de sac. tuend. Cayendae sunt aquse hsdc Titia coctione non emendari. 
qnae ex stagnis hauriuntur, et qusB turbi- 

298 Causes of Mdanchokf, [Pait. L sec. 2. 

waters are nought, not to be used, and bj the testimonj d 
^ Gralen, ^ breed agues, dropsies, pleurisies, splenetic and mel- 
ancholy passions, hurt the eyes, cause a bad temperature, and 
ill disposition of the whole body, with bad colour." This 
Jobertus stiffly maintains, Paradox, lib. 1, part. 5, that it 
causeth blear eyes, bad colour, and many loathsome diseases 
to such as use it ; this which they say, stands with good rea- 
son ; for as geographers relate, the water of Astracan breeds 
worms in such as drink it * Axius, or as now called Ver- 
duri, the fairest river in Macedonia, makes all cattle black 
that taste of it. Aleacman, now Peleca, another stream in 
Thessaly, turns cattle most part white, si potui ducas. L. 
Aubanus Rohemus refers that * struma or poke of the Bava- 
rians, and Styrians to the nature of their waters, as *Munster 
doth that of the Yalesians in the Alps, and 'Bodine sup- 
poseth the stuttering of some families in Aquitania, about 
Labden, to proceed from the same cause, " and that the filth 
is derived from the water to their bodies." So that they that 
use filthy, standing, ill-coloured, thick, muddy water, must 
needs have muddy, ill-coloured, impure, and infirm bodies. 
And because the body works upon the mind, they shall have 
grosser understandings, dull, foggy, melancholy spirits, and 
be really subject to all manner of infirmities. 

To these noxious simples, we may reduce' an infinite num- 
her of compound, artificial, made dishes, of which our cooks 
afford us a great variety, as tailors do fashions in our apparel. 
Such are * puddings stuffed with blood, or otherwise com- 
posed ; baked meats, soused indurate meats, fried and broiled 
buttered meats ; condite, powdered and over-dried, ^ all cakes, 
simnels, buns, cracknels made with butter, spice, &c., fritters, 

1 Lib. de bonitate aquae, hydropem derivantur. ^Ednlia ex Bangtdno ^ 

anget, febres putiidas, splenem, tusses, suffocato parta. Hildesheim. f Cnpe- 

nocet ocnlia. malum habitum corporis et dia yero, piaoentse, bellsoia, commenta- 

colorem. ^ ^ Mag. Nigritatem indncit si que alia curiosa pistorum et coquorum, 

pecora biberint. ^ Aquae ex uiTibus gustui serrientium conciliant morbos 

coactae strumosos faciunt. * Cosmog. turn corpori turn animo insanabiles. 

1. 8, cap. 86. ft Method, hist. cap. 6, Philo Judaeus, lib. de Tictimis. P. Jot. 

balbutiunt Labdoni in Aquitania ob vitaqjus. 
aqua«, atque hi morbi ab aquis in cor^ra 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Diet, a Cause. 299 

pancakes, pies, sausages, and those several sauces, sharp, or 
over-sweet, of which sctentia popince, as Seneca calls it, hath 
served those ^Apician tricks, and perfumed dishes, which 
Adrian the sixth Pope so much admired in the accounts of 
his predecessor Leo decimus ; and which prodigious riot and 
prodigality have invented in this age. These do generally 
engender gross humours, fill the stomach with crudities, and all 
those inward parts with obstructions. Montanus, concil. 22, 
gives instance, in a melancholy Jew, that by eating such tart 
sauces, made dishes, and salt meats, with which he was over- 
much delighted, became melancholy, and was evil affected. 
Such examples are familiar and common. 

SuBSECT. II. — Quiantity of Diet a Cause. 

There is not so much harm proceeding from the substance 
itself of meat, and quality of it, in ill-dressing and preparing, 
as there is from the quantity, disorder of time and place, un- 
seasonable use of it, ^ intemperance, overmuch, or overlittle 
taking of it. A true saying it is, Plures crapvla quam 
gladius, This gluttony kills more than the sword, this omni- 
vorantia et homicida gula, this all-devouring and murdering 
gut. And that of " Pliny is truer, " Simple diet is the best ; 
heaping up of several meats is pernicious, and sauces worse ; 
many dishes bring many diseases." * Avicen cries out, " That 
nothing is worse than to feed on many dishes, or to protract 
the time of meats longer than ordinary ; from thence proceed 
our infirmities, and 'tis the fountain of all diseases, which arise 
out of the repugnancy of gross humours." Thence, saith 
'^ Femelius, come crudities, wind, oppilations, cacochymia, 
plethora, cachexia, bradiopepsia, * JTinc sulitce mortes, atque 
intestata senectus, sudden death, &c, and what not. 

1 As lettuce steeped in wine, birds fed mnltos morbos miilta fercula ferant. 

witli fennel and sugar, as a Pope's concu- * 31 Dec. 2 c. Nihil detenus quun si 

bine used in Avignon, Stephan. > An- tempus justo longius comedendo protra- 

Jinte negotium ilia fiicessit, et de templo hatur, et varia ciborum genera conjun- 

Dii immundum stabulum fitcit. Paleti- gantur : inde morborum scaturigo, quse 

lis, 10, c. 8 Lib. 11, c. 62. Homini ex repugnantiahumorum oritur. 6 Path, 

cibus utilissimus simplex, acervatio cibo- 1. 1, c. 14. * Jut. Sat 5. 
mm pestifera, et condimenta perniciosa, 

300 Diet, a Gauge. [Pwt. I. sec t. 

As a lamp w choked with a multitude of oil, or a little fire 
with overmuch wood quite extinguished, so is the nataral 
heat with immoderate eating, strangled in the body. /Vr- 
nidaga sentina ett abdomen ineaturahile : one saith. An insa- 
tiable paunch is a pernicious sink, and the firantain of all 
diseases, both of body and mind. ^ Mercurialis will have it 
a peculiar cause of this private disease ; Solenander, consiL 5, 
sect 3, illustrates this of Mercurialis, with an exiunple of one 
so melancholy, ab iniempestivii commeuationHms, unseason- 
able feasting. * Crato confirms as much, in that often cited 
Counsel, 21, lib. 2, putting superfluous eating for a main 
cause. But what need I seek farther for proofs? Hear 
* Hippocrates himself, Lib. 2, Aphor. 10, " Impure bodies 
the more they are nourished, the more they are hurt, for the 
nourishment is putrefied with vicious humours." 

And yet for all this harm, which apparently follows surfeit- 
ing and drunkenness, see how we luxuriate and rage in this 
kind ; read what Johannes Stuckius hath written lately of 
this subject, in his great volume De Antiquorum Conviviis^ 
and of our present age ; Quom ^porterUas^e coma, prodigious 
suppers, '^Qui dum invitant ad canam efferwU ad septdchrunt, 
what Fagos, Epicures, Apetios, Heliogables, our times afford ? 
LucuUus's ghost walks still, and every man desires to sup in 
Apollo ; ^sop's costly dish is ordinarily served up. ^Magis 
iUa juvantf qua plurin emuntur. The dearest cates are best, 
and 'tis an ordinary thing to bestow twenty or thirty pounds 
upon a dish, some thousand crowns upon a dinner ; "^ MuUy- 
Hamet, king of Fez and Morocco, spent three pounds on the 
sauce of a capon ; it is nothing in our times, we scorn all that 
is cheap. " We loathe the very • light (some of us, as Seneca 

I Nlmia repletto dbornm fccit melan- tomb." « Juvenal. " The higfaest- 

eholienm. > Comesdo snperfloa cibi, prtoed dish«s aflbfd the greatest gratifica- 

et pot&s quantitas nimia. 8 Impure tion.*' 7 Ouiccardin. * Na. quseet. 

oorpon quanto magis nutiis, tanto maglR 4, ca. ult. fiifltidio est lumen gratuitum, 

iBBdis: putrellMsit enim alimentum vlti- dolet quod sole, quod spfritum emere 

oeus humor. < Vid. Goclen. de porten- non possimuB, quod hie a^r non emptus 

tosffl ooenis, &o. Puteani Com. & Amb. ex facili, &c., adeo nihil placet, nisi quod 

lib. de J^u. cap. 14. '* They who invite carum est. 
OB to our supper, only conduct us to our 

tfem. 2, subs. 2.] Diet, a Cause. BOl 

notes) because it comes free, and we are offended with the 
sun's heat, and those cool blasts, because we buy them not." 
This air we breathe is so common we care not for it ; nothing 
pleaseth but what is dear. And if we be * witty in anything, 
it is ad gvlam ; If we study at all, it is erudito luxu, to please 
the palate, and to satisfy the gut " A cook of old was a base 
knave (as *Livy complains), but now a great man in request; 
cookery is become an art, a noble science ; cooks are gentle- 
men ; " Venter Deus ; They wear ^ their brains in their bellies, 
and their guts in their heads," as • Agrippa taxed some para- 
sites of his time, rushing on their own destruction, as if a 
man should run upon the point of a sword, usque dum rwrn" 
nantur cqmedunt, " They eat till they burst ; " * All day, all 
night, let the physician say what he will, imminent danger, 
and feral diseases are now ready to seize upcm them, that 
will eat till they vomit, Edunt ut vomanty vanmnt tU edant, 
saith Seneca ; which Dion relates of Vitellius, Solo transitu 
eihorum ntdriri jvdieatus ; His meat did pass through and 
away, or till they burst again. ^ Strange ammantiium vewtrem 
onerant, and rake over all the world, as so many ^slaves, 
belly-gods, and land-serpents, JEt totus orbis ventri nimis an- 
gusiuSy the whole world cannot satisfy their appetite. "^ " Sea, 
land, rivers, lakes, &C., may not give content to their raging 
guts." To make up the mess, what immoderate drinking in 
every place? Senem potum pota trahehat anus, how they 
flock to the tavern ; as if they were fruges consumere nati, 
bom to no other end but to eat and drink, like Offellius 
Bibulus, that famous Roman parasite. Qui dum vixit, aut 
hihit aut minocit ; as so many casks to hold wine, yea worse 
than a cask, that mars wine, and itself is not marred by it ; 
yet these are brave men, Silenus Ebrius was no braver. 
Et qucB fuerunt vitia, mores sunt ; 'tis now the fashion of our 
times, an honour ; Nunc vero res ista eo rediii (as Chryaost 

1 Ingenkwi ad Gulam. s oiim vile torius. ^ Seneca. o Mandpia gnlae, 

tnancipiom, nunc in omni aestimatlone, dapesnonsaporesedsumptusestimantes. 

nuQC an habeii capta, &c. ^ Bpist. Seneca consol. ad Helyidium. t Sffivi- 

28, 1. 7, quorum in ventre ingenium, in entia guttura satiare non possunt fluvii 

patiniB, &c. < In lucem coenat. Sor- etmaria. .SaeM SylTius de miser, curial. 


302 IHety a Cause. [ParLl. sec. % 

serni. 30, in v. Ephes. comments) Ut effeminaUB ridendcBque 
ignavice loco kabeatur, noUe inebriari ; 'tis now come to that 
pass that he is no gentleman, a Tery milk-sop, a down of no 
bringing up, that will not drink ; fit for no company ; he is 
your only gallant that plays it off finest, no disparagement 
now to stagger in the streets, reel, rave, &c., but much to 
his fame and renown ; as in like case Epidicus told Thesprio 
his fellow-servant, in the ^ Poet, .j^ldipol f acinus improham^ 
one urged, the other replied, At jam alii fecere idem, erit tUi 
iUa res honoriy 'tis now no fault, there be so many brave ex- 
amples to bear one out ; 'tis a credit to have a strong biain, 
and carry his liquor well ; the sole contention who can drink 
most, and fox his fellow the soonest 'Tis the summum bonum 
of our tradesmen, their felicity, life, and soul, Tania dtdcedine 
affectanty saith Pliny, lib. 14, cap. 12, ut magna parb nan 
aliud vitcB prcemium inteUigat, their chief comfort, to be merry 
together in an alehouse or tavern, as our modem Muscovites 
do in their mede-inns, and Turks in their coffee-houses which 
much resemble our taverns ; they will labour hard all day, 
long to be drunk at night, and spend totius anni lahores, as 
St Ambrose adds, in a tippling feast ; convert day into night, 
as Seneca taxes some in his times, Pervertunt officia noctis et 
lucis ; when we rise, they commonly go to bed, like our an- 

'< Nosque ubi primus equis oriens afflavit anhelis, 
Ulis sera rubens accendit lumina vesper." 

So did Petronius in Tacitus, Heliogabalus in Lampridius. 

* *' Noctes vigilabat ad ipsnm 
Mane, diem totum stertebat." 

" He drank the night away 
Till rising dawn, then snored ont all the day." 

Snymdiris the Sybarite never saw the sun rise or set so 
much as once in twenty years. Verres, against whom Tully 
BO much inveighs, in winter he never was extra tectum vix 

1 Plantiu. a Hor. lib. 1. Sat. 8. 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Diet, a Oaitse. 303 

eoctra ledum, never almost out of bed, * still wenching and 
drinking; so did he spend his time, and so do myriads in 
our days. They have gymnasia hibonum, schools and ren- 
dezvous ; these centaurs and lapithae toss pots and bowls as 
80 many balls ; invent new tricks, as sausages, anchovies, to- 
bacco, caviare, pickled oysters, herrings, fumadoes, &c. ; in- 
numerable salt meats to increase their appetite, and study 
how to hurt themselves by taking antidotes ^ " to carry their 
drink the better ; ' and when nought else serves, they will 
go forth, or be conveyed out, to empty their gorge, that they 
may return to drink afresh." They make laws, insanas leges, 
contra Mbendi faJlactas, and * brag of it when they have done, 
crowning that man that is soonest gone, as their drunken pred- 
ecessors have done, '^ quid ego video ? Ps. Cum corond 

Pseudolum ehrium tuum . And when they are dead, will 

have a can of wine with ^ Maron's old woman to be engraven 
on their tombs. So they triumph in villany, and justify their 
wickedness ; with Rabelais, that French Lucian, drunkenness 
is better for the body than physic, because there be more old 
drunkards than old physicians. Many such frothy arguments 
they have, ^ inviting and encouraging others to do as they do, 
and love them dearly for it (no glue like to that of good fellow- 
ship). So did Alcibiades in Greece ; Nero, Bonosus, Helio- 
gabalus in Rome, or Alegabalus rather, as he was styled of 
old (as ® Ignatius proves out of some old coins). So do many 
great men still, as • Heresbachius observes. When a prince 
drinks till his eyes stare, like Bitias in the Poet, 

10 " (ille impiger hausit 
Spumantem vino pateram).'* 

" a thirsty soul ; 
He took challenge and embraced the bowl ; 
With pleasure swill'd the gold, nor ceased to draw 
Till he the bottom of the brimmer saw." 

1 Did breritas conyiTlis, noctis lODgi- raaa velut ad ostentatioD«in; ke. 

tndo stnpris conterebatar. * Et quo & Plantas. ^ Lib. 8. Anthol c. 20. 

Plus capiant, irritamenta exco^tantar. 7 Gratiam conoiUant potando. * Notts 

Fores portantnr at ad conyiTium repor- ad Caesares. Lib. de educandis prin- 

tentur, repleri ut exhaariant, et exhau- cipum liberis. ^^ Virg. M. 1. 
liri at bibant. Ambroe. * IngentU 



JXetf a CcMte* 

[Part. L sec. 2. 

and comes off dearly, sound trampets^ fife and drums, the 
spectators will applaud him, '^the ^bishop himself (if he 
belie them not) with his chaplain, will stand bj and do as 
much," O dignum prxncipe Aattffum, 'twas done like a prince. 
^ Our Dutchmen inrite all comers with a pail and a dish," 
VehU infundibula inUgroM ohboM exhauriunty et in monstrosis 
poetilisy ipsi manstrosi monstrotius epoianl, "making bar- 
rels of their bellies." hicredibile dictUj as *one of their 
own countrymen complains: ' Quantum liquoris immodes- 
tissima gent capiat^ Sf€. *^How they love a man that 
will be drunk, crown him and honour him for it," hate him 
that will not pledge him, stab him, kill him ; a most intoler- 
able oflfence, and not to be forgiven. ^ " He is a mortal 
enemy that will not drink with him," as Munster relates of 
the Saxons. So in Poland, he is the best servitor, and the 
honestest fellow, saith Alexander Gaguinus, * " that drinketh 
most healths to the honour of his master, he shall be re- 
warded as a good servant, and held the bravest fellow that 
carries his liquor best," when a brewer's horse will bear much 
more than any sturdy drinker, yet for his noble exploits in 
this kind, he shall be accounted a most valiant man for ^ Taan 
inter epulas fartis vir esse potest ac in heUoy as much valour 
is to be found in feasting as in fighting, and some of our city 
captains, and carpet knights will make this good, and prove 
it. Thus they many times wilfully pervert the good temperar 
ture of their bodies, stifle their wits, strangle nature, and 
degenerate into beasts. 

Some again are in the other extreme, and draw this mis- 
chief on their heads by too ceremonious and strict diet, being 
over-precise, cockney-like, and curious in their observation 

1 Idem strenui potatoriB Episcopi Sacel- 
lanus, cum inf^ntem pateram exhaurit 
princepg. ^ Bohemus in Sa3L<u>iiia. Ad- 
eo immoderate et immodeste ab ipds bibi- 
tnr, nt in compotalionibug suis non i^a- 
this solum et cantharis sat inftmdere 
possiDt, sed impletum mulctrale ap- 
ponant, et scutella iqjecta hortantur 
quemlibet ad libitum potare. > Diotu 
Incredibile, quantum hi:Otuce liquoris 

immodeeta gens capiat, plus i)otantem 
amlcissimum habent, et serto coronant, 
inimicissimum h contra qui non vult, et 
caede et fastibus expiant. * Qui potare 
reeusat, hostis hab^ur, et caeda nomnm- 
quam res expiatur. & Qui melins bibifc 
pro salute domini, melior habetur minis- 
ter. GriBC. Poeta H^ud Stobseum, 
ser. 18. 

Mem. 2, sabs. 8.] Causes of Melaneholy* 305 

of meats, times, as that Medidna statica prescribes, just so 
many ounces at dinner, which Lessius enjoins, so much at 
supper, not a little more, nor a little less, of such meat, and 
at such hours, a diet-drink in the morning, cock-broth, China- 
broth, at dinner, plum-broth, a chicken, a rabbit, rib of a rack 
of mutton, wing of a capon, the merry-thought of a hen, &c. ; 
to sounder bodies this is too nice and most absurd. Others 
offend in overmuch fasting ; pining adays, saith ^ Guianerius, 
and waking anights, as many Moors and Turks in these our 
times do. " Anchorites, monks, and the rest of that supersti- 
tious rank (as the same Guianeiius witnesseth, that he hath 
oflen seen to have happened in his time) through immoderate 
fasting, have been frequently mad." Of such men belike 
Hippocrates speaks, 1 Aphor. 5, when as he saith, ^ " They 
more offend in too sparing diet, and are worse damnified, 
than they that feed liberally, and are ready to surfeit. 

SuBSECT. III. — Custom of Diet, Delight, Appetite, Necessity, 

how they cau^e or hinder. 

No rule is so general, which admits not some exception ; 
to this, therefore, which hath been hitherto said (for I shall 
otherwise put most men out of commons), and those incon- 
veniences which proceed from the substance of meats, an 
intemperate or unseasonable use of them, custom somewhat 
detracts and qualifies, according to that of Hippocrates 2, 
Aphorism. 50, ' " Such things as we have been long accus- 
tomed to, though they be evil in their own nature yet they 
are less offensive." Otherwise it might well be objected that 
it were a mere * tyranny to live afler those strict rules of 
physic ; for custom ^ doth alter nature itself, and to such as 
are used to them it makes bad meats wholesome, and unseason- 
able times to cause no disorder. Cider and perry are windy 

1 Qui de die jejunant, et nocte rigilant, yictu aegrri delinquunt, ex quo fit ut ma- 

ftcile codunt in melsncholiam ; et qui Jori afflciantur detrimento, majorque fit 

nataree modum excedunt, c. 5, tract. 16, error tenui quam plenioreyictu. ^ Quao 

e. 2. Longa &mi8 tolerantia, ut iifi stepe longo tempore consueta sunt, etiamni de- 

accidit qui tanto cum fervore Deo serrire teriora, minus in assuetts molestare 

cupiunt per j^unium, quod maniaci cfll- solent. * Qui medicd riyit, miscr^ 

clantur, ipse ridi saepe. ^ In tenui yiiit. * Consuetudo altera natura. 

VOL. I. 20 


306 Oautsi of Mdanehofy. [Pmct. I. aec. s. 

drinks, so are all fruits windy in theaiselyes, eold most part, 
yet in some shires of ^ England, Normandy in Franoe, 
Guipusooa in Spain, 'tis their common drink, and they are no 
whit offended with it In Spain, Italy, and Africa, they live 
most on roots, raw herbs, camel's ' milk, and it agi'ees well 
with them ; which to a stranger will cause much giieTance. 
In Wales, lacticimis vescuntur, as Humphrey Llwyd ooi>> 
fesseth, a Cambro-Briton himself, in his elegant epistle to 
Abraham OrteHus, they live most on white meats ; in H^ 
land on fish, roots, ' butter ; and so at this day in Greece, as 

* Bellonius obserres, they had much rather feed on fish than 
flesh. With us, Maqdma pars v%ctu$ in came consistit, we 
feed on flesh most part, saith ^ Polydor Virgil, as all northern 
eountries do ; and it would be very offensive to us to live 
aiter their diet, or they to live after oura. We drink beer, 
they wine; they use oil, we butter; we in the north are 

• great eaters ; they most sparing in those hotter countries ; 
and yet they and we following our own customs are well 
pleased. An Ethiopian of old seeing an European eat bread, 
wondered, quomodo stercoribus vescerUea viverimus, how we 
oouM eat such kind of meats ; so much differed his country* 
men from ours in diet, that as mine t author infers, si quis 
iUorum victum apud nos tmnidari veHet ; if any man should 
so feed with us, it would be all one to nourish, as Cicuta« 
Aconitum, or Hellebore itself. At this day in China, the 
oommon people live in a manner altogether on roots and 
herbs, and to the wealthiest, horse, ass, mule, dogs, cat-flesh, 
is as delightsome as the rest, so ®Mat. Riocius the Jesuit 
relates, who lived many years amongst them. The Tartars 

1 Herefordshire, Oloucestershire, Wor- land, Muscovy, and those northern parts, 

oestershire. > Leo Afer. 1. 1, solo came- t Suidas vict. Herod, nihilo cum eo mell- 

Iprum lacte content!, nil praeterea delicia- us quam si quis Cioutam, Aconitum, &e. 

rum ambiunt. s Flandri vinum butyro « Expedit. in Sinas, lib. 3, c. 3, hortensi- 

dilutum bibunt (nauseo referens) ubique um herbarum et olerum, apud Sinas 

Vutyrum inter omnia fiercula et beliaria quam apud nos longe frequentior usns,. 

locum obtinet. Steph prsefat. Herod, complures quippe de yulgo reperias nuili 

*I>electantur Orssci piscibus magis quam aliSL re Tel tenuitatis, yel reliji^onis causft 

eamibus ^ Lib. I^ hist. Ang. <( P. vescentes. Equus, Mulus, Asellus. j^c, 

Jovius de^cript. Bntonum. They ait, aequd fer6 vescuatur ac pabula omnia, 

cat and drink aU day a( dinner in to^ Mat. Riccius, lib. §, cap. 12. 

Mem. 8, subs. 8.] Causet of Melancholy, 307 

eat raw meat, and most commonly ^ horse-flesh, drink milk 
and blood, as the Nomades of old. JSt lac eonerehim cum 
scmguine potat equina. They scoff at our Europeans for eat- 
ing bread, which they call tops of weeds, and horse meat, not 
fit for men; and yet Scaliger accounts them a sound and 
witty nation, living a hundred years ; even in the civilest 
country of them they do thus, as Benedict the Jesuit ob- 
served in his travels, from the great Mogul's Court by land 
to Pekin, which Riccius contends to be the same with Cam- 
bula in Cataia. In Seandia their bread is usually dried fish, 
and so likewise in the Shetland isles ; and their other fare, as 
in Iceland, saith ^ Dithmarus Bleskenius, butter, cheese, and 
fish; their drink water, their lodging on the ground. In 
America in many places their bread is roots, their meat 
palmitos, pinas, potatoes, &c., and such fruits. There be of 
them too that familiarly drink * salt sea-water all their lives, 
eat t f ^w^ meat, grass, and that with delight. With some, 
fish, serpents, spiders ; and in divers places they ' eat man's 
flesh, raw and roasted, even the Emperor ^ Montezuma him- 
self. In some coasts, again, 'one tree yields them cocoa- 
nuts, meat and drink, fire, fuel, apparel ; with his leaves, oil, 
vinegar, cover for houses, &c., and yet these men gmng 
naked, feeding coarse, live commonly a hundred years, are 
seldom or never sick; all which diet our physicians forbid* 
In Westphalia they feed most part on fat meats and wourts, 
knuckle deep, and call it ^ cerebrum lovU ; in the Low Coun- 
tries with roots, in Italy frogs and snails are used. The 
Turks, saith Busbequius, delight most in fried meats. In 
Muscovy, garlic and onions are ordinary meat and sauce,; 
which would be pernicious to such as are unaccustomed to 
them, delightsome to others ; and all is ^ because they have 

iTartarimQliSjeqnisvescnnturetcnidifl Ind. deseript. Ifb. 11, cap. 10. Aquam 

earnfbus, etfrngMcontemnuafcf dieentes, mwritiBin bibere, sueti absquA noxft. 

hoc jumentorum pabulum et bourn, non t Dayiea 2, voyage. » Fatagoneff. 

hominum. > IfilandiaB descriptione, * Benao et Fer. Gorterius lib. norus orbis 

vtctuB eorum butyro. lacte, camo conafe- inscrlp. & linanoAMi, e. 66, palmn fai« 

tit ; pisces loco panis habeot, potus, aqua dtar totias otbteairboribus longe pxtestaii/* 

aut serum, sic TiTunt sine metUdna tior. < Lipa. tplat. ' Tenezis mm 

molti ad aDOAfl 'IQO * I^tet. ocddanl. eaocm moltHm. 


308 Oonues of Melancholy. [Part. L see. S. 

been brought up unto it Husbandmen, and such as labour, 
can eat fat bacon, salt gross meat, hard cheese, &c, ( O dura 
messarum ilia), coarse bread at all times, go to bed and labour 
upon a full stomach, which to some idle persons would be 
present death, and is against the rules of physic, so that cus- 
tom is all in all. Our travellers find this by common experi- 
ence when they come in far countries, and use their diet, 
they are suddenly offended, ^ as our Hollanders and English- 
men when they touch upon the coasts of Africa, those Indian 
capes and islands, are commonly molested with calentures, 
fluxes, and much distempered by reason of their fruits. 
* Pereffrina, etsi suavia, solent vescentihus perturbatianes in^ 
siffnes culferre, strange meats, though pleasant, cause notable 
alterations and distempers. On the other side, use or custom 
mitigates or makes all good again. Mithridates by oflen use, 
which Pliny wonders at, was able to drink poison ; and a 
maid, as Curtius records, sent to Alexander from K. Poms, 
was brought up with poison from her infancy. The Turks, 
saith Bellonius, lib. 3, c. 15, eat opium ^^miliarly, a drachm 
at once, which we dare not take in grains. •Garcius ab 
Horto writes of one whom he saw at Groa in the East Indies, 
that took ten drachms of opium in three days ; and yet con- 
suUo loquebatur, spake understandingly, so much can custom 
do. ^ Theophrastus speaks of a shepherd that could eat helle- 
bore in substance. And therefore Cardan concludes out of 
Galen, Cansuetudinem tUcungue ferendam, nisi vcdde malam. 
Custom is howsoever to be kept, except it be extremely bad ; 
he adviseth all men to keep their old customs, and that by the 
authority of * Hippocrates himself, Dandum aUqnid temporij 
(Btatij regioni, consuetudini, and therefore to * continue as 
they began, be it diet, bath, exercise, &c., or whatsoever 

Another exception is delight, or appetite, to such and such 

1 Repentinie mntatlones nozam pari- 1. 8, c. 19, prax. med. * Aphorism. 17. 

ant. Hippocrat. Aphorism. 21, Epist. ^ Id duhiis consuetudinem seqoatar ado> 

6, sect. 8. s Bruerinns, lih. 1, cap. 28. lesoens, et inceptis penerveret. 
s Simpl. med. c. 4, 1. 1. * Heumins, 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Retention and JSvacaaMon, Causes. 309 

meats ; though they be hard of digestion, melancholy ; yet as 
Fuchsius excepts cap. 6, lib. 2, Institut. sect. 2. *"The 
stomach doth really digest, and willingly entertain such meats 
we love most, and are pleasing to us, abhors on the other 
side such as we distaste." Which Hippocrates confirms, 
Aphorism. 2, 38. Some cannot endure cheese out of a 
secret antipathy, or to see a roasted duck, which to others is 
a ^ delightsome meat 

The last exception is necessity, poverty, want, hunger, 
which drives men many times to do that which otherwise 
they are loth, cannot endure, and thankfully to accept of it ; 
as beverage in ships, and in sieges of great cities, to feed on 
dogs, cats, rats, and men themselves. Three outlaws in 
• Hector Boethius, being driven to their shifts, did eat raw 
flesh, and flesh of such fowl as they could catch, in one of the 
Hebrides for some few months. These things do mitigate or 
disannul that which hath been said of melancholy meats, and 
make it more tolerable ; but to such as are wealthy, live 
plenteously, at ease, may take their choice, and refrain if 
they will, these viands are to be forborne, if they be inclined 
to, or suspect melancholy, as they tender their healths; 
Otherwise if they be intemperate, or disordered in their diet, 
at their peril be it Qui monet amat, Ave et cave. 

He who advises is your friend, 
Farewell, and to your health attend. 

SuBSECT. IV. — Retention and Evacuation a caiise, and how. 

Op retention and evacuation, there be divers kinds, which 
are either concomitant, assisting, or. sole causes many times 
of melancholy. * Galen reduceth defect and abundance to 
this head; others *'*A11 that is separated, or remains." 

Costiveness.^ In the first rank of these, I may well reckon 
up costiveness, and keeping in of our ordinary excrements, 

1 Qui cmn Toluptate aMnmnntur cibi, stomach, as the saying Is. > Lib. 7, 

ventriculns avldias complectitur, expe- Hist. Scot. * 80, artis. 6 Quae ex- 

ffitiusque concoquit, et qusB displicent cerDuntur aut subslutunt. 
aTenatut. ^ Nothing against a good 

tl r 

810 Retention and Evaeuatiany Oauees. [Ptrt L sec t. 

which as it often causeth other diseases, so this of melanchdj 
in particular. ^ Celsus, lib. 1, cap. 3, saith, '^ It produceth 
inflammation of the head, duhiess, cloudiness, headadie, SacJ' 
Prosper Galenas, Ub, de atrd hiie, will haye it distemper not 
the organ only, * ** but the mind itself by troubling of it ; " 
and sometimes it is a sole cause of madness, as you may read 
in the first book of * Skenkius's Medicinal Observations. A 
young merchant going to Nordeling fair in Germany, for tea 
days' space never went to stool; at his return he was 
* grievously melancholy, thinking that he was robbed, and 
would not be persuaded but that all his money was gone ; 
his friends thought he had some philtrum given him, but 
Cnelius, a physician, being sent for, found his ^costivenesa 
alone to be the cause, and thereupon gave him a clyster, by 
which he was speedily recovered. Trincavellius, consult. 
85, lib. 1, saith as much of a melancholy lawyer, to whom he 
administered physic, and Kodericus k Fonseca, consult. 85^ 
torn. 2,* of a patient of his, that for eight days was bound, 
and therefore melancholy affected. Other retentions and 
evacuations there are, not simply necessary, but at some 
times ; as Fernelius accounts them. Path. lib. 1, cap. Id, 
as suppression of haemorrhoids, or monthly issues in women, 
bleeding at nose, immoderate or no use at all of Venus ; or 
any other ordinary issues. 

•Detention of hasmorrhoids, or monthly issues, Villano- 
vanus Breviar. lib. 1, cap. 18, Arculanus, cap. 16, in 9. 
Rhasis, Vittorius Faventinus, pract. mag. Tract. 2, cap. 15, 
Bruel, &c., put for ordinary causes. Fuchsius, 1. 2, sect 5, c 
30, goes farther, and saith, ^ " That many men unseasonably 
cured of the haemorrhoids have been corrupted with melan- 
choly, seeking to avoid Scylla, they fall into Charybdis. 
Galen, I, de hum. commen. 3, ad text, 26, illustrates this by an 

1 Ex ventre suppreaso, iDflammationes, dies alyum slccum hal)et, et nihil reddlt. 

capitis doloreSfCaliginescrescunt. ^Ex- « Sive per nares, sive hsemorrhoides. 

crementa retenta mentis agitatlonem par- 7 Multi intempestiv^ ab lisemorrlioidibua 

ere solent. * Cap. de Mel. * Tam curati, melancholia cormpti sunt. In- 

delirus, ut rix se hominem agnosceret. cidit in ScyUam, &o 
6 AlyuB astriutos caiua. * Per octo 

Mem. 2) sab«. 4.] Retention and Evacuation^ Causes. 311 

esiample of Lucius Mftrtius^ whom he cured of madnes% 
contracted by this means; And ^Skenkius hath two other 
instances of two melancholy and mad women, so caused froin 
the suppfession of their months. The same may be said of 
bleeding at the nose, if it be suddenly stopped, and have 
been formerly used, as * Villanovanus urgeth ; And ' Fucb* 
sius, lib. 2, sect. 5, cap. 33, stijffly maintains " That without 
great danger, such art issue may not be stayed." 

Venus omitted produceth like effects. Mathiolusj epist. 5, 
1 , penult. * " avoucheth of his knowledge, that some through 
bashfulness abstained from venery, and thereupon became 
very heavy and dull ; and some others that were very timo- 
rous, melancholy, and beyond all measure sad.*' OribasiuSj 
med. coUect. I. 6, c. 37, speaks of some, * " That if they do not 
use carnal copulation, are continually troubled with heaviness 
and headache ; and some in the same case by intermission of 
it." Not use of it hurts many, Arculanus, c. Q^ in 9* Rhasis^ 
et Magninibs, part. 3, cap, 5, think, because it • " sends up 
poisonous vapours to the brain and heart." And so doth 
Gralen himself hold, " That if this natural seed be over-long 
kept (in some parties), it turns to poison." Hieronymus Mer- 
curialis, in his chapter of Melancholy, cites it for an especial 
cause of this malady, ' Priapismus, Satyriasis, &c., Haliabbas, 
5 Theor. c, 36, reckons up this and many other diseases^ 
Villanovanus Breviar. /. 1, c, 18, saith, "He knew 'many 
monks and widows grievously troubled with melancholy, and 
that foi* this sole cause." ®Lodovicus Mercatus, L 2, de 
mtdierum affect, tap, 4, and Rodericus k Castro, de morhie 
mvlier, I, 2, c, 3, treat largely of this subject, and will have 
it pi oduce a peculiar kind of melancholy in stale maids, nuns, 

1 Lib. 1, de Blania. s Breyiar. 1. 7, tristes et ita factos ex intermissione Vene- 
c. 18. 3 Non sine magno incommodo ris. o Vapores Tenenatoe mittit sperma 
ejus, cui sani^uia a nuibus promanat, ad cor et cerebrum. Sperma plus din re- 
noxii minguinis yacuatio impediri potest! tentum, transit in Venenum. 7 OraTee 
1 Novi quosdam prse pudore k coitu ab- producit corporis et animi a^ritadines. 
stinentes. torpidos, pigrosque fiictos; B Sxspermatesnpramodumretentomoii- 
iioiinullos etiam inelancholicos, praetef achos et vidnas melancholicos saspe fieri 
modum moestos, timidosque. 6 Non- vidl. * Melancholia orta k Tasis semi- 
nulli nisi coeant, araidu^ capitis graritate nariiS in utero. 
lofestantur. Dicit se noyisse quosdam 

312 Retention and Evacuation^ Ckitues. [Part I. sec. s. 

and widows, Ob suppressionetn mensium et venerem omiseamj 
timidce, moBSta, anxia, verecunday euspicioMRy kmguenteSy eon- 
tilii inopes, cum summa vitce et rerum mdiorum desperaiione^ 
^c.f thej are melancholy in the highest degree, and all for 
want of husbands. iBlianus Montaltus, cc^. 37, de melanchoL 
confirms as much out of Galen ; so doth Wierus, Christoferus 
a Vega de art, med, lib, 3, c, 14, relates many such examples 
of men and women, that he had seen so melancholy. Foelix 
Plater, in the first book of his Observations, * " tells a story 
of an ancient gentleman in Alsatia, that married a young 
wife, and was not able to pay his debts in that kind for a long 
time together, by reason of his several infirmities ; but she, 
because of this inhibition of Venus, fell into a horrible fury, 
and desired every one that came to see her, by words, looks, 
and gestures, to have to do with her," dec ^ Bemardus Pa- 
temus, a physician, saith, " He knew a good honest, godly 
priest, that because he would neither willingly marry, nor 
make use of the stews, fell into grievous melancholy fits." 
Hildesheim, spiceL 2, hath such another example of an Ital- 
ian melancholy priest, in a consultation had Anno 1580. 
Jason Pratensis gives instance in a married man, that from 
his wife's death abstaining, * ^' afler marriage, became exceed- 
ingly melancholy," Rodericus sL Fonseca in a young man so 
misaffected, Tom. 2, consuU, 85. To these you may add, if 
you please, that conceited tale of a Jew, so visited in like 
sort, and so cured, out of Poggius Florentinus. 

Intemperate Venus is all but as bad in the other extreme. 
Gralen, h 6, de morbis popular, sect, 5, text, 26, reckons up 
melancholy amongst those diseases which are * " exasperated 
by venery ;" so doth Avicenna, 2, 3, c. 11, Oribasius, loe, 
citat, Ficinus, lib, 2, de sanitate tuendd, Marsilius Cogna- 

1 Nobilifl senex Alsatus juyenem nx- sentirent, moIoMoe AngHcsnos magoo 

orem duxit, at ille colico dolore, et mnl- expetiit clamore. > Vidi aaeerdotein 

tis morbis correptus, noa potuit prtestare optimum et pium, qui quod nollet nti 

offlcium mariti, vix iuito matrimonio Venere, in melaDohoUca symptomata in- 

a^nrotus. Ilia in horrendum fiuorem cidit. > Ob abstinentiam k concnbita 

fncidit, ob Venerem cohibitam, ut omni- incidit In melaneholiam. * Qu8b 4 

urn earn invisentium congresaum, voce, coitu ezacerbantur. 
mltu, geetu expeteret, et quum non con- 

Mem. 2y subs. 4.] JRetention and Evacitation, Oatises, 318 

tus, Montaltus, cap, 27. Guianerius, Tract, 3, cap. 2. Mag- 
ninus, cap, 5, part, 3, ^ gives the reason, because ^ " it infrigi- 
dates and dries up the body, consumes the spirits, and would 
therefore have all such as are cold and dry to take heed of 
and to avoid it as a mortal enemy." Jacchinus in 9 Rha8%9, 
cap, 15, ascribes the same cause, and instanceth in a patient 
of his, that married a young wife in a hot summer, * " and so 
dried himself with chamber-work, that he became in short 
space from melancholy, mad ; " he cured him by moistening 
i-emedies. The like example I find in Laelius a Fonte Eu- 
gubinus, consult, 129, of a gentleman of Venice, that upon 
the same occasion was first melancholy, afterwards mad. 
Read in him the story at large. 

Any other evacuation stopped will cause it, as well as these 
above named, be it bile, * ulcer, issue, &c. Hercules de Sax- 
onia, lib, 1, c, 16, and Gordonius, verify this out of their ex- 
perience. They saw one wounded in the head, who as long 
as the sore was open, Luctda hdfmit mentis intervaUoy was 
well ; but when it was stopped, Mediit melancholia, his mel- 
ancholy fit seized on him again. 

Artificial evacuations are much like in effect, as hot houses, 
baths, bloodletting, purging, unseasonably and immoderately 
used. '^ Baths dry too much, if used in excess, be they nat- 
ural or artificial, and offend extreme hot or cold ; ® one dries, 
the other refrigerates overmuch. Montanus, consil, 137, 
saith, they overheat the liver. Joh. Struthius, Stigmat, artis. 
I, 4, c, 9, contends, "^ " that if one stays longer than ordinary 
at the bath, go in too oft, or at unseasonable times, he putre- 
fies the humours in his body." To this purpofee writes 
Magninus, I, 3, c, 5. Guianerius, Tract, 15, c, 21, utterly 
disallows all hot baths in melancholy adust. ' " I saw (saith he) 

1 Superflnum coitnm cstuaam ponunt. reddant corpus. 7 Si qnis longins 

s Ezsiccat corpus, spiritus consumit, &c., moretur in iis, aut nimis frequenter, aut 

raveant ab hoc sicci, Telut inimico mor- importune utatur, humores putrefacit. 

tali. 8 ita exsiccatus ut k melancholico 8 Ego anno superiore, quendam gpitto- 

0tatim fnerit: insanus, ab humectantibus sum Tidi adustum, qui ut liberaretur de 

cnratus. ^ Ex cauterio et ulcere ex- gutta, ad balnea accessit, et de gutta lib- 

riccato. 5 Gord. c. 10, lib. 1. Discom- eratus, xnaniacus fiEtctus est. 
mends cold baths as noxious. ^ Siccum 

A14 JSetemian and Evacuation^ Gantet. [P«t. I. sec. i. 

a man that laboured of the goat, who to be freed of his mal- 
ady came to the bath, and was iastantlj cured of bis disease, 
but got another worse, and that was madness." Bat ika& 
judgment varies as the humour doth, In hot or coM ; batiiS 
maj be good for one melanchol j man, bad for another ; ihiX 
which will cure it in this party, may cause it in a seoond. 

PhlebotontfJ] Phlebotomy, many times neglected, may do 
much harm to the body, when there is a manifest redundanes 
of bad humours, and melancholy blood ; and when these hu'- 
mours heat and boil, if this be not used in time, the parties 
affected, so inflamed, are in great danger to be mad ; but if 
it be unadvisedly, importunely, immoderately used, it doth as 
much harm by refngerating the body, dulling the spirits, and 
consuming them ; as Job. ^ Curio in his lOdi Chapter well 
reprehends, such kind of letting blood doth more hurt than 
good ; * ^ The humours rage much more than they did before^ 
and is so far from avoiding melancholy, that it increaseth it^ 
and weakeneth the sight." • Prosper Calenus observes as 
much of all phlebotomy, except they keep a very good diet 
afler it ; yea, and as ^ Leonartus Jacchinus speaks out of his 
own experience, * " The blood is much blacker to many men 
afler their letting of blood than it was at first" For this 
cause belike Salust. Salvinianus, L 2, d» 1, will admit or hear 
of no bloodletting at all in this disease, except it be mai^ 
ifcst it proceed from blood ; he was (it appears) by his own 
words in that place, master of an hospital of mad men, 
• " and found by long experience, that this kind of evacua- 
tion, either in head, arm, or any other part, did more harm 
than good." To this opinion of his, * Felix Plater is quite 

1 On Schola Saternitada. * Oalefiietie spliltBi debilitator inde, et ego longft ex- 

«t ebullitio per yenie inciaionem, magis perientUL observavi in proprio Xenodo- 

BiBpe incitatur et augetur, majore impetu chio, quod desipientes ex phlebotomi& 

humoi^s per corpus discuffuAt. * Lib. magls liedfinfcur, et magis desipiunt, et 

de iatulenta Melancholia, ttvquens melaneholici ssepe flnnt inde pcjoresi 

sangulnlB misfiio corpus extenuat. « In * De mentis aUenat. eap. S, etsi mnitos 

9 Rhasis. atram bilem parit, et riBum de-* boc improbSisse edam, innumeros hSM 

billtat. 6 Multo nlgrior spectatur san" latione sanatoe long! bbservatione co^* 

fuis post dies qudsdam, quJim fuit ab ini- neri, qui vieieS) seragies Venu tanden* 

tio. > Non laudo eos qui in deslpientla de, ko« 
iooent aecandam esse yenam firontlB, quia 

Mend. 2, subs. 6.] Bad Jdr^ a Caim. 315 

opposite, '^ though some wink at, disallow, and quite contra^ 
diet all phlebotomy in melancholy, yet by long experience 
I have found innumerable so saved, after they had been 
twenty, nay, sixty times let blood, and to live happily after it 
It was an ordinary thing of old, in Galen's time, to take at 
once from such men six pounds of blood, which now we dare 
scarce take in ounces ; sed viderirU medici ; " great books are 
written of this subject. 

Purging upward and downward, in abundance of bad 
humours omitted, may be for the worst ; so likewise as in the 
precedent, if overmuch, too frequent or violent, it ^ weakeneth 
their strength, saith Fuchsius, /. 2, sect 2, c. 17, or if they be 
strong or able to endure physic, yet it brings them to an ill 
habit, they make their bodies no better than apothecaries' 
ghops, this and such like infirmities must needs follow* 

SuBSECTi V. — Bad Air, a Cause of Melancholy, 

Air is a cause of great moment, in producing this, or any 
other disease, being that it is still taken into our bodies by 
respiration, and our more inner parts. ^ « If it be impure and 
fog'^, it dejects the spirits, and causeth diseases by infection 
of the heart," as Paulus hath it, Kh» 1, c. 49. Avicenna Ulk 
1. Gal, de san, tuendd, Mercurialis, Montaltus, &c., • Fer* 
nelius saith, " A thick air thickeneth the blood and humours." 
* Lemuius reckons up two main things most profitable, and 
most pernicious to our bodies ; air and diet ; and this peculiar 
disease, nothing sooner causeth (® Jobertus holds) " than the 
air wherein we breathe and live." * Such as is the air, such 
be our spirits ; and as our spirits, such are our humours. It 
offends commonly if it be too • hot and dry, thick, fuliginous, 
cloudy, blustering, or a tempestuous air. Bodine in his fifth 
Book, De repuh, cap, 1, 5, of his Method of History, proves 
that hot countries are most troubled with melancholy, and 

1 Vires debilitat. > Impurus a8r hltnr humor meltoehoUens. * QuaUfl 

Bpiritus dejlcit, infecto corde gignit mor- aSr, talis sptritus : et cujuflmodi spirltiiSt 

bog. s Siem^piinem densat, et humores, humores. ^ JSlianus Montaltus, cap. 

P. 1, c. 18. 4 Lib. 8, cap. 3. ^ Lib. 11, oalldus et siccus, frigidns et siecui, 

de quartana. Ex aSre ambieate contra- paludinosus, crassos. 

316 Cattses of Melancholy, [Part I. sec. 2. 

that there are therefore in Spain, Africa, and Asia Minor, 
great numbers of mad men, insomuch that thej are com- 
pelled in all cities of note, to build peculiar hospitals for 
them. Leo ^ Afer, lib, 3, de Fessa urhe^ Ortelius and Zuin- 
ger, confirm as much ; thej are ordinarilj so choleric in their 
speeches, that scai'ce two woixls pass without railing or chid- 
ing in common talk, and often quarrelling in the streets. 

* Gordonius will have eveiy man take notice of it : " Note 
this (saith he) that in hot countries it is far more familiar 
than in cold." Although this we have now said be not con- 
tinually so, for as ' Acosta truly saith, under the Equator 
itself, is a most temperate habitation, wholesome air, a parar 
disc of pleasure ; the leaves ever green, cooling showers. 
But it holds in such as are intemperately hot, as ^ Johannes 
^ Meggen found in Cyprus, others in Malta, Apulia, and the 

* Holy Land, where at some seasons of the year is nothing 
but dust, their rivers dried up, the air scorching hot, and 
earth inflamed ; insomuch that many pilgrims going barefoot 
for devotion sake, from Joppa to Jerusalem upon the hot 
sands, often run mad, or else quite overwhelmed with sand, 
profundis arenis, as in many parts of Africa, Arabia Deserta, 
Bactriana, now Charassan, when the west wind blows 
t Involuti arenis transeurttes necantur, * Hercules de Saxonia, 
a professor in Venice, gives this cause why so many Venetian 
women are melancholy, Quod diu sub sole degant, they tarry 
too long in the sun. Montanus, consiL 21, amongst other 
causes assigns this ; Why tliat Jew his patient was mad, 
Qudd tarn muUum exposuit se calori et frigori : he exposed 
himself so much to heat and cold, and for that reason in 
Venice, there is little stirring in those brick paved streets in 
summer about noon, they are most part then asleep ; as they 
are likewise in the great MogoFs countries, and all over the 

1 Malta hie in Xenodochiis&n&tioonun ut ante flnem Mali pene exusta sit. 
mlllia qun strictissimi catenata serran- f '* They perish in clouds of sand." Ma- 
tor. 3 Lib. med. part. 2, cap. 19. In- ginus Pers. & Pantheo seu Pract. med. 
tellige, quod in calidis regionibus, &«- 1. 1. cap. 16. Venetao mulieres, qusB diu 
quenter accidit mania, in frigidis autem sub sole viytint, aliquando melancholicn 
tard&. 3 Lib. 2. ^ Hodopericon, cap. 7. eyadunt. 

* jLpulia tBstiTO calore maxima ferret, ita 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Bad Air, a Cause, 317 

East Indies. At Aden in Arabia, as ^ Lodovicus Vertoman- 
nus relates in his travels, they keep their markets in the 
night, to avoid extremity of heat ; and in Ormus, like cattle 
in a pasture, people of all sorts lie up to the chin in water all 
day long. At Braga in Portugal ; Burgos in Castile ; Mes- 
sina in Sicily, all over Spain and Italy, their streets are most 
part narrow, to avoid the sunbeams. The Turks wear great 
turbans ad fagandos solis radios, to refract the sunbeams ; 
and much inconvenience that hot air of Bantam in Java 
yields to our men, that sojourn there for traffic ; where it is 
so hot, * " that they that are sick of the pox, lie commonly 
bleaching in the sun to dry up their sores." Such a com- 
plaint I read of those isles of Cape Verde, fourteen degrees 
from the Equator, they do mede avdire ; * One calls them 
the unhealthiest clime of the world, for fluxes, fevers, fren- 
zies, calentures, which commonly seize on seafaring men that 
touch at them, and all by reason of a hot distemperature of 
the air. The hardiest men are offended with this heat, and 
stiffest clowns cannot resist it, as Constantine affirms, AgricuU. 
I, 2. c. 45. They that are naturally bom in such air, may 
not 'endure it, as Niger records of some part of Mesopo- 
tamia, now called Diarbecha: Quihusdam in locis scevienH 
(EStui adeo svhjecta est, ut pleraque animalia fervore solis et 
ccdi extingwxnJtur, 'tis so hot there in some places, that men 
of the country and cattle are killed with it ; and f Adrico- 
mius of Arabia Felix, by reason of myrrh, frankincense, and 
hot spices there growing, the air is so obnoxious to their 
brains, that the very inhabitants at some times cannot avoid 
it, much less weaklings and strangers. % Amatus Lusitanus, 
cevd. 1, curcA. 45, reports of a young maid, that was one Vin- 
cent a currier's daughter, some thirteen years of age, that 
would wash her hair in the heat of the day (in July) and so 
let it dry in the sun, * " to make it yellow, but by that means 

1 Nayig. lib. 2, cap. 4, commeTcia nocte kins in his GbserratioiM, sect. 18. ' Hip- 

horft secundSL, ob nhnios qui saevinnt in- pocrates, 8. Aphorismorum idem ait. 

terdin aoBtas, exexoent. > Morbo Galli- t Idem MaginoB in Persia. X Descript. 

CO labcnmntefl, exi>onant ad solem ut Ter. sanctae. ^ Quum ad aolis radios in 

morbofl ezsiocent. * Sir Richard Haw- leone longam moram traheret, ut capilloi 

318 Cau$e$ of Mdanchoiy, (Part. I. sec. S. 

tarrTing too long in the heat, she inflamed her head, and 
made herself mad." 

Cold air in the other extreme is almost as bad as hot, and 
so doth Montaltus esteem of it, e. 11, if it be drj withaL la 
those northern eountries, the people are therefore generally 
dull, heavy, and many witches, which (as I have before quoted) 
Saxo Grammaiicus, Glaus, Baptista Porta ascribe to melan- 
choly. But these eold climes are more subject to natural 
melancholy (not this artificial) which is cold and dry; for 
which cause ^ Mercurius Britannicus belike puts melancholy 
men to inhabit just under the Pole. The worst of the three 
is a ^ thick, cloudy, misty, foggy air, or such as come frooi 
fens, moorish grounds, lakes, muckhills, draughts, sinks, where 
any carcasses or carrion lies, or from whence any stinking 
fulsome smell comes; Galen, Avicenna, Mercuriaiis, new 
and old physicians, bold that such air is unwholesome, and 
engenders melancholy, plagues, and what not? 'Alexan- 
dretta an haven-town in the Mediterranean Sea, Saint John 
de Ulloa, an haven in Nova-Hispania, are much condemned 
fi>r a bad air, so are Durazzo in Albania, Lithuania, Dit* 
marsh, PomptinsB Paludes in Italy, the territories about Pisa* 
Ferrara, &c., Bomney Marsh with us; the Hundreds io 
Essex, the fens in Lincolnshire. Cardan, de rerum varietatey 
/L 17. c. 96, finds fault with the sight of those rich, and most 
populous eities in the Low Countries, as Bruges, Ghent, 
Amsterdam, Leyden, Utrecht, &a, the air is bad ; and so at 
Stockholm in Sweden ; Begium in Italy, Salisbury with us, 
Hull and Lynn; they may be commodious for navigation, 
this new kind of fortification, and many other good necessary 
uses; but are they so wholesome? Gld Home bath de- 
scended from the hills to the valley, 'tis the site of most of 
our new cities, and held best to build in plains, to take the 
opportunity of rivers. Leander Albertus pleads hard for the 
air and site of Venice, though the black Moorish lands ap- 

flatO0 redderet, in mAnlam incidit. aSr, triatem efllcit animam. * Com,. 
1 Mundiis alter et idem, seu Terra A\»- wonly called Scandaroon in Ada Minor, 
tmiis ineofpiitak * CrawoA et turbidux 

Biem. 2, subs. 5.] Bad Air, a Came*^ 319 

pear at every low water; the sea, fire, eaad smoke (as he 
thinks) qualify the air; and ^some suppose that a thick 
foggy air helps thQ i^emory, as in them of Pisa in Italy; 
f^)d our Cambden, out of Fla^to, comn^ends the site of Cam- 
bridge, because it is so near the fens- But let the site oC 
such places be as it may, how can they be e^^cused that havQ 
a delicious seat, a pleasant ajr, and all that nature can afford, 
and yet through their own nastiness, and sluttishness, im- 
mund and sordid manner of life, suffer their air to putrefy, 
and themselves to be choked up ? Many cities in Turkey do 
mcde audire in this kind ; Constantinople itself, where com^ 
monly carrion lies in the street. Some find the same fault 
in Spain, even in Madrid, the king's seat, a most excelleut 
air, a pleasant site ; but the inhablt^ts ^e slovens, and the 
streets uncleanly kept. 

A troublesome, tempestuous air is as bad as impure^ rough, 
and foul weather, impetuous winds, cloudy dark days, as it 13 
commonly with 113, Gedum visu fcedurriy ^ Polydore calls it ft 
^thy sky, et in qtto facile generarUur nubes ; as TuUy'a 
brother Quintus wrote to him in Borne, being then Quaestor 
ia Britain. ^' In a thick and cloudy air (saith Lemnius) men, 
are tetric, sad, and peevish ; And if the western winds blow, 
and that there be a calm, or a fair sunshine day, there is 
a kind of alacrity in men's minds ; it cheers up men and 
beasts ; but if it be a turbulent, rough, cloudy, stormy weath^ 
er, men are sad, lumpish, and much dejected, angry, waspish, 
dull, and melancholy." This was "Virgil's experiment of 

" Verum ubi tempestas, et coeli mobilis humor 
Mutavere vices, et Jupiter humidus Austro, 
Vertuntur species animomm, et pectore motns 
Goncipiunt alios " 

" But when the fkce of heaven changed is 
To tempests, rain, from season fair: 

1 Adas geographiciu. Memoria valent Zephyro, nutxtma In mentibua hominuin 

Pisani, qnod crassiore fruantur ai!re. alacritas existit, mentisque erectio ubi 

s Lib. 1. hist. lib. 2, cap. 41. Aurft dens& telum soils splendore nitescit, Maxima 

ac caliginoeft tetrici homiDes exiatunt, et dejectio moerorque siquando aura caligi- 

subtxistes. et cap. 8, stante subsolano et nosa est. > Oeor. 


320 Causes of Melancholy, [Part I. sec. %, 

Oar minds are altered , and in our breasts 
Forthwith some new conceits appear.** 

And who is not weather-wise against such and such conjunc- 
tions of planets, moved in foul weather, dull and heavy in 
such tempestuous seasons ? ^ Gelidum contrtstat Aquarius 
annum ; the time requires, and the autumn breeds it ; winter 
is like unto it, ugly, foul, squalid, the air works on all men, 
more or less, but especially on such as are melancholy, or in- 
clined to it, as Lemnius holds, ^ " They are most moved with 
it, and those which are already mad, rave downright, either 
in, or against a tempest. Besides, the devil many times 
takes his opportunity of such storms, and when the humours 
by the air be stirred, he goes in with them, exagitates our 
spirits, and vexeth our souls ; as the sea waves, so are the 
spirits and humours in our bodies tossed with tempestuous 
winds and storms." To such as are melancholy, therefore, 
Montanus, consiL 24, will have tempestuous and rough air to 
be avoided, and consiL 27, all night air, and would not have 
them to walk abroad, but in a pleasant day. Lemnius, L 3, 
e, 3, discommends the south and eastern winds, commends 
the north. Montanus, consiL 31, '"wills not any windows 
to be opened in the night." ConsiL 229, et consiL 230, he 
discommends especially the south wind, and nocturnal air; 
so doth * Plutarch. The night and darkness makes men sad, 
the like do all subterranean vaults, dark houses in caves and 
rocks, desert places cause melancholy in an instant, especially 
such as have not been used to it, or otherwise accustomed. 
Read more of air in Hippocrates, JEtius^ L S, a c 171, ad 175. 
Oribasius, d c 1, ad 21, Avicen. /. 1, can. Fen. 2, dx>c. 2, 
Fm. 1, c. 123, to the 12, &c. 

1 Hor. 3 Mens quibus vacillat ab innnuant, eamque rexant, exagitant, et 

alSre cito offenduntur, et multi insani ut fluctus mariDi, humanum corpus 

apud Belgafl ante tempestates sseviunt, ventis agitatur. > A^r noctu densatur, 

aUter quieti. Spiritus quoque aeris et et c<^t moestitiain. ^ lib. de Idde et 

mali genii aliquando se tempestatibus Osjride. 
Ingerunt, et menti humanae se latenter 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Idleness, a Cause. 321 

SuBSECT. VI. — Immoderate Exercise a Cause, and how. 

Solitariness, Idleness. 

Nothing so good but it may be abused ; nothing better 
than exercise (if opportunely used) for the preservation of 
the body ; nothing so bad if it be unseasonable, violent, or 
overmuch. Femelius out of Galen, Path. lib. 1, c. 16, saith, 

* " That much exercise and weariness consumes the spirits 
and substance, refrigerates the body; and such humours 
which Nature would have otherwise concocted and expelled, 
it stirs up and makes them rage ; which being so enraged, 
diversely affect and trouble the body and mind." So doth it, 
if it be unseasonably used, upon a full stomach, or when the 
body is full of crudities, which Fuchsius so much inveighs 
against, lib, 2, instit. sect. 2, c. 4, giving that for a cause why 
school-boys in Germany are so often scabbed, because they 
use exercise presently after meats. ^ Bayerus puts in a 
caveat against such exercise, because " it ' corrupts the meat 
in the stomach, and carries the same juice raw, and as yet 
undigested, into the veins (saith Lemnius), which there 
putrefies and confounds the animal spirits." Crato, consil. 
21, I. 2, * protests against all such exercise after meat, as 
being the greatest enemy to concoction that may be, and 
cause of corruption of humours, which produce this, and 
many other diseases. Not without good reason then doth 
Salust. Salvianus, 1. 2, c. 1, and Leonartus Jacchinus, in 9, 
Rhasis. Mercurialis, Arcubanus, and many other, set down 

* immoderate exercise as a most forcible cause of melancholy. 

Opposite to exercise is idleness (the badge of gentry) or 
want of exercise, the bane of body and mind, the nurse of 
naughtiness, step-mother of discipline, the chief author of all 

1 Multa de&tigatio, sphritus, Tlrlumque que. » In Venl mecum : Llbro sic In- 

gtibstantlam exhaurit, et corpus refrig^ scripto. ^ Instit. ad vit. Christ, cap. 44, 

rat. Humores corruptos qui alitor k natu- cibos crudos in venas rapit, qui putres- 

ra eoncoqui, et domari possint, et demum centes illio spiritus animales inficiunt. 

blandd excludi, irritat, et quasi in furo- < Crudl liaec humoris copia per venas ag- 

rem agit, qui postea mota camerina, tetro greditur, unde morbi multiplices. & Im- 

Tapore corpus yarid lacessunt, animum- modicum exercitium. 

VOL. I. 21 

822 0auie9 of MeUmcholy. [Part. I. sec % 

mischief, one of the seyen deadly sins, and a sole cause of 
this and manj other maladies, the deyil's cashion, as ^ Grual- 
ter calls it, his pillow and chief reposaL " For the mind can 
nerer rest, but still meditates on one thing or other, except it 
he occupied about some honest business, of his own accord it 
rusheth into melancholj. ' As too much and violent exercise 
offends on the one side, so doth an idle life on the other 
(saith Orato), it fills the foody full of phlegm, gross humours, 
and all manner of obstructions, rheums, catarrhs," &c. 
Bfaasis, cant. lih. 1, trtxct, 9, accounts of it as the greatest 
cause of melancholy. * " I have often seen (saith he) that 
idleness begets this humour more than anything else." Mon- 
taltus, c. 1, seconds him out of his experience, *" They that 
are idle are far more subject to melancholy than such as sure 
conversant or employed about any office or business." * Plu- 
tarch reckons up idleness for a sole cause of the sickness of 
the soul : ^^ There are they (saith he) troubled in mind, that 
have no other cause but this." Homer, lUad, 1, brings in 
Achilles eating of his own heart in his idleness, because he 
might not fight. Mercurialis, cannl, 86, for a melancholy 
young man urgeth " it is a diief cause ; why was he melan- 
choly ? because idle. Nothing begets it sooner, increaseth 
and oontinueth it oftener than idleness.' A disease familiar 
to all idle persons, an inseparable companion to such as 
live at ease, Pingui otio desidiose agentee, a life out of action, 
and have no calling or ordinary employment to busy them- 
selves about, that have small occasions; and though they 
have, such is their laziness, dukiess, they will not com- 
pose themselves to do aught; they cannot abide work, 

1 Horn. 81, in 1 Cor. yi. Nam qu& ponitur oUuin ab aliis causa, et hoc Jk 

mens hominis qnieBcere non poetdt, sed nobis obflerratum eos huic malo magis 

continu6 circa yarias cogitationes discur- obnoxios qui plane otiosi sunt, quam eos 

rat, nisi honesto aliquo negotio occupe- qui aliquo munere yersantur exeqnendo. 

tur, ad melanchoUam sponte delabitur. ^ Be Tranquil, animae. Sunt quos ipewn 

s Crato consil. 21. Ut immodica corporis otium in animi conjicit s^ritudinem. 

ezercitatio nocet corporibus, ita Tita * Nihil est quod aequ^ melanchoUam alat 

deses et otiosa : otium animal pituitosum ac augeat, ac otium et abstinentia k cor- 

xeddit, viscerum obstructiones et crebras poiis et animi exercitationibus. ' NI- 

fluxiones, et morbos conoitat. > Et hil magis excaecat intellectum, quam 

Tidi quod una de rebus quae magis gene- otium. Gordonius de obserrat. yit. hum. 

rat melancholiivm, est otiositas. * Re- lib. 1. 

■!■ II1IIMH HIIMIIW Will l| IB ^jl 

Mem. 2, snbs. 6.] Idleness^ a Came. 323 

though it be necessary ; easy as to dress themselves, write a 
letter or the like ; yet as he that is benumbed with cold sits 
still shaking, that might relieve himself with a little exercise 
or stirring do they complain, but will not use the facile and 
ready means to do themselves good ; and so are still tor- 
mented with melancholy. Especially if they have been 
formerly brought up to business, or to keep much company, 
and upon a sudden come to lead a sedentary life ; it crucifies 
their souls, and seizeth on them in an instant; for whilst 
they are any ways employed, in action, discourse, about 
any business, sport or recreation, or in company to their 
liking ; they are very well ; but if alone or idle, tormented 
instantly again ; one day's solitariness, one hour's sometimes, 
doth them more harm, than a week's physic, labour, and 
company can do good. Melancholy seizeth on them forth-' 
with being alone, and is such a torture, that as wise Seneca 
well saith, Mah mihi male quam moUiter esse^ I had rather 
be sick than idle. This idleness is either of body or mind^ 
That of body is nothing but a kind of benumbing laziness, 
intermitting exercise, which if we may believe ^Fernelius, 
" causeth crudities, obstructions, excremental humgurs, quench- 
eth the natural heat, dulls the spirits, and makes them unapt 
to do anything whatsoever." 

2 " Neglectis urenda fllix innasoitur agris." 

" for, a neglected field 
Shall for the fire its thorns and thistles yield." 

As fern grows in untilled grounds, and all manner of weeds, 
so do gross humours in an idle body, Igna/vum corrumpuni 
otia corpus, A horse in a stable that never travels, a hawl^ 
in a mew that seldom flies, are both subject to diseases ; 
which left unto themselves, are most free from any such in- 
cumbrances. An idle dog will be mangy, and how shall an 
idle person think to escape ? Idleness of the mind is much 

1 Path. lib. 1, cap. 17, ezercitationis segniores reddit« cruditates, obstmo- 
Utennissio, inertem colorem, languidos tiones, et excrementonun proyentus t^ 
ipiritus, et ignayofl, et ad omnes actiones cit > Hor. Ser. 1, Sat. 9> 

824 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. L see. 2. 

worse than this of the bodj ; wit without emplojment is a 
disease, '^^Mrugo antmiy ruhigo xngenii : the rust of the seal, 
' a plague, a hell itself, Maximum animi nocumenium, Gralen 
calls it ' ^* As in a standing pool, worms and filthy creepers 
increase (et vitium captunt ni moveantur aqiuB, the water 
itself putrefies, and cur likewise, if it be not continuallj 
stirred by the wind), so do evil and corrupt thoughts in an 
idle person," the soul is contaminated. In a commonwealth, 
where is no public enemy, there is likely civil wars, and they 
rage upon themselves ; this body of ours, when it is idle, and 
knows not how to bestow itself, macerates and yexeth itself 
with cares, griefs, false fears, discontents, and suspicions ; it 
tortures and preys upon his own bowels, and is never at rest 
Thus much I dare boldly say, " He or she that is idle, be 
they of what condition they will, never so rich, so well allied, 
fortunate, happy, let them have all things in abundance and 
felicity that heart can wish and desire, all contentment, so 
long as he or she or they are idle, they shall never be 
pleased, never well in body and mind, but weary still, sickly 
still, vexed still, loathing still, weeping, sighing, grieving, 
suspecting, offended with the world, with every object, wish- 
ing themselves gone or dead, or else carried away with some 
foolish fantasy or other. And this is the true cause that so 
many great men, ladies, and gentlewomen, labour of this dis- 
ease in country and city; for idleness is an appendix to 
nobility; they count it a disgrace to work, and spend all 
their days in sports, recreations, and pastimes, and will there- 
fore take no pains ; be of no vocation ; they feed liberally, 
fiare well, want exercise, action, employment (for to work, I 
say, they may not abide), and company to their desires, and 
thence their bodies become full of gross humours, wind, crudi- 
ties ; their minds disquieted, dull, heavy, &c., care, jealousy, 
fear of some diseases, sullen fits, weeping fits seize too * famil- 
iarly on them. For what will not fear and fantasy work in 

1 Seneca. > Moerorem animi, et ma- malse cogitationes. Sen. * Now this 
dem, Plutarch callB it. > Sicut in leg, now that arm, now their head, heart, 
•tagno generantur yermei, tHo et otioeo &c. 


Mem. 2, subs. 6.] IdlefiesSf a Cause. 825 

an idle body? what distempei^ will they not cause? when 
the children of * Israel murmured against Pharaoh in Egypt, 
he commanded his officers to double their task, and let them 
get straw themselves, and yet make their full number of 
bricks ; for the sole cause why they mutiny, and are evil at 
ease is, " they are idle." When you shall hear and see so 
many discontented persons in all places where you come, 
so many several grievances, unnecessary complaints, fear, 
suspicionSjt the best means to redress it is to set them awork, 
so to busy their minds ; for the truth is, they are idle. Well 
they may build castles in the air for a time, and soothe up 
themselves with fantastical and pleasant humours, but in the 
end they will prove as bitter as gall, they shall be still I say 
discontent, suspicious, ^ fearful, jealous, sad, fretting and vex- 
ing of themselves ; so long as they be idle, it is impossible to 
please them, Otto qui nescit tiii, plus hahet negotii quam qui 
negotium in negotio, as that ^ Agellius could observe : He 
that knows not how to spend his time, hath more business, 
care, grief, anguish of mind, than he that is most busy in the 
midst of all his business, Otiosus animus nescit quid volet : 
An idle person (as he follows it) knows not when he is well, 
what he would have, or whither he would go, Quum iUuc 
ventum est iUinc luhet, he is tired out with everything, dis- 
pleased with all, weary of his life ; Nee bene domi, nee militia 
neither at home nor abroad, errat, et prceter vitam vivitur, 
he wanders and lives besides himself. In a word, What the 
mischievous effects of laziness and idleness are, I do not find 
anywhere more accurately expressed, than in these verses of 
I^hilolaches in the J Comical Poet, which for their elegancy 
1 will in part insert. 

" Novamm sedium esse arbitror similem ego hominem, 
Qnando hie natns est: Ei rei argumenta dicam. 
JEdes qnando sunt ad amussim expolitss, 
Quisque laudat fabrum, atque exemplum, ezpetit, &c. 

*Exod. T. t (For they cannot well Pigmm dcijicit timor. Heantontlmom 

tell what aileth them, or what they would menon. a lib. 19, o. 10. t Plantui, 

have themflelres) my heart, my head, my Prol. Mostel. 
husband, my son, &o. ^ Pror. xviii. 

826 Catues of Mdomchdy. [Part L sec. S 

At abi (116 migmt nequam homo indiligensqae, &c. 
Temp«BtM Tonit, oonfiringit togulas, imbrieeeque, 
Pntrifacit aer operam fabri, &c. 
t>icam ut homiues similes CAse sedium arbitremini, 
Fabri parentes fundamentum substmunt liberomm, 
Ezpoliant, doeent literaSi nee paroniit snmptai, 
Ego autem sub fabromm potettate fragi fui, 
Postquam autem migravi in ingenium meom, 
Perdidi operam fabromm illic6, oppidb, 
Venit ignavia, ea mihi tempestas fuit, 
Adventuque suo grandinem et imbrem attnlit, 
Ilia mihi virtutem deturbaTit, &o." 

^ A young man is like a fair new bouse, the carpenter leaves 
it well built, in good repair, of solid stuff; but a bad tenant 
lets it rain in, and for want of reparation, fall to decay, &c. 
Our parents, tutors, friends, spare no cost to bring us up in 
our youth, in all manner of virtuous education ; but when 
we are lefl to ourselves, idleness as a tempest drives all 
virtuous motions out of our minds, et nihili sumus, on a 
sudden, by sloth and such bad ways, we come to nought" 
Cousin-german to idleness, and a concomitant cause, which 
goes hand in hand with it, is ^nimia soUtudo. too mych soli- 
tariness, by the testimony of all physicians, cause and symp- 
tom "^olh ; but as it is here put for a cause it is either coact, 
enforced, or else voluntarily. Enforced solitariness is com- 
monly seen in students, monks, friars, anchorites, that by 
their order and course of life must abandon all company, 
society of other men, and betake themselves to a private 
cell ; Otio mperstitioso seclust, as Bale and Hospinian well 
teiTn it, such as are the Carthusians of our time, that eat no 
flesh (by their order), keep perpetual silence, never go 
abroad. Such as live in prison, or some desert place, and 
cannot have company, as many of our country gentlemen do 
in solitary houses, they must either be alone without com- 
panions, or live beyond their means, and entertain all comers 
as so many hosts, or else converse with their servants and 
hinds, such as are unequal, inferior to them, and of a con- 

1 Piso, Montaltiu, MercnilaUB, &o. 



Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Idleness^ a Cause. 327 

traoy disposition ; or else as some doy to avoid solitariness, 
spend their time with lewd fellows in taverns, and in ale- 
bouses, and thence addict themselyes to some unlawful dia^ 
ports, or dissolute courses. Divers again are cast upon this 
rock of solitariness for want of means, or out of a strong 
apprehension of some infirmity, disgrace, or through bashful- 
neds, rudeness, simplicitj, thej cannot apply themselves to 
others* company. NvJdum solum infelici gratius solttuditM, 
vM nuUus sit qui miseriam exp^hret; this enforced solitari- 
ness takes place, and produceth his effect soonest in such as 
have spent their time jovially, peradventure in all honest 
recreations, in good company, in some great family or popu- 
lous city, and are upon a sudden confined to a desert coun- 
try cottage far off, restrained of their liberty, and barred from 
their ordinary associates ; solitariness is very irksome to 
such, most tedious, and a sudden cause of great incon- 

Voluntary solitariness is that which is familiar with melan- 
choly, and gently brings on like a siren, a shoeing-horn, or 
some sphinx to this irrevocable gulf, ^ a primary cause, Piso 
calls it ; most pleasant it is at first, to such as are melancholy 
given, to lie in bed whole days, and keep their chambers, to 
walk alone in some solitary grove, betwixt wood and water, 
by a brook side, to meditate upon some delightsome and 
pleasant subject, which shall affect them most ; amahilis in- 
sania, et mentis gratissimus error ; a most incomparable de- 
light it is so to melancholize, and build castles in the air, to 
go smiling to themselves, acting an infinite variety of parts, 
which they suppose and strongly imagine they represent, or 
that they see acted or done ; Mand(B quidem ah initio, saith 
Lemnius, to conceive and meditate of such pleasant things, 
sometimes, *" present, past, or to come," as Rhasis speaks. 
So delightsome these toys are at first, they could spend whole 
days and nights without sleep, even whole years alone in 

1 A qtdbas malum, yelut 4 primuria ctinda reram praasentium, pnBteriliuiiiii, 
caiua, occasionem nactum est > Jn- et fatuiarom meditatio. 

328 Came$ of MeUmchdy. [Part. L sec. s. 

such contemplations, and fantastical meditations, which are 
like unto dreams, and thej will hardly be drawn &om them, 
or willingly intermpt, so pleasant their vain conceits are, that 
they hinder their ordinary tasks and necessary business, they 
cannot address themselves to them, or almost to any study or 
employment, these fantastical and bewitching thoughts so 
covertly, so feelingly, so urgently, so continually set upon, 
creep in, insinuate, possess, overcome, distract, and detain 
them, they cannot, I say, go about their more necessary 
business, stave off or extricate themselves, but are ever 
musing, melancholizing, and carried along, as he (they say) 
that is led round about a heath with a Puck in the night, 
they run earnestly on«in this labyrinth of anxious and solic- 
itous melancholy meditations, and cannot well or willingly 
refrain, or easily leave off, winding and unwinding them- 
selves, as so many clocks, and still pleasing their humours, 
until at last the scene is turned upon a sudden, by some 
bad object, and they being now habituated to such vain 
meditations and solitary places, can endure no company, 
can ruminate of nothing but harsh and distasteful subjects. 
Fear, sorrow, suspicion, subntsticus pudar, discontent, cares, 
and weariness of life surprise them in a moment, and they 
can think of nothing else, continually suspecting, no sooner 
are their eyes open, but this infernal plague of melancholy 
seizeth on them, and terrifies their souls, representing some 
dismal object to their minds, which now by no means, no 
labour, no persuasions they can avoid, hceret laJteri UtkaUs 
arundo (the arrow of death still remains in the side), they 
may not be rid of it, ^ they cannot resist. I may not deny 
but that there is some profitable meditation, contemplation, 
and kind of solitariness to be embraced, which the fathers 
so highly commended, » Hierom, Chrysostom, Cyprian, Aus- 
tin, in whole tracts, which Petrarch, Erasmus, Stella, and 

1 Facilifl descensiu ATernl : Sed reyo- dinem ParadiBUin : solum seorpionlbiu 

eaxe gradum, superasque eTadere ad infectom, sacco amictus, hami cabaiu, 

annul, EDo labor, hoc opus est. Virg. aqua et herbis rictitaxui, RomaoJs pro- 

* HieronimuB ep. 72. dixit oppida et tulit deliciis. 
urbes Tideri sibi tetros caroeres, solltu- 

Mem. 2f subs. 6.] Idleness, a Cause. 329 

others, so much magnify in their books ; a paradise, a heaven 
on earth, if it be used aright, good for the body, and better 
for the soul ; as many of those old monks used it, to divine 
contemplations, as Simulus a courtier in Adrian's time, Dio- 
clesian the emperor, retired themselves, &c., in that sense, 
Vatia solus scit vivere, Vatia lives alone, which the Romans 
were wont to say, when they commended a country life. Or 
to the bettering of their knowledge, as Democritus, Cleanthus, 
and those excellent philosophers have ever done, to sequester 
themselves from the tumultuous world, or as in Pliny's villa 
Laurentana, Tully's Tusculan, Jovius's study, that they might 
better vacare sttidus et Deo, serve Grod, and follow their 
studies. Methinks, therefoi*e, our too zealous innovators 
were not so well advised in that general subversion of 
abbeys and religious houses, promiscuously to fling down 
all ; they might have taken away those gross abuses crept 
in amongst them, rectified such inconveniences, and not so 
far to hav(i raved and raged against those fair buildings, and 
everlasting monuments of our forefathers' devotion, conse- 
crated to pious uses ; some monasteries and collegiate cells 
might have been well spared, and their revenues otherwise em- 
ployed, here and there one, in good towns or cities at least 
for men and women of all sorts and conditions to live in, to 
sequester themselves from the cares and tumults of the world, 
that were not desirous, or fit to marry ; or otherwise willing 
to be troubled with common affairs, and know not well where 
to bestow themselves, to live apart in, for more conveniency, 
good education, better company sake, to follow their studies 
(I say), to the perfection of arts and sciences, common good 
and as some truly devoted monks of old had done, freely and 
truly to serve Gk)d. For these men are neither solitary, nor 
idle, as the poet made answer to the husbandman in ^sop, 
that objected idleness to him ; he was never so idle as in his 
company ; or that Scipio Africanus in * TuUy, Nunqtmm 
minus solas, quam cum sohis ; nunquam minus oHosus, quam 

1 Offlo. 8. 


830 Caiii»e$ of Meksnchdy. [Part. L sec. %, 

quum esset otiosus ; never less solitarj, than when he waa 
alone, never more busy, than when he seemed to be most 
idle. It is reported by Plato in his dialogue de Amorsy in 
that prodigious commendation of Socrates, how a deep medi- 
^ion coming into Socrates's mind by chance, he stood still 
musing, eodem veitigio cogitcbbundus, from morning to noon, 
and when as then he had not yet finished his meditation, 
perstabat cogitans, he so continued till the evening, the sol- 
diers (for he then followed the camp) observed him with 
admiration, and on set purpose watched all night, but he 
persevered immovable <zd exortum solis, till the sun rose in 
the morning, and then saluting the sun went his ways. In 
what humour constant Socrates did thus, I know not, or how 
he might be affected, but this would be pernicious to another 
man ; what intricate business might so really possess him, I 
cannot easily guess ; but this is otiosum otium, it is far other- 
wise with these men, according to Seneca, Omnia nMs mala 
soUtudo persuadet ; this solitude undoeth us, pugnat cum vitd 
sociali ; 'tis a destructive solitariness. These men are devils 
alone, as the saying is. Homo solus aut Deus, avi Dcemon: 
a man alone, is either a saint or a devil, mens ejus aut Ian- 
guesdty aut tumescit ; and * Vce soli in this sense, woe be to 
him that is so alone. These wretches do frequently degener- 
ate from men, and of sociable creatures become beasts, mon- 
sters, inhumane, ugly to behold, Mlsanthropi ; they do even 
loathe themselves, and hate the company of men, as so many 
Timons, Nebuchadnezzars, by too much indulging to these 
pleasing humours, and through their own default. So that 
which Mercurialis, consiL 11, sometimes expostulated with 
his melancholy patient, may be justly applied to every soli- 
tary and idle person in particular. '^Natura de te videtur 
conquen posse, Sfc. " Nature may justly complain of thee, 
that whereas she gave thee a good wholesome temperature, a 

* Bccl. 4. 1 Natura de te Tidetur con- tempsisti modo, yemm corrupisti, m- 

queri posse, quod crun ab ea temperatis- dastl, prodidlsti, optimam tempemttmin 

simam corpus adeptus sis, tam prse- otio, crapuli, et aliis vitss erroribus, &e. 
clarum k "Deo ac atUe donum, non oon- 

Mem. 2, subs. 7.] Sleeping and Waking, Causes. 331 

sound body, and God hath given thee so divine and excel- 
lent a soul, so many good parts, and profitable gifls, thou 
hast not only contemned and rejected, but hast corrupted 
them, polluted them, overthrown their temperature, and per- 
verted those gifts with riot, idleness, solitariness, and many 
other ways, thou art a traitor to Grod and nature, an enemy 
to thyself and to the world." Perditio tim ex te ; thou hast 
lost thyself wilfully, cast away thyself, " thou thyself art the 
efficient cause of thine own misery, by not resisting such vain 
cogitations, but giving way unto them." 

SuBSECT. VII. — Sleeping and Waking, Causes. 

What I have formerly said of exercise, I may now repeat 
of sleep. Nothing better than moderate sleep, nothing worse 
than it, if it be in extremes, or unseasonably used. It is a 
received opinion, that a melancholy man cannot sleep over- 
much ; Somnus supra modum prodest, as an only antidote, 
and nothing offends them more, or causeth this malady 
sooner, than waking, yet in some cases sleep may do more 
harm than good, in that phlegmatic, swinish, cold, and slug- 
gish melancholy which Melancthon speaks of, that thinks of 
waters, sighing most part, &c. * It dulls the spirits, if over- 
much, and senses ; fills the head full of gross humours ; caus- 
eth distillations, rheums, great store of excrements in the 
brain, and all the other parts, as * Fuchsius speaks of them, 
that sleep like so many dormice. Or if it be used in the 
daytime, upon a fiill stomach, the body ill-composed to rest, 
or afler hard meats, it increaseth fearful dreams, incubus, 
night walking, crjdng out, and much unquietness ; such sleep 
prepares the body, as • one observes, " to many perilous dis- 
eases." But as I have said, waking overmuch, is both a 
symptom, and an ordinary cause. " It causeth dryness of the 
brain, frenzy, dotage, and makes the body dry, lean, hard, 

1 Path. lib. cap. 17. Fernel. corpus bro et aliis paitlbas eoQMrrat. * Jo 

inftigidat, omnes sensus, mentisque'Tlres Ratdas lib, de rebus 6 non naturalibus. 

torpore debilitat. a lib. 2, sect. 2, Prseparat corbus talis somnus ad mul- 

;ap. 4 Magnam excrementorum yim cere- tas periculosas 8^;ritudine8. 

832 Causes of Melancholy, [Part. I. see. 2. 

and ugly to behold," as ^ Lemnius hath it. " The tempera- 
ture of the brain is corrupted bj it, the humours adust, the 
eyes made to sink into the head, choler increased, and the 
whole body inflamed ; " and, as may be added out of Galen 
3, de sanitate tuendd, Aviccnna 3, 1. ' " It overthrows the 
natural heat, it causeth crudities, hurts concoction," and wha£ 
not? Not without good cause therefore Crato cansiL 21, lib, 
2 ; Hildesheim, spicel. 2, de Delir, et Mania, Jacchinus, 
Arculanus on Rhasis, Guianerius and Mercurialis, reckon up 
this overmuch waking as a principal cause. 

MEMB. m. 

SuBSECT. I. — Passions and Perturbations of the Mind, how 

they cause Melancholy, 

As that gymnosophist in * Plutarch made answer to Alex- 
ander (demanding which spake best). Every one of his fel- 
lows did speak better than other; so I may say of these 
causes ; to him that shall require which is the greatest, every 
one is more grievous than the other, and this of passion the 
greatest of all. A most frequent and ordinary cause of 
melancholy, ^fulmen perturbationum (Piccolomineus calls it) 
this thunder and lightning of perturbation, which causeth 
such violent and speedy alterations in this our microcosm, 
and many times subverts the good estate and temperature of 
it For as the body works upon the mind by his bad hu- 
mours, troubling the spirits, sending gross fumes into the 
brain, and so per consequens disturbing the soul, and all 
the faculties of it, 

1 Instit. ad yitam optimam cap. 26, profandos reddit ooulos, ealorem anget. 
eerebro siccitatem adfert, phrenesin et s NatunJem ealorem dissipat, laesft con- 
delirium, corpu aridum &cit, squall- coctione cruditates &cit. Attenuant Ja- 
dum, strigosum, humores adurit, tempe- venum yigilatsB corpora noctes. > "Hta 
ramentum cerebri corrompit, maciem Alexan. * Grad. 1, c. 14. 
inducit : exsiccat corpus, bilem acoendlt. 

Mem. 8, subs. 1.] Perturbations of the Mind, 333 

* " Corpus onustum, 
Hestemis vitiis animum quoque prsegravat una," 

with fear, sorrow, &c., which are ordinary symptoms of this 
disease ; so on the other side, the mind most effectually works 
upon the body, producing by his passions and perturbations 
miraculous alterations, as melancholy, despair, cruel diseases, 
and sometimes death itself. Insomuch that it is most true 
which Plato saith in his Charmides, omnia corporis mala ah 
animd procedere ; all the * mischiefs of the body proc(«d 
from the soul ; and Democritus in ^ Plutarch urgeth. Dam- 
natum iri animam a corpore, if the body should in this be- 
half bring an action against the soul, surely the soul would be 
cast and convicted, that by her supine negligence had caused 
Buch inconveniences, having authority over the body, and 
using it for an instrument, as a smith does his hammer (saith 
•Cyprian), imputing all those vices and maladies to the 
mind. Even so do * Philostratus, non coinquinatur corpus, 
nisi consensu animce ; the body is not corrupted, but by the 
soul. Lodovicus Vives will have such turbulent commotions 
proceed from ignorance and indiscretion.* All philosophers 
impute the mip,enes of the body to the soul, that should have 
governed it better, by command of reason, and hath not done 
it The StoJcs are altogether of opinion (as ' Lipsius and 
^ Piccolomineus record), that a wise man should be ana^c, 
without all manner of passions and perturbations whatsoever, 
as ® Seneca reports of Cato, the • Greeks of Socrates, and ^° lo. 
Aubanus of a nation in Africa, so free from passion, or rather 
so stupid, that if they be wounded with a sword, they will 
only look back. ^^Lactantius 2 instit. will exclude "fear 
from a wise man ; " others except all, some the greatest 
passions. But let them dispute how they will, set down 
in Thesi, give precepts to the contrary; we find that of 

*Hor. "The body oppressed bv jester- lony lib. 1. ^ Lib. de anim. ab ineon- 

day's vices wdghs down the spirit also." siderantla, et Ignorantia omnes anlmi 

1 Perturbationes clavi sunt, qulbus cor- motus. o De Physiol. Stoic. ? Grad. 

pori animus sen patlbaloaflSgltar. Jamb. 1, c. 82. s Epist. 104. ^iKIianus. 

de mist. > Lib. de sanitat. tuend. lo Lib. 1, cap. 6, si qnis ense percusseilt 

s Prolog, de virtu te Christ!; Qosa utltnr eos, tantum respiclunt. n Terror in 

eorpore, ut fliber malleo. * Vita Apol- sapiente esse non debet. 


334 Cause$ of Melancholy, [Part. I. sec %, 

1 Lemnius true by common experience ; " No mortal man is 
free from these perturbations ; or if be be so, sure he is either 
a god, or a block." Thej are bom and bred with us, we 
have them from our parents by inheritance. A parentibut 
habemus malum hunc cusem, saith 'Pelezius, Nascitur und 
nolnscum, cditurqtie, 'tis propagated from Adam, Cain was 
melancholy, *as Austin hath it, and who is not? Good 
discipline, education, philosophy, divinity (I cannot deny), 
may mitigate and restrain these passions in some few men at 
some times, but most part they domineer, and are so violent, 
* that as a torrent (torrens velut aggere rupto) bears down all 
before, and overflows his banks, stemit agro$, stemit satOj 
(lays waste the fields, prostrates the crops,) they overwhelm 
reason, judgment, and pervert the temperature of the body ; 
Fertur ^ equii auriga^ nee audit cumts hahenas. Now such 
a man (saith * Austin), ^ that is so led, in a wise man's eye, 
is no better than he that stands upon his head." It is 
doubted by some, Grcmoreme morln a pertarhationibus, an 
ab humoribus, whether humours or perturbations cause the 
more grievous maladies. But we find that of our Saviour, 
Mat XX vi. 41, most true, ^' The spirit is willing, the flesh is 
weak," we cannot resist ; and this of • Philo Judaeus, " Per- 
turbations oflen offend the body, and are most frequent 
causes of melancholy, turning it out of the hinges of his 
health." Vives compares them to *" Winds upon the sea, 
some only move as those great gales, but others turbulent 
quite overturn the ship." Those which are light, easy, and 
more seldom, to our thinking, do us little harm, and 
are therefore contemned of us; yet if they be reiterated, 

I De occult, nat. mfr. 1. 1. o. 16. cal. paniones mazlind corpus offisndont 

Nemo mortoUum qui afliactibus noa da- et animam, et ftequentiaaimsB causa 

catur: qui non moyetur, aut saxum, melancholiae, dimoTontos ab ingenio et 

aut deus est. > Instit. 1. 2. de hu- sanitate pristina. I 8, de anima. 7 Pne. 

manorum affect, morborumque cunt, na et stimuli animi, Telut in mari que- 

* Bpist. 105. > Qranatensis. * Virg. dam aune leres, qusBdam placidsB, quj»- 

i De civit. Dei, 1. 14, c. 0, qualis in dam turbulentae: sic in corpore qusB- 

oculis hominum qui inrersis pedibus dam afliactiones excitant tantum,qnsedam 

unbulat, talis, in oculis sapientum, cui ita morent at de statu judicil depd- 

pasiii o ne s dominantur. * Lib. de De- lant. 

Mem. 8, subs. 1.] Perturbations of the Mind. 335 

^ ^' as the rain (saith Austin) doth a stone, so do these pertur- 
bations penetrate the mind ; " ^ and (as one observes) " pro- 
duce a habit of melancholy at the last, which having gotten 
the masterj in our souls, may well be called diseases." 

How these passions produce this effect, ^Agrippa hath 
handled at large, Occult. Philos. l. 11, c. 63, Cardan, L 14, 
guhtil, Lemnius, I, 1, c. \^^ de opcuU. not. mir, et lib, 1, cap. 
16, Suarez, Met, disptU. 18, sect. 1, art. 25, T. Bright, cap. 
12, of his Melancholy Treatise. Wright the Jesuit in his 
book of the Passions of the Mind, &c Thus in brief, to our 
imagination cometh by the outward sense or memory, some 
object to be known (residing in the foremost part of the 
brain), which he misconceiving or amplifying presently 
communicates to the heart, the seat of all affections. The 
pure spirits forthwith flock from the brain to the heart, by 
certain secret channels, and signify what good or bad object 
-was presented ; ^ which immediately bends itself to prosecute, 
or avoid it ; and withal draweth with it other humours to help 
it; so in pleasure, concur great store of purer spirits; in 
sadness, much melancholy blood ; in ire, choler. If the imag- 
ination be very apprehensive, intent, and violent, it sends 
great store of spirits to, or from the heart, and makes a 
deeper impression, and greater tumult, as. the humours in the 
body be likewise prepared, and the temperature itself ill or 
well disposed, the passions are longer and stronger ; so that 
the first step and fountain of all our grievances in this kind, 
is '^kesa imaginatio, which misinforming the heart, causeth 
all these distemperatures, alteration, and confusion of spirits 
and humours. By means of which, so disturbed, concoction 
is hindered, and the principal parte are much debilitated; 
as ^ Dr. Navarra well declared, being consulted by Montanus 

1 Ut gutta lapidem, sic paulatim hm causeth distemperatnre of the body.'' 

penetrant animum. < Usn Talentes * Spiritus et sanguis k laesa imaginatione 

ractd morbi animi Tocantur. * Imag- eontaminantur, humores enim mutati 

tnatio moTet corpus, ad ev^as motum actiones animi immntant, Piso. > Mon- 

excitantur humores, et spiritus yitiJes, tani, oonsil. 22. Hae Tero quomodo caa-. 

qnibus alteratur. * lujcles. ziii. 26. sent melanchoUam, clarum ; et quod eon^ 

"The heart alters the oeojitenMiee to coctionem impediant, et membra prin^ 

good or eyil, and distraction of the mind oij^alia debiUteat. 

336 Causes of Melanchofy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

about a melancholy Jew. The spirits so confounded, the 
nourishment must needs be abated, bad humours increased, 
crudities and thick spirits engendered with melancholy blood. 
The other parts cannot perform their functions, having the 
spirits drawn from them by vehement passion, but fail in 
sense and motion ; so we look upon a thing, and see it not ; 
hear, and observe not; which otherwise would much affect 
us, had we been free. I may therefore conclude with * Ar- 
noldus, Maxima vis est phantasicBy et huic unifere, non atUeni 
corporis intemperiei, omnis melancholia causa est txscribenda; 
" Great is the force of imagination, and much more ought the 
cause of melancholy to be ascribed to this alone, than to the 
distemperature of the body." Of which imagination, because 
it hath so great a stroke in producing this malady, and is so 
powerful of itself, it will not be improper to my discourse, to 
make a brief digression, and speak of the force of it, and how 
it causeth this alteration. Which manner of digression how- 
soever some dislike, as frivolous and impertinent, yet I am 
of * Beroaldus*3 opinion, ** Such digressions do mightily de- 
light and refresh a weary reader, they are like sauce to a 
bad stomach, and I do therefore most willingly use them." 

SuBSECT. II. — Of the force of Imagination. 

What imagination is, I have sufficiently declared in my 
digression of the anatomy of the soul. I will only now point 
at the wonderful eflfects and power of it ; which, as it is emi- 
nent in all, so most especially it rageth in melancholy per- 
sons, in keeping the species of objects so long, mistaking, 
amplifying them by continual and " strong meditation, until 
at length it produceth in some parties real effects, causeth 
this and many other maladies. And although this fantasy 
of ours be a subordinate faculty to reason, and should be 
ruled by it, yet in many men, through inward or outward 

1 Breyiar. I. 1, cap. 18. * Solent libenter excarro. > Ab imaginatione 

hY^usmodi ^ressiones &yorabiliter ob- oriuntur f^ectiones, quibns anima com- 

lectare, et lectorem lassum jucundd ref- ponitur, aut turbata deturbator, Jo. 

oyere, stomachumque nauseantein, quo- Sarisbur. Matolog. lib. 4, o. 10. 
dam quasi oondimento reficeze, et ego 

Mem. 8, subs. 2.] Of the Force of Imagination, 337 

distemperatures, defect of organs, which are unapt, or other- 
wise contaminated, it is likewise unapt, or hindered, and hurt. 
This we see verified in sleepers, which by reason of humours 
and concourse of vapours troubling the fantasy, imagine many 
times absurd and prodigious things, and in such as are troub- 
led with incubus, or witch-ridden (as we call it), if they lie on 
their backs, they suppose an old woman rides, and sits so 
hard upon them, that they are almost stifled for want of 
breath ; when there is nothing offends, but a concourse of bad 
humours, which trouble the fantasy. This is likewise evi- 
dent in such as walk in the night in their sleep, and do 
strange feats ; ^ these vapours move the fantasy, the fantasy 
the appetite, which moving the animal spirits causeth the 
body to walk up and down as if they were awake. Fracast. 
L 3, de intellect, refers all ecstasies to this force of imagina- 
tion such as lie whole days together in a trance; as that 
priest whom ^Celsus speaks of, that could separate himself 
from his senses when he list, and lie like a dead man, void of 
life and sense. Cardan brags of himself, that he could do as 
much, and that when he list. Many times such men when 
they come to themselves, tell strange things of heaven and 
hell, what visions they have seen ; as that St. Owen, in Mat- 
thew Paris, that went into St. Patrick's purgatory, and the 
monk of Evesham in the same author. Those common ap- 
paritions in Bede and Gregory, Saint Bridget's revelations, 
Wier. L 3, de lamiis, c, 11. Caesar Vanninus, in his Dia- 
logues, &c., reduceth (as I have formerly said), with all those 
tales of witches* progresses, dancing, riding, transformations, 
operations, &c., to the force of * imagination, and the * devil's 
illusions. The like effects almost are to be seen in such as 
are awake ; how many chimeras, antics, golden mountains 
and castles in the air do they build unto themselves ? I 

1 Scalig. exercit. 3 Qui quoties TOle- phantasiam r^t, dncitque ad loca ab 

bat, mortuo similis jacebat auferens se k, ipsis desiderata, corpora vero earxim sine 

aensibus, et quum pungeretur dolorem sensu permanent, qusB umbra cooperit 

aon sensit. ^ Idem Njmannus orat. de diabolus, ut nulli sint conspicua, et post, 

Imaginat. * Verbis et unctionibuB se umbrl sublatSl, propriis corporibus eaa 

eensecrant dsemoni pessimaB mnlieres, restituit. 1. 8, c. 11, Wier 
qui iiB ad opus suum utitur, et earum 

VOL. I. 22 

98$ 0au$e9 of Mebmchofy. [PartLse^s. 

appeij to painters, mechanicians, mathematicians. Some 
Ascribe all vices to a false and corrupt imagination, anger, 
revenge, lust, ambition, covetousness, which prefers falsehood 
before that which is right and good, deluding the soul with 
fals^ shows and suppositions, I B^rnardus Penottus will 
have heresj and superstition to {Mtxseed from this fountain ; 
us he falsely imagineth, so be believetb ; and as he oonceiy* 
Qth of it, so it must be, and it shall be, e<nUra gente$, he will 
have it so, But most especially in passions and affections, \i 
shows strange and evident effects; what will not a fearful 
man conceive in the dark? What strange forms of bug* 
bears, devils, witches, goblins ? I^vater imputes the greatest 
(Oause of spectrums, and the like apparitions, to fear, which 
l^ve all other passions begets the strongest imagination 
(aaith 'Wierus), and so likewise, love, sorrow, joy, &c 
Some die suddenly, as sh^ that saw hi^r son come from the 
biittle at CannsB, <&c Jacob the patriarch, by force of imagit 
nation, made speckled lambs, laying speckled rods before his 
0heep. Persina that Ethiopian queen in Heliodorus, by 
feeing the picture of Perseus and Andromeda, instead of a 
blackamoor, was brought to bed of a fair white child. In 
imitation of whom belike, a hard-favoured fellow in Greece, 
because he and his wife were both deformed, to get a good 
brood of children, JSleganiis9ima$ imagines in thalamo eoJkh 
oavitf Sfc.^ hung the fairest pictures he could buy for money 
in bis chamber, ^ That bis wife by frequent sight of them, 
might conceive and bear such children," And if we may be* 
lieve Bale, on^ of Pope Nicholas the Third's concubines by 
seeing of ' a bear was brought to bed of a monster, ^^ If a 
woman (saith ^ Lemnius), at the time of her conception think 
of another man present or absent, the child will be like him.'' 
Great-bellied women, when they long, yield us prodigious 
examples in this kind, as moles, warts, scars, harelips, mon- 

i Denarlo medico. > Solet timor, pm cap. 4, da ooeolt. aat. mir. si inter am*, 

omnibug affectibiif, Ibrtes imaginationes plexus et soaTia cogitet de uno, aut aljiv 

fignere, post, amor, |bc, 1. 8, o. 8. abaentiei (|)QB efl^ies soiet in Ibetu elacwii 
Xx Tiso urso, talem peperit. * Lib. 1| 

Mem. 3, subs. 8.] Of the Force of Imet^natton, 339 

aters, especiallj caused in their cbildreu by force of a de^ 
praved fantasy in them : Ipsam speeiem quam antmo effi^iaij 
fosim indudt : She imprints that stamp upon her child which 
she ^ conceives unto herself. And therefore Lodovicus Vives, 
Kb, 2, de Christ, fcem, gives a special caution to great-bellied 
women, ^ " That they do not admit such absurd conceits and 
cogitations, but by all means avoid those horrible objects, 
heard or seen, or filthy spectacles." Some will laugh, weep, 
sigh, groan, blush, tremble, sweat, at such things as are sug- 
gested unto them by their imagination. Avicenna speaks of 
one that could cast himself into a palsy when he list ; and 
some can imitate the tunes of birds and beasts that they can 
hardly be discerned ; Dagebertus's and Saint Francis's scars 
and wounds, like those of Christ's (if at the least any such 
were), 'Agrippa supposeth to have happened by force of imagi- 
nation ; that some are turned to wolves, from men to women, 
and women again to men (which is constantly believed) to 
the same imagination ; or ^m men to asses, dogs, or any 
other shapes. ^ Wierus ascribes all those famous transforma- 
tions to imagination ; that in hydrophobia they seem to see 
the picture of a dog, still in their water, '^that melancholy 
men and sick men conceive so many fantastical visions, ap- 
paritions to themselves, and have such absurd apparitions, a9 
that they are kings, lords, cocks, bears, apes, owls; that they 
are heavy, light, transparent, great and little, senseless and 
dead (as shall be showed more at large, in our * sections of 
symptoms), can be imputed to nought else, but to a corrupt, 
false, and violent imagination. It works not in sick and 
melancholy men only, but even most forcibly sometimes is 
such as are sound ; it makes them suddenly sick, and * alters 

I Qald non fetni adhuc matri naito, gwt«iit, admittaat absurds* eogitatioBM^ 

tabitA spirituutai yibratione per nervofl, sed et 'nsn, auditaque foeda et horrenda 

qnibus matrix cerebro coi^uncta est, im- devitent. ^ Occult. Philos. lib. 1, cap. 

primit impreffoatn imagiuatio? ut si 94. ^ Lib. 8, de Lamiis, cap. 10. 

unagfaMtur malum g^raDatum, illius notus & Agprippa, Hb. 1, eap. 64. * Seet. 9^ 

iwum proferet ftetus : Si leporem, infans memb. 1, subsect. 8- * Malleus maleflo. 

editur supremo labello blfldo, et disseeto : fol. 77, corpus muter! potest in divennt 

Vehemena coji^tatio moTet rerum speeiee. sBgrltudiMB, ex lt>rti aj^reheuBionak 
WIer. lib. 8, cap. 8. < Ne dum 

340 Oau9ei of Mdanehofy. [Ptrc L aec l. 

their temperature in an instant And sometimes a strong 
conceit or apprehension, as ^ Yalesius proves, will take away 
diseases ; in both kinds it will produce real effects. Men, if 
the J see but another man tremble, giddj or sick of some fear- 
ful disease, their apprehension and fear is so strong in this 
kind, that thej will have the same disease. Or if bj some 
soothsayer, wiseman, fortune-teller, or phjsidan, they be told 
they shaU have such a disease, they will so seriously appre- 
hend it, that they will instantly labour of it A thing familiar 
in China (saith Ricdus the Jesuit), '" If it be told them they 
■haU be sick on such a day, when that day comes they will 
surely be sick, and will be so terribly afflicted, that sometimes 
they die upon it" Dr. Gotta in his discovery of ignorant 
practitioners of physic, ccqf. 8, hath two strange stories to this 
purpose, what fancy is able to do. The one of a parson's 
wife in Northamptonshire, An. 1607, that coming to a physi- 
cian, and told by him that she was troubled with the sciatica, 
as he conjectured (a disease she was free from), the same 
night afler her return, upon his words, fell into a grievous fit 
of a sciatica ; and such another example he hath of another 
good wife, that was so troubled with the cramp, after the 
same manner she came by it, because her physician did but 
name it. Sometimes death itself is caused by force of fan- 
tasy. I have heard of one that coming by chance in com- 
pany of him that was thought to be sick of the plague (which 
was not so) fell down suddenly dead. Another was sick of 
the plague with conceit One seeing his fellow let blood falls 
down in a swoon. Another (saith * Cardan out of Aristotle), 
fell down dead (which is familiar to women at any ghastly 
I Bight), seeing but a man hanged. A Jew in France (saith 

* Lodovicus Vives), came by chance over a dangerous pas- 
sage or plank, that lay over a brook in the dark, without 

1 Fr. Va]«8. 1. 6, oont. 6, nonnanqaam tali die eos morbo eorripiendos, U, vhi 

Adam morbi diatumi conBequnntur, dies adTenerit, in morbam incidunt, et 

ouandoqne cnrantur. >Expedit. in t1 metOs afflicti, cnm a^tndine, aU- 

Bioas, 1. 1, e. 9, tantum porro multi pns- quando etiam cnm morte colluctantnr. 

dletoribne hiece tribnunt nt ipse metns > Snbtil. 18. * lib. 8, de anima, eap. 

ftdem fludat : nam fi prndieinm iia fUeiit da m«L 

Mem. 8, sabs. 2.] Of the Force of Imoffinatton, 341 

harm, the next day perceiving what danger he was in, fell 
down d^ad. Many will not believe such stories to be true, 
but laugh commonly, and deride when they hear of them ; 
but let these men consider with themselves, as * Peter Byarus 
illustrates it, If they were set to walk upon a plank on 
high, they would be giddy, upon which they dare securely 
walk upon the ground. Many (saith Agrippa), ^ " strong- 
hearted men otherwise, tremble at such sights, dazzle, and 
are sick, if they look but down from a high place, and what 
moves them but conceit ? " As some are so molested by fan- 
tasy ; so some again, by fancy alone, and a good conceit, are 
as easily recovered. We see commonly the toothache, gout, 
falling-sickness, biting of a mad dog, and many such mala- 
dies, cured by spells, words, characters, and charms, and 
many green wounds by that now so much used Unguentum 
Armarium, magnetically cured, which Crollius and Goclenius 
in a book of late hath defended, Libavius in a just tract as 
stiffly contradicts, and most men controvert All the world 
knows there is no virtue in such charms or cures, but a strong 
conceit and opinion alone, as * Pomponatius holds, " which 
forceth a motion of the humours, spirits, and blood, which 
takes away the cause of the malady from the parts aflTected." 
The like we may say of our magical effects, superstitious 
cures, and such as are done by mountebanks and wizards. 
"As by wicked incredulity many men are hurt (so saith 
♦ Wierus of charms, spells, &c), we find in our experience, 
by the same means many are relieved." An empiric often- 
times, and a silly chirurgeon, doth more strange cures than a 
rational physician. Nymannus gives a reason, because the 
patient puts his confidence in him, * which Avicenna " pre- 
fers before art, precepts, and all remedies whatsoever." 'Tis 

1 Lib. de Pente. s Lib. 1, cap. 68. sanguis, ac uni morbiflcas caasas partt- 

Bx alto despicientes aliqui prte timore bus affectis eripit. * Lib. 8, c. 18, de 

-soDtremiscunt, caligant, infinnantur ; pnestig. Ut impia croduHtate quis liedi- 

rie singultus, febres, morbi comitiales tur, ric et levari eundeni credibile est,- 

quandoque sequuntur, quandoque race- nsuqueobservatum * iEgri persuasio 

dant. ' Lib. de Incantatione. Im- et fiducia, omni art! et eonsilio et medi- 

oginatio subitum humorum et spirituum ciiUB prseferenda. ATicen. 
motam infort, unde rario aflectu rapitor 

342 ObwMf of Meiancholsf. [Part L 


opinion alone (saith ^ Cardan), that makes or man 
and he doth the best cores, aooording to EQppocrates, in whom 
most trust So diversely doth this fiintasy of ours affect, 
turn, and wind, so imperiouslj command onr bodies, whidi as 
another * " Proteus, or a chameleon, can take aQ shapes ; and 
is of such force (as Fidnus adds), that it can work upon 
others, as well as oursdves.** How can otherwise blear ejes 
in one man cause the like affection in another? Whj doth 
one man's javming *make another yawn? One man's piss* 
ing provoke a second many times to do the like ? Why doth 
scraping of trenchers offend a third, or hacking of files? 
Why doth a carcass bleed when the murderer is brought be- 
for3 it, some weeks afier the murder hath been done ? Why 
do witches and old women fascinate and bewitch childr^i: 
but as Wierus, Paracelsus, Cardan, Mizaldns, Yalleric^ 
CsBsar YanninuB, Campanella, and many philosophers think, 
the forcible imagination of the one party moves and alten 
the spirits of the other. Nay more, they can cause and cure 
not only diseases, maladies and several infirmities, by this 
means, as Avicenna de amm, L 4, sect, 4, supposeth in parties 
remote, but move bodies from their places, cause thundw, 
lightning, tempests, which opinion Alkindus, Paracelsas, and 
some others, approve of. So that I may certainly conclude 
tiiis strong conceit or imagination is cutrum homints, and the 
rudder of this our ship, which reason should steer, but over- 
borne by fantasy cannot manage, and so suffers itself and this 
whole vessel of ours to be overruled, and often overturned. 
Bead more of this in Wierus, L 3, de Larmit, c. 8, 9, 10. 
Franciscus, Yalesius med, contrav. I. 5, c<mt, 6. Maroellns 
Donatus, L2,c.l,de hist, med mirahiL Levinus Lemnius, de 
occuU. fiat, mir, I 1, c. 12. Cardan, I IS, de rerum var* 
Com. Agrippa, de occult, phtlos. cap. 64, 65. Camerarius, 
1 cent. cap. 54, horartun subcis. Nymannus, moroL de Imag. 

t PlnrM nnat in qtirai plnret oonfl- Chttmnleoii, eorpus propri u m et altonnm 

dnnt. lib. de sapientla. s M Arelltus nonnunqoam afflefenf. * Cor oscitanki 

FIcinus, 1. IS, c. 18, de theolofr- Platonioft. oecitent^ Wlenu. 
Imagioatio est tanquam Proteus Tel 

Ifeitt. 8, sTib0. 3.] Division 0f Perturbations. BUS 

LfturentiuS) and bim thki is iniUtr omhiun^ Fienus, a famous 
physician of Antwerp that Wrote three books d4 virihus imogi- 
n&tioniSi I hard thug far digressed^ beoaueto thid imagination 
is the medium defersni of passions, by wb^e means thejr 
work and prodnce many times pnodigious ^e<3ts \ and as the 
fantasy is more or leds intended or remitted, and their hu^ 
tnours disposed, so do perturbations moTe^ more or lessy and 
take deeper impression^ 

SuBSEOT. TlL,-^^Division of Perturhatums. 

I^ERTURBATioNs and passions, which trouble the fantasy, 
though they dwell between the confines of sense and reason^ 
yet they rather follow sense than reason, because they are 
drowned in corporeal organs of sense. They are commonly 
^reduced into two inclinations, irascible and concupiscible^ 
The Thomists subdivide them into eleven, six in the covet- 
ing, and ^VQ in the invading. Aristotle reduceth all to 
pleasure and pain, Plato to love and hatred, ' Vives to good 
and bad. If good, it is present, and then we absolutely joy 
and love ; or to come, and then we desire and hope for it. 
If evil, we absolutely hate it ; if present, it is sorrow ; if to 
come, fear. These four passions * Bernard compares ^ to the 
wheels of a chariot, by which we are carried in this world*" 
All other passions are subordinate unto these four, or six, as 
some will : love, joy, desire, hatred, sorrow, fear ; the rest, as 
anger, envy, emulation, pride, jealousy, anxiety, mercy, shame^ 
discontent, despair, ambition, avarice, &c., are reducible tmto 
the first; and if they be immoderate, they ^consume the 
Spirits, and melancholy is especially caused by them. Some 
few discreet men there are, that can govern themselves, and 
curb in these inordinate aflTections, by religion, philosophy, 
and such divine precepts, of meekness, patience, and the 
like ; but most part for want of government, out of indiscre- 
tion, ignorance, they suffer themselves wholly to be led by 

1 T. W. J«iiiit. • 8, de AbIib*. &«6 skBndd. 4 fibnun qnipiw hamoSik* 

* Ser. 86. VLm ^vaAttbi ^u^oms tani ffcttone, iptrttni mUMSeuni. ftnifli. 
tanqaam rotn in carta, qvlbilA T«illlii«f 1. ^ Patii. «. 18. 

344 Catues of Melancholy. [Part. I. «ec. 2. 

sense, and are so far from repressing rebellions inclinations, 
that thej give all encouragement unto them, leaving the 
reins, and using all provocations to further them ; bad bj nsr- 
ture, worse bj art, discipline, ^ custom, education, and a per- 
verse win of their own, they follow on, wheresoever their 
unbridled affections will transport them, and do more out of 
custom, self-will, than out of reason. Gontumax voluntas 
as Melancthon calls it, nudum faeit : this stubborn will of 
ours perverts judgment, which sees and knows what should 
and ought to be done, and yet will not do it. Mandpia 
gulcB, slaves to their several lusts and appetite, they precipi- 
tate and plunge ^ themselves into a labyrinth of cares blinded 
with lust, blinded with ambition ; ' '^ They seek that at God's 
hands which they may give unto themselves, if they could 
but refrain from those cares and perturbations, wherewith 
they continually macerate their minds." But giving way to 
these violent passions of fear, grief, shame, revenge, hatred, 
malice, &c., they are torn in pieces, as Actaeon was with his 
dogs, and ^ crucify their own souls. 

SuBSECT. rV. — Sorrow J a Cause of Melancholy. 

Sorrow. Insanus dolor."] In this catalogue of passions, 
which so much torment the soul of man, and cause this 
malady (for I will briefly speak of them all, and in their 
order), the first place in this irascible appetite, may justly be 
challenged by sorrow. An inseparable companion, *"The 
mother and daughter of melancholy, her epitome, symptom, 
and chief cause ; " as Hippocrates hath it, they beget one 
another, and tread in a ring, for sorrow is both cause and 

1 Malft congaet-adioe depravatur inge- tnrbationibiu, qulbns assidn^ se mace- 

nium ne bene Ikciat. Prosper Calenus, rant, imperare vellent. * Tanto studio 

1. de atr& bile. Plura fitciunt homines & miseriaram causas, et alimenta dolorum 

consuetudine, quam k ratione. A teneris quterimus, vitamque secns felicissimam, 

assuescere maltum est. Video meliora tristem et miaerabilem eflBcimus. Pe- 

proboque, deteriora sequor. Ovid. ^ Ne- trarch. prsefistt. de Remediis, &c. ^ Ti- 

mo laeditar nisi 4 seipso. > Multi se in mor et moestitia, si diu perseverent, causa 

inquietudinem prsecipitant ambitione et soboles atri humoris sunt, et in circu- 

et cupiditatibus excaecati, non inteUigunt lum se procreant. Hip. Aphoris. 28, 1. 6. 

se illud i diis petere, quod sibi ipsis si Idem Montaltus, cap. 19. Victoiins FaT- 

velint praestare poeslxit, si curis et per- eattnus piact. imag. 

Mem. 8, suos. 4.] Sorrow^ a Came. 345 

symptom of this disease. How it is a symptom shall be 
shown in its place. That it is a cause all the world acknowl- 
edgeth, Dolor nonnuUus tnsantce causa fitit, et aliorum moT" 
horum insanabilium, saith Plutarch to ApoUonius ; a cause 
of madness, a cause of many other diseases, a sole cause of 
this mischief, ^ Lemnius calls it So doth Rhasis, cont L 1, 
tract, 9. Guianerius, IVact, 15, c, 5. And if it take root 
once, it ends in despair, as ^ Felix Plater observes, and as in 
• Cebes's table may well be coupled with it. * Chrysostom 
in his seventeenth epistle to Olympia, describes it to be a 
cruel torture of the soul, a most inexplicable grief, poisoned 
worm, consuming body and soul, and gnawing the very heart, 
a perpetual executioner, continual night, profound darkness, a 
whirlwind, a tempest, an ague not appearing, heating worse 
than any fire, and a battle that hath no end. It crucifies 
worse than any tyrant ; no torture, no strappado, no bodily 
punishment is like unto it. 'Tis the eagle without question 
which the poets feigned to gnaw * Prometheus heart, and " no 
heaviness is like unto the heaviness of the heart," Eccles. 
XXV. 15, 16. ® " Every perturbation is a misery, but 
grief a cruel torment," a domineering passion ; as in old 
Kome, when the Dictator was created, all inferior magistra- 
cies ceased ; when grief appears, all other passions vanish. 
" It dries up the bones," saith Solomon, ch. 17, Prov., 
"makes them hollow-eyed, pale, and lean, furrow-faced, to 
have dead looks, wrinkled brows, shrivelled cheeks, dry bod- 
ies, and quite perverts their temperature that are misaffected 
with it. As Eleonora, that exiled mournful duchess (in our 
^ English Ovid), laments to her noble husband Humphrey, 
duke of Glocester, 

1 Multi ex moerore et metu hue delapsi eoiuniineng, Jng^ nox, et tenebne proftm- 

funt. Lemn. lib. 1, cap. 16. * Mult& dae, tempestas et turbo et febris non ap- 

ciir9L et tristitiSi fiiciunt accedere melan- parens, omni igne yalidius incendens ; 

eholiam (cap. 3, de mentis alien.) si altas longior, et pngnae finem non habens 

radices agat, in veram fixamque degene- crucem drcumfert dolor, fiiciemque omni 

rat melanctioliam et in desperationem tyranno cmdeliorem prse se fert. ^ Nat. 

desinit. > Hie luctus, ejus Ter6 soror Comes Mythol. 1. 4, c. 6. o TuUy 8, 

desperatio simul ponitur. * Animarum Tnsc. omnis pertnrbatio miseria et car- 

cmdele tormentam, dolor inexplicabilis, nificina est dolor. 7 M. Drayton in his 

tinea, non solum oesa sed corda pertin- Her. ep. 
gens, perpetuus earnifex, Tires anlmss 

846 OSemmi of Mdanehofy. [Put. t 8M« 1 

** Smwwt fhoa those t^et in WhoM iwMt chMfftil kx>k 
Dake Hnmpfaiy ooce sach joy and pleasan took. 
Sorrow hath so despoilM me of all grace, 
Thoa coiild*8t not say this was my Elnor** fkc^ 
Like a fiittl Oorifton,** ltd. 

^'Mt hinders concoction, refrigerates the heart, taked AWftf 
stoiDAch, colour, and sleep, thickens the blood ('Fefnelios 
L 1, cap. 1^ di math, eautis)^ eontaminateft the spirits." 
(*Piso.) Overthrows the natural heat, perrerts the good 
estate of bodj and mind, and makes them weary of their 
lives, cry out, howl and roar for very anguish of their soak. 
David confessed as much, Psalm x:2xviii. 8, ** I have roared 
for the very disquietness of my heart" And Psalm cx£C 
4 part, 4 V. " My soul melteth away for very heaviness," 
V. 88, ** I am like a bottle in the smoke." Antiochus com- 
plained that he could not sleep, and that hi^ heart fainted fbr 
grief, ^ Christ himself, Vtr dolarum, out of an apprehension 
of grief, did sweat blood, Mark xiv. ^ Hid soul was heavy to 
the death, and no sorrow was like unto his." Crato ccnHL 
21, 1 2, gives instance in one that was so melancholy by rea^- 
flon of * grief ; and Montanus comiL 80, in a noble matron, 
* << that had no other cause of this mischief " L S. D. in 
Hildesheim, fully cured a patient of his that was much 
troubled with melancholy, and for many years, * *^ but after* 
wards, by a little occasion of sorrow, he fell into his former 
fits, and was tormented as before." Examples are common, 
how it causeth melancholy, * desperation, and sometimes death 
itself; for (£ccle6. xxxviii. 15), << Of heaviness comes death { 
worldly sorrow causeth death." 2 Cor. viL 10, Psalm xxxi. 
10. ^ My life is wasted with heaviness, and my years with 
mourning." Why was Hecuba said to be turned to a dog ? 
Niobe into a stone ? but that for grief she was senseless and 

1 Cfftto eonsll. 21, Itb. 2, moMtltl% uill- tl. 16, U. * Moerore maceror, mut- 

verflom InfHgldat corpus, ealor«m fa- oMoo et MaMfieeoo misw, oan atqut 

natum eitingait, appetttum d^tmit. pellis siim miaeia maeritndine. Plant. 
> Cor rsMgdrat tristitia, fipiiltas ex.- « Malum idoejptum «t actviin a triatiCIa 
Idoeat, innatumqtie ealorem obrult, sola. ? SUdeahetm, iplcel. 2. de met- 

> Cor rsMgdrat tristitia, fipiiltas e<- < Malum idoejptum «t actum a tristitia 
Idccat, innatumqtie calorem obruit, sola. ? SUdeshetm. splcel. 2. de met- 
flgllias indudt, concoctionem labeftMstat, andholia, moerord anlmi postea aooedente, 

tsaguinem incrassat, exaMeratque m6l- in piiora symptomata incidit. ^ Tlrei 
ancholicam succum. > Splritus et san- 8, de anima, o. de mouore. SaUn. bi 
ipiis hoc oontaminatur. Piso. *lia(e, Orid. 

. l-» - ,' ^--w -.- 

Mem. 8, Bubs. 5.J jPVar, a Cause. 347 

fitupid. Severus, the Emperor, *<lied for grief; and how 
* many myriads besides ? Tanta iUi tst feritai^ tanta ett 
insania luctus^ Melancthon gives a reason of it, * " the 
gathering of much melancholy blood about the heart, which 
collection extinguisheth the good spirits^ or at least dulleth 
them, sorrow strikes the heart, makes it tremble and pine 
away, with great pain ; and the black blood drawn from the 
spleen, and diffused under the ribs, on the left side, makes 
those perilous hypochondriacal convulsions^ which happen to 
them that are troubled with sorrow." 

SuBSEOT. V. — Fear^ a Cause. 

CousiN-GERMAN to sorrow is fear, or rather a sister, fidus 
Achates, and continual companion, an assistant and a prin^ 
cipal agent in procuring of this mischief ; a cause and symp*- 
tom as the other. In a word, as •Virgil of the Harpies, 
I may justly say of them both, 

'* Tristius hand illls monstmm, nee sSBvior nlla 
PeetU et ira Detim stygiis sese extulit undis.'* 

" A ftadder monster, at more cruel plague bo fell, 
Or vengeance of the gods, ne'er came from Styx or HelL*' 

This foul fiend of fear was worshipped heretofore as a god 
by the Lacedaemonians, and most of those other torturing 
•affections, and so was sorrow amongst the rest, under the 
name of Angerona Dea, they stood in such awe of them, as 
Austin de Civttat. Dei, lib. 4, cap. 8, noteth out of Varro, fear 
was commonly "^ adored and painted in their temples with a 
lion's head; and as Macrobius records, l. 10, Satiimcdium ; 
• " in the calends of January, Angerona had her holy day, to 

1 Herodian. I, S, moerora magte qnam ftceidit Us qoi dintuma ctira et moBetltlii 

morbo consomptiu est. ^Bothwellina confllctantur. Melancfchon. &Lib, 8, 

atribilarius obiit. Brisarms Genuensis Ma. 4. > Et metum Ideo deam sa- 

hist. &c > So great is the fierceness crSlrunt nt bonam mentem concederet. 

and madness of melaneholy. * Mobs- Varro, Lactantius, Aug. ' Lillus 

tltia cor qnasi peTcasstim eonstringlfettr, Oirald. Sytita^. 1, de dtis mfscellaniit. 

Aremit et languescit cam acri sensa do- • Oalendls Jan. fertse iunt div«e AnM^ 

loris. In tristltia cor fugiens attrahit ex ronao, cui pontifloes In sacello VolupiA 

Splene lentum hnmorem melancholicum, sacra fkciunt, qnod angore^f et aoiml sol- 

qvi effasus sub eostis in slnistro latere licitudines propltiata propdilat. 
bypochondriacos flatus fkcit, quod saepe 

348 C(nue$ of Melancholy. [Part. I. see. S. 

whom in the temple of Yolupia, or goddess of pleasare, their 
augurs and bishops did yearly sacrifice ; that, being propitious 
to them, she might expel all cares, anguish, and vexation of 
the mind for that year following." Many lamentable effects 
this fear causeth in men, as to be red, pale, tremble, sweat, 
' it makes sudden cold and heat to come over all the body, 
palpitation of the heart, syncope, &c It amazeth many men 
that are to speak, or show themselves in public assemblies, or 
before some great personages, as Tully confessed of himself^ 
that he trembled still at the beginning of his speech ; and 
Demosthenes, that great orator of Greece, before Philippus. 
It confounds voice and memory, as Lucian wittingly brings 
in Jupiter Tragoedus, so much afraid of his auditory, when he 
was to make a speech to the rest of the gods, that he could 
not utter a ready word, but was compelled to use Mercury's 
help in prompting. Many men are so amazed and astonished 
with fear, they know not where they are, what they say, 
•what they do, and that which is worse, it tortures them 
many days before with continual affrights and suspicion. It 
hinders most honourable attempts, and makes their hearts 
ache, sad and heavy. They that live in fear are never firee, 
* resolute, secure, never merry, but in continual pain ; that, 
as Vives truly said, NuUa est misena major quam metus, no 
greater misery, no rack, nor torture like unto it, ever sus- 
picious, anxious, solicitous, they are childishly drooping with- 
out reason, without judgment, * " especially if some terrible 
object be offered," as Plutarch hath it It causeth oftentimes 
sudden madness, and almost all manner of diseases, as I have 
sufficiently illustrated in my ^digression of the force of imag- 
ination, and shall do more at large in my section of * terrors. 
Fear makes our imagination conceive what it list, invites the 

1 Timor Indncit fdgwi, corcUa palpita- moriam conatemat, md et institntam 

ttonem, Tocis defectum atque pallorem. aoimi omne et laudabilem coaatum im« 

Agrippa, lib. 1, cap. 68. Timidi semper pedit. Thucydides. * Lib. de fortl- 

fpiritus habent frig^dos. Mont. ^ Effu- tadine et Tirtute Alexandri, ubi propi 

aas eernens fUgientes agmiae turmas ; res adfuit terribilis. > Sect. 2, Memb. 8, 

qnlf mea nunc inflat comna Faunus Subs. 2. > Sect. 2, Memb. 4, Subs. 8. 
utf Alciat. > Metus non solum me- 

Mem. 8, subs. 6.] Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 349 

devil to come to us, as *Agrippa and Cardan avouch, and 
tyrannizeth over our fantasy more than all other affections, 
especially in the dark. We see this verified in most men, as 
* Levator saith, Qtue metuuni, jingunt ; what they fear they 
conceive, and feign unto themselves ; they think they see 
goblins, hags, devils, and many times become melancholy 
thereby. Cardan, siMiL UK 18, hath an example of such an 
one, so caused to be melancholy (by sight of a bugbear) all 
his life afler. Augustus Caesar durst not sit in the dark, nisi 
oMquo assidente, saith * Suetonius, Nunquam tenehris evigilavit 
And 'tis strange what women and children will conceive unto 
themselves, if they go over a churchyard in the nigbt, lie, or 
be alone in a dark room, how they sweat and tremble on a 
sudden. Many men are troubled with future events, fore- 
knowledge of their fortunes, destinies, as Severus the em- 
peror, Adrian and Domitian, Qiiod sciret vUimum vitce diem^ 
saith Suetonius, valde solicitus, much tortured in mind because 
he foreknew his end ; with many such, of which I shall speak 
more opportunely in another place/* Anxiety, mercy, pity, 
indignation, &c., and such fearful branches derived from these 
two stems of fear and sorrow, I voluntarily omit ; read more 
of them in ^ Carolus Pascalius, ^ Dandinus, &c. 

SuBSECT. VI. — Shame and Disgrace, Games, 

Shame and disgrace cause most violent passions and bitter 
pangs. Ob pudorem et dedecus puMicum, oh errorem commis- 
sum scepe moventur generosi animi (Felix Plater, lib. 3, de 
alienat. mentis) : Generous minds are often moved with 
shame, to despair for some public disgrace. And he, saith 
Philo, lib, 2, de provid, dei, * " that subjects himself to fear, 
grief, ambition, shame, is not happy, but altogether miserable, 
tortured with continual labour, care, and misery." It is as 

1 Subtil. 18^ lib. tlmor attrahit ad se > Com. in Arist. de Anima. * Qui 

DiBBmonas, tlmor et error multum in mentem subjecit timoris dominatloni, 

bominibus possunt. > Lib. 2, Spectris cnpiditatis, doloria, ambitionis, pudoris, 

ea. 8, fortes rai6 spectra Tident. quia felix non est, sed omnin miser, assiduis 

minus timent. > Vita ejaa. * Sect. 2, laboiibus torquetur et miaeria. 
Memb. 4, Subs. 7. * Be Tirt. et vitiis 

850 Catue$ of Mslanehofy, [Part I. see. 1. 

forcible a batterer as any of the rest ; ^ " Manj men neglect 
the tamults of the world, and care not for glory, and jet they 
are afiraid of infamy^ repulse, disgrace, (7W. oJH^. ^ ly) they 
can severely contemn pleasure, bear grief indifferently, but 
they are quite ' battered and broken with reproach and oblo- 
quy ;" (siquidem vita etfama pari passu amhulani) and are 
90 dejected many times for some public injury, disgrace, aa a 
box on the ear by their inferior, to be overcome of their ad- 
versary, foiled in the field, to be out in a speech, some fonl 
fact committed or disclosed, &c, that they dare not come 
abroad all their lives afler, but melancholize in comers, and 
keep in holes. The most generous spirits are most subject to 
it ; fortius altos fran^t et gensrosos : Hieronymus. Aris- 
totle, because he could not understand the motion of Suripus, 
for grief and shame drowned himself : Cmlius Rodi^nus an- 
tiquar» lee. Hh» 29, ca/>. 8. Homerus pudare eonsumpiusj was 
swallowed up with this passion of shame * ^ because he oould 
not unfold the fisherman's riddle." Sophocles killed himset^ 

* " for that a tragedy of his was hissed off the stage : " Vcder, 
Max* lib* 9, cap, 12. Lucretia stabbed herself, and so did 

* Cleopatra, ^ when she saw that she was reserved for a tri- 
umph, to avoid the infamy." Antonius the Roman, * ** afler 
he was overcome of his enemy, for three days* space sat soli- 
tary in the fore-part of the ship, abstaining from all company, 
even of Cleopatra herself, and ajfterwards for very shame 
butchered himself," Plutarch vita ejus. ^'ApoUonius Rho^ 
dius ^ wilfully banished himself, forsaking his country, and all 
his dear friends, because he was out in reciting his poems," 
Flinius, lib. 7, cap. 23. Ajax ran mad, because his arms 
were adjudged to Ulysses. In China 'tis an ordinary thing 
for such as are excluded in those famous trials of theirs, or 

1 Multl «onteioaiint nrandl ttrepitiiin, ^vn mm posset. * Ob Tragoedbm 

reputant pro nihilo gloriam, aed timent ezplosam, mortem sibi gladio conaciyit. 

Infamiam, oflbneionem, repiilsam. Vo- * Com Tidife In triuropham Be servari, 

luptatem seTerlseimi contemnunt, Id causa ejus ignominiaQ Titandae mortaa 

doiore sunt molUores, gloriam oegllgunt, slbi coosciTit. Plut. Q Bello f ioiiM, 

frangpintur Inftunla. * Qravius con- per tres cUes sedit in prora navis, ^tli> 

tumeliam IbrimuM quam detrimentum, ni nans ab omni consoiilo, etian CIeopafcn»» 

abjecto nimis anlmo rimus. Pint. In pottoA se laterfiMsit. 7 Gqm m«l^ ra^ 

Rmol. * Quod piscatoris nnigma sol- taaset Axgonautica, ob pudorem exulaTit 


Afem* 9t subs. 6.] Shaim and Disffrao^t Causes. 351 

sbould take degroee, for shame and grief to lose their wits, 
^ JfcU' Ricdm expediL ad Sinas, I, 3, e, 9, Hostratus the 
friiir took that hook which Reuchlin had writ against him, 
under the name of ,E!pisL obsouronm virorumy so to hearty 
th?^t for shame and grief he made away himself, * Jovivs m 
aogiis. A grave and learned minister, and an ordinary 
preacher at Alcmar in Holland, was (one day as he walked 
in the fields for his recreation) suddenly taken with a lax or 
looseness, and thereupon compelled to retire to the ne3;;t 
ditch; but being 'surprised at unawares, by some gentle- 
women of his parish wandering that way, was so abashed, 
that he did never after show his head in public, or come into 
the pulpit, but pined away with melancholy : {Pet JForestua 
med» ohset^Qit, lib, 10, observcU. 13,) So shame amongst other 
passions can play his prize, 

I know there be many base, impudent, brazen-faced )'0gue9» 
that will * NuUd pedlescers culpd, be moved with nothing, take 
no infamy or disgrace to heart, laugh at all ; let them be 
proved peijured, stigmatised, convict rogues, thieves, traitors, 
lose their ears, Ijie whipped, branded, carted, pointed at, hissed* 
reviled, and derided with ^ Ballio the Bawd in Plautus, they 
rejoice at it, Cantores probos; "bab® ^nd bombax," what 
care they ? We hs^ve too many such in our times, 

** Exclamat Melicerta pertsse 
Frontdtn de rebue," 

Tet a modest man, one that hath grace, a generous spiriti 
tender of his reputation, will be deeply wounded, and 8Q 
grievously affected with it, that he had rather give myriads 

1 Qaidam pr» T«raoun<lia Amvl et Ps. Verbero. B. quippenl? Ps. fUrciflsr 

dolore in insaniam inddunt, eo quod a B. factum optime. Ps. soci fraude. B. 

literatorimi grada in examine ezcludua-> sunt mea iatflBO. Ps. parrieida. B. p«iige 

tur. * Hostratus cuoullatus adeo tu. Ps. saerileffe. B. fateor. Ps. peijursi^ 

grayiter ob ReucUni Ubrum, qui inscribi- B. yera dicis. Ps. pernities adolescentum. 

tur, Epiatolas obscurorum virorum, do* B. acerrimd. Ps. tar. B. babse. Ps. fugl<- 

lore simul et pudore sauciatus, ut sdp* tive. B. bombaz! Ps. fraus populi. B. 

sum iuterfecerit. > Propter ruborem Planiasimd. Ps. impure leno, caenum« 

confusus, statim coepit delirare, &o., ob B. cantores probos. Pseudolus, Act. !« 

■uspicionem, quod yiU ilium oilmine ao* Seen. 8- ^ Melicerta exclaims, ^^ al) 

ciuarent. ^Horat. & Ps. Impudioe, siiame htnn yanished from buman tfaxiff' 

9. Jta e«^ Pa. 8o«l«8to, 9- d^ Teift. ^tions." ?qnil«8» Sat- 5. 

862 Oawet of Mdanchofy. [Part.L 

of crowns, lose his life, than suffer the least defamatkHi of 
honour, or blot in his good name. And if so be that he can- 
not avoid it, as a nightingale, Qua eantando victa marihir 
(saith ^ Mizaldus), dies for shame if another bird sing better, 
he languisheth and pineth awaj in the angaish of his spirit. 

SuBSECT. YIL — M^vy, JfaHee, Hatred, Causes. 

Enyt and malice are two links of this chain, and both, as 
Guianerius TVact. 15, cap. 2, proves oat of G^en 3 Aphor- 
ism, com. 22, ' ^ cause this maladj bj themselves, especially 
if their bodies be otherwise disposed to melancholj." lis 
Valescus de Taranta, and Foelix Platerus's observation, 
* ** Envy so gnaws manj men's hearts, that thej become alto- 
gether melancholy." And therefore belike Solomon, Prov. 
xiv. 13, calls it, ^ the rotting of the bones," Cjprian, vtdmu 

*^ Sicnli Don invenere tyraimi 
Majos tormentam *' 

The Sicilian tyrants never invented the like torment. It 
crucifies their souls, withers their bodies, makes them hollow- 
eyed, ' pale, lean, and ghastly to behold, C3rprian, ser. 2, de 
zdo et livore. *''As a moth gnaws a garment, so," saith 
Chrysostom, ^ doth envy consume a man ; to be a living 
anatomy ; a skeleton, to be a lean and ^ pale carcass, quick- 
ened with a ^ fiend," Hall in Charact for so often as an en- 
vious wretch sees another man prosper, to be enriched, to 
thrive, and be fortunate in the world, to get honours, ofiices, 
or the like, he repines and grieves. 

9 " intabescitque videndo 
Successos hominam snppliciumqne sanm est." 

1 Cent. 7 e Plinio. > Multoa Tidefmiu coninimit. f Pallor in ote sedet, 

propter inyidifuoi et odiam in melan- macies in corpore toto. Nnsquam recta 

choliam incidisse : et illos potissimum acies, livent rubigine dentes. 8 DI^U 

qnorum corpora ad banc apta sunt expressalmago, toxicnmcharitatis, Tene- 

B InTidia afflict homines adeoet corrodit, nxim amicitise, abyssus mentis, non est 

nt bi melancholici penitus fiant. ^ Hor. eo monstrosios monstrum, damnosins 

* His Tnltus minax. tonrus aspectns, pal- damnum, urit, torret. discruciat, macie 

lor in &cie, in labiis tremor, stridor in et squalore conficit. Austin. Domin. pri- 

dentibus, &c. « Ut tinea corrodit ves- mi Adrent. * Ovid. He pines away at 

tlmentum, do inyidia eum qoi lelator the sight of another's success it is 


Mem. 8, subs. 7.] JSnvy^ Malice, Hatred, Causes, 853 

He tortures himself if his equal, friend, neighbour, be pre- 
ferred, commended, do well ; if he understand of it, it galls 
him afresh ; and no greater pain can come to him than to 
hear of another man's well-doing ; 'tis a dagger at his heart 
every such object He looks at him as they that fell down 
in Lucian's rock of honour, with an envious eye, and will 
damage himself to do another a mischief: Atque cadet svhito, 
dum super hoste cadaU As he did in -ZEsop, lose one eye 
willingly, that his fellow might lose both, or that rich man in 
* Quintilian that poisoned the flowers in his garden, because 
his neighbour's bees should get no more honey from them. 
His whole life is sorrow, and every word he speaks a satire ; 
nothing fats him but other men's ruins. For to speak in a 
word, envy is nought else but Tristitia de bonis alienis, sor^ 
row for other men's good, be it present, past, or to come ; et 
gaudium de adversis, and ^joy at their harms, opposite to 
mercy, ^ which grieves at other men's mischances, and mis- 
aflPects the body in another kind ; so Damascen defines it, lib. 
2, de orthod. fid, Thomas 2, 2, qucest. 36, art. 1, Aristotle, 
I 2, Rhet. c. 4 et 10, Plato Philebo., TuUy 3 Tusc, Greg. 
Nic. I. de virt. aninuB, c. 12, Basil, de Invidia, Pindarus Od. 
1, ser. 5, and we find it true. 'Tis a common disease, and 
almost natural to us, as ^ Tacitus holds, to envy another man's 
prosperity. And 'tis in most men an incurable disease. * " I 
have read," saith Marcus Aurelius, " Greek, Hebrew, Chal- 
dee authors ; I have consulted with many wise men for a 
remedy for envy, I could find none, but to renounce all hap- 
piness, and to be a wretch, and miserable for ever." 'Tis the 
beginning of hell in this life, and a passion not to be excused. 
*" Every other sin hath some pleasure annexed to it, or will 

his special torture. * Declam. 18, lini- situm mortalibns a natura recentem all- 
Tit flores maleficis succis in yenenum orum fielicitatem segris oculis intueri, 
mella conyertenR. i Statuis cereis Ba- hist. 1. 2, Tacit. ^ Leg! Chaldseos, 
siliug eos comparat, qai liqueflunt ad Oraecog, Hebraeos, consului sapientes pro 
prsesentiam soli.<i, qu3L alii gaudent et or- mnedio inyidiae, hoc enim inyeni, renun- 
nantur. Muscls alii, quae ulceribus gau- ciare felicitad, et perpetud miser esse, 
dent, amoena prsetereunt, sistunt in foet- ^ Omne peccatum aut excusationem se- 
Idis. 3 Mlsericordia etiam quee tristi- cum habet, aut yoluptatem, sola inyidia 
tia queedam est, saepe miseiantis corpus utraque caret, reliqua yitia finem ha- 
male afflcit Agrippa. i. 1, cap. 63. ^In- bent, ira deferyescit, gula satiatur, odi- 

VOL. I. 23 

354 Oaitsei of Mekmchofy. [Part. I. see. 1. 

admit of an excuse ; enyj alone wants both. Other sins lasi 
bat for awhile ; the gut may be satisfied, anger remits, 
hatred hath an end, enyj never ceaseth." Cardan, lib. 2, de 
$ap. Divine and human examples are verj £uniliar; joa 
may run and read them, as that of Saul and David, Cain and 
Abel, angebat iUum turn proprium peceatumj tedfratrU pros^ 
perita8, saith Theodoret, it was his brother's good fortune 
galled him. Eachel envied her sister, being barren, Gren. 
XXX. Joseph's brethren, him, Gren. xxxvii. David had a 
touch of this vice, as he confesseth, ^ Ps. 37. * Jeremy and 
' Habakkuk, they repined at others' good, but in the end they 
corrected themselves. Ps. 75, '^ fret not thyself," &c Domi- 
tian spited Agricola for his worth, *^that a private man 
should be so much glorified." ' Cecinna was envied of his 
fellow-citizens, because he was more richly adorned. But 
of all others, * women are most weak, ob ptdchrttudinem in- 
vidcR tunt /(Bminm (Musatts) aut amaiy out odity nikil eM 
tertium (GrrancUefuis). They love or hate, no medium 
amongst them. LnplaeahUes plerumque Uesa mtdCereSy Agrip- 
pina like, ^ *^ A woman if she see her neighbour more neat 
or elegant, richer in tires, jewels, or apparel is enraged, and 
like a lioness sets upon her husband, rails at her, scoffs at 
her, and cannot abide her ; " so the Roman ladies in Tacitus 
did at Solonina, Cecinna's wife, * *' because she had a better 
horse, and better furniture, as if she had hurt them with it ; 
they were much offended." In like sort our gentlewomen do 
at their usual meetings, one repines or scoffs at another's 
bravery and happiness. Myrsine, an Attic wench, was mur- 
dered of her fellows, '"because she did excel the rest in 
beauty," Constantine AgricuU» L 11, c. 7. Every village 
will yield such examples. 

um finem habet, inridia nanqnam qui- Quianerius, lib. 2, cap. 8, Tim. M. Aon- 

escit. 1 Urebat me lemulatio propter Hi fnmina Tidnam eleffantias se Testttain 

Btultos. * Hier. 12, 1. > Hab. 1. Tideos, leeenae iiuitar in rirum insurgit, 

* Invidit privati nomea supra priocipiB frc. ^ Quod ingigni equo et ostro ve- 
attolli. 6 Tacit. Hist. lib. 2, part 6. heretur, quanquam nullius cum injuria, 

• PeritursB dolore et inyidia, si quem vid- omatum ilium tanquam Isesw grayaban- 
•lint omatiorem se in publicum prodi- tur. Quod pulohritudine omnes es* 

Platina dial, amorum. 7 Ant. oeUeret, paeU» indignatie occiderunt. 

Mem. 3. subs. 8.] Emulation^ HcUredf S^c. 355 

SuBSECT. Vin. — Emvlation, Hatred, Faction, Desire of 

Revenge, Causes. 

Out of this root of envy i spring those feral branched of 
faxztion, hatred, livor, emulation, which cause the like griev- 
ances, and are, serrae animae, the saws of the soul, * consiemo^ 
tixmis pkni (iffectus, affections full of desperate amazement ; 
or as Cyprian describes emulation, it is ^"a moth of the soul, 
a consumption to make another man's happiness his misery^ 
to torture, crucify, and execute hitnself, to eat his own heart 
Meat and drink can do such men no good, they do always 
grieve, sigh, and groan, day and night without intermission, 
their breast is torn asunder ; " and a little after, ' " Whom- 
soever he is whom thou dost emulate and envy, he may 
avoid thee, but thou canst neither avoid him nor thyself; 
wheresoever thou art he is with thee, thine enemy is ever in 
thy breast, thy destruction is within thee, thou art a captive, 
bound hand and foot, as long as thou art malicious and envi- 
ous, and canst not be comforted. It was the devil's over- 
throw ; " and whensoever thou art thoroughly affected with 
this passion, it will be thine. Yet no perturbation so fre- 
quent, no passion so common. 

* KaX Kepafiei>c Kepofm Koriei koI tektovi riKTOV, 
Kai 7rT«;t^f tttoxv ^^oviei koI aoiddg aoid^, 

A potter emalates a potter; 

One smith envies another; 
A beggar emulates a beggar: 

A singing man his brother. 

1 Lat& patet inyidiffi fiecundie pemifctes, dies et noctes, pectus sine intermissione 

et liror radix omnium malorum, fons laceratur. s Quisquis est ille quern 

cladium, inde odium surgit, emulatio. aemularis, cui inTides is te subterfttgere 

Cyprian, ser. 2, de Livore. * Valerius, potest, at tu non te ubicunque ftigeiis, 

1. 8, cap. 9. * Qualis est animi tinea, adversarius tuus tecum est, hostis tuus 

quae tabes pectoris selare in altero vel semper in pectore tuo est, pemicies intus 

aliorum faelicitatem suam faoere miseri- inclusa, ligatus es, victas, aelo domi-' 

am, et Telut quosdflm pectori suo admo- nante captiyus : nee solatia tibi uUa sub- 

Tere carnifices, cogitationibus et sensibus veniunt : hinc diabolus inter initia statf m 

suis adhibere tortores, qui se intestinis mundi, et periit primus, et perdidit, 

cruciatibus lacerent. Non cibus talibus Oyprian, ser. 2. de lelo et litove. 

Isetus. nou potus potest esse Jucundus ; * Hesiod. Op. et Dies, 
•uspiratur semper et gemitur, et doletur 

856 Cau$e$ of Mdcmcholy. [Part. I. sec. s. 

Everj society, corporation, and private family is fiill of it, it 
takes hold almost of all sorts of men, from the prince to 
the ploughman, even amongst gossips it is to be seen, scarce 
three in a company but there is siding, faction, emulation, 
between two of them, some sitnuUas, jar, private grudge, 
heart-burning in the midst of them. Scarce two gentlemen 
dwell together in the country (if they be not near kin or 
linked in marriage), but there is emulation betwixt them 
and their servants, some quarrel or some grudge betwixt 
their wives or children, friends and followers, some conten- 
tion about wealth, gentry, precedency, &c., by means of 
which, like the frog in * JQsop, " that would swell till she was 
as big as an ox, burst herself at last ; " they will stretch be- 
yond their fortunes, callings, and strive so long that they con- 
sume their substance in lawsuits, or otherwise in hospitaJi^, 
feasting, fine clothes, to get a few bombast titles, for amhi- 
tiosd paupertate laboramus omnes, to outbrave one another, 
they wiU tire their bodies, macerate their souls, and through 
contentions or mutual invitations beggar themselves. Scarce 
two great scholars in an age, but with bitter invectives they 
fiill foul one on the other, and their adherents; Scotists, 
Thomists, Reals, Nominals, Plato and Aristotle, Galenists 
and Paracelsians, &c., it holds in all professions. 

Honest ^ emulation in studies, in all callings is not to be 
disliked, 'tis ingeniorum cos, as one calls it, the whetstone of 
wit, the nurse of wit and valour, and those noble Romans out 
of this spirit did brave exploits. There is a modest am- 
bition, as Themistocles was roused up with the glory of Mil- 
tiades ; Achilles's tix)pbies moved Alexander, 

* " Ambire semper, stulta confidentia est, 
Ambire nnnqnam, deses arrogantia est." 

Tis a sluggish humour not to emulate or to sue at all, to 
withdraw himself, neglect, refrain from such places, honours, 

1 Rana cnpida sequandi boTem, se dis- Epig. lib. 1. ** Ambition always is a 
tendebat, &c. ^ ^muiatio alit inj^nla : foolish confidenoe, never a slothftd ano- 
Paterculus poster, vol. ** Qrotius, gance." 

Mem. 3, subs. 8.] Ermdationy Hatred^ S^c. 357 

offices, through sloth, niggardliness, fear, bashfulness, or 
otherwise, to which by his birth, place, fortunes, education, 
be is called, apt, fit, and well able to undergo ; but when it is 
immoderate, it is a plague and a miserable pain. What a 
deal of money did Henry VIII. and Francis I. king of 
France, spend at that ^famous interview ? and how many vain 
courtiers, seeking each to outbrave other, spent themselves, 
their livelihood and fortunes, and died beggars ? ^ Adrian the 
emperor was so galled with it, that he killed all his equals ; 
so did Nero. This passion made 'Dionysius the tyrant 
banish Plato and Philoxenus the poet, because they did excel 
and eclipse his glory, as he thought ; the Romans exile Co- 
riolanus, confine Camillus, murder Scipio ; the Greeks by 
ostracism to expel Aristides, Nicias, Alcibiades, imprison 
Theseus, make away Phocion, &c. When Bichard I. and 
Philip of France were fellow soldiers together, at the siege 
of Aeon in the Holy Land, and Richard had approved him- 
self to be the more valiant man, insomuch that all men's eyes 
were upon him, it so galled Philip, Francum urehat Regis 
victories, saith mine * author, tarn cegre ferehat Richardi 
gloriam, ut carpere dicta, calumniari facta ; that he cavilled 
at all his proceedings, and fell at length to open defiance ; 
he could contain no longer, but hasting home, invaded his 
territories, and professed open war. " Hatred stirs up con- 
tention," Prov. X. 12, and they break out at last into immor- 
tal enmity, into virulency, and more than Vatinian hate and 
rage; *they persecute each other, their friends, followers, 
and all their posterity, with bitter taunts, hostile wars, scur- 
rile invectives, libels, calumnies, fire, sword, and the like, and 
wil] not be reconciled. Witness that Guelph and Ghibel- 
line faction in Italy; that of the Adumi and Fregosi in 
Genoa; that of Cneius Papirius, and Quintus Fabius in 
Rome ; Caesar and Pompey ; Orleans and Burgundy in 

1 Anno 1519, between Ardes and Quine. rem. sterna bella pace 8ublat& geranl 

tSpartian. 'Plutarch. ^ Johannes Jurat odium, nee ante inylsum ease 

Heraldus, 1. 2, c. 12, de bello sacr. desinit, quam esse dedit. Pateiculus, 

i Nulla dies tantnm poterit lenire ftiro' toI. 1. 

958 Ccnuei of Mdanehohf. [Part. L see. % 

France ; York and Lancaster in England ; yea, this passion 
80 rageth ^ many times, that it subverts not men only, and 
families, but even populous cities, * Carthage and Corinth 
can witness as much, nay flourishing kingdoms are broaght 
into a wilderness by it This hatred, malice, faction, and 
desire of revenge, invented first all those racks and wheels, 
strappadoes, brazen bulls, feral engines, prisons, inquisitioiis, 
severe laws to macerate and torment one another. How 
happy might we be, and end our time with blessrd days and 
sweet content, if we could contain ourselves, and, as we ought 
to do, put up injuries, learn humility, meekness, patience, 
forget and forgive, as in ^ Grod's word we are enjoined, com- 
pose such final controversies amongst ourselves, moderate 
our passions in this kind, " and think better of others," as 

• Paul would have us, " than of ourselves : be of like afifection 
one towards another, and not avenge ourselves, but have 
peace with all men." But being that we are so peevish and 
perverse, insolent and proud, so factious and seditious, so 
malicious and envious ; we do invicem angariare^ maul and 
vex one another, torture, disquiet, and precipitate ourselves 
into that gulf of woes and cares, aggravate our misery and 
melancholy, heap upon us hell and eternal damnation. 

SuBSECT. IX. — Anger, a Cause. 

Anger, a perturbation, which carries the spirits outwards, 
preparing the body to melancholy, and madness itself; Ira 
furor brevis est, " anger is temporary madness ; " and as * Pio- 
colomineus accounts it, one of the three most violent passions. 

* Areteus sets it down for an especial cause (so doth Seneca, 
ep. 18, LI) of this malady. 'Magninus gives the reason, 
Mx freqttenti ira supra modum calejiunt ; it overheats their 
bodies, and if it be too frequent, it breaks out into manifest 

1 Ita sflBTit haeo stygia miniBtra ut ur- > Paul. 8 Col. s Rom. 12. * Qnd. 

bes subyertat aliquando, deleat populos, 1. c. 64. ^ Ira et moeror et ingens ani- 

provincias alioqui florentes redigat in sol- mi coaBtematio melancholicos fiidt. 

ItudineB, mortales Tero miseros In pro- Areteus. Ira immodica gignit insanlam. 

ftinda miseriarum valle mlserabiliter im- ^ Reg. Sanit. parte 2, c. 8, in apertam 

mergat. * Carthago aemula Romani insanlam mox ducitur Iratua. 
imperii fanditus interiit. Salust. Catil. 

Mem. 3, subs. 9.] Ang&Ty a Cause^ 359 

madness, saith St. Ambrose. 'Tis a known saying, FurwJU 
hesa scepius paiientia, the most patient spirit that is, if he be 
often provoked, will be incensed to madness ; it will make a: 
devil of a saint ; and therefore Basil (belike) in his Homily 
de Ira, calls it tenebras rattonis, morbum cmimcBy et dctmonem 
pessimum; the darkening of our understanding, and a bad 
angel. ^ Lucian, in Abdicato, torn, 1, will have this passion 
to work this effect, especially in old men and women. " Anger 
and calumny (saith he) trouble them at first, and after awhile 
break out into madness ; many things cause fury in women, 
especially if they love or hate overmuch, or envy, be much 
grieved or angry ; these things by little and little lead them 
on to this malady." From a disposition they proceed to an 
habit, for there is no difference between a mad man, and an. 
angry man, in the time of his fit ; anger, as Lactantius de- 
scribes it. L. de Ira Dei, ad Dimatum, c, 5, is ^ s<Bva animi 
tempestas, S^c, a cruel tempest of the mind ; " making his 
eyes sparkle fire, and stare, teeth gnash in his head, his 
tongue stutter, his face pale, or red, and what more filthy 
imitation can be of a mad man ? " 

8 '* Ora tument ir§., fervescunt sanguine venas, 
Lumina Gorgonio sseviiis angue micant." 

They are void of reason, inexorable, blind, like beasts and 
monsters for the time, say and do they know not what, curse, 
swear, rail, fight, and what not ? How can a mad man do 
more ? as he said in the comedy, ^ Iracundia non sum aptia 
me, I am not mine own man. If these fits be immoderate, 
continue long, or be frequent, without doubt they provoke 
madness. Montanus, consiL 21, had a melancholy Jew to 
his patient, he ascribes this for a principal cause : Irascebatur 
levibus de causis, he was easily moved to anger. Ajax had 

1 Oilberto O(^nato interprete. Multi8,et eant, &c., haec pftulatfan in InHaniam 

pne^iertim senibus ira impotens insaniain tandem evadunt. > Saeva animi tem- 

feoit, et importuna calumnia, haeo initio pestas tantoe ezcitanfl flnctus ut statim 

Erturbat animum, paulatim yergit ad ardeseant oculi, ostremat, lingua titubet, 

saniam. Porro muUerum corpora mul- dentes concrepant, &c. > Orid. 

ta infestant, et in hunc morbum addu> \ Terence, 
cant, prsecipui si qusB oderint aut iuTid- 

360 Causes of Melancholy. [Part I. see. 2. 

no other beginning of his madness ; and Charles the Sixth, 
that lunatic French king, fell into this misery, out of the ex- 
tremity of his passion, desire of revenge and malice, * incensed 
against the Duke of Britain, he could neither eat, drink, nor 
sleep for some days together, and in the end, about the cal- 
ends of July, 1392, he became mad upon his horseback, draw- 
ing his sword, striking such as came near him promiscuously^ 
and so continued all the -days of his life, JEmiL lib. 10, Gfcd. 
hist, ^gesippus de excid. urhis JBReros. L \,c. 37, hath such 
a story of Herod, that out of an angry fit, became mad, * leap- 
ing out of his bed, he killed Josippus, and played many such 
bedlam pranks, the whole court .could not rule him for a long 
time afler; sometimes he was sorry and repented, much 
gineved for that he had done, Postquam deferbuit tra, by and 
by outrageous again. In hot, choleric bodies, nothing so soon 
causeth madness, as this passion of anger, besides many other 
diseases, as Pelesius observes, cap, 21, L 1, de hum. affect, 
causis ; Sanguinem tmminuit, fel auget ; and as * Valesius 
controverts, Med, controv, lib, 5, contro, 8, many times kills 
them quite out. If this were the worst of this passion, it 
were more tolerable, * " but it ruins and subverts whole 
towns, ' cities, families, and kingdoms ; " Nulla pestis hunuxno 
generi plurts stetit, saith Seneca, de Ira, lib, 1. No plague 
hath done mankind so much harm. Look into our histories, 
and you shall almost meet with no other subject, but what a 
company * of hare-brains have done in their rage. We may 
do well, therefore, to put this in our procession amongst the 
rest ; " From all blindness of heart, from pride, vainglory, 
and hypocrisy, from envy, hatred and malice, anger, and all 
such pestiferous perturbations, good Lord deliver us." 

SuBSECT. X. — Discontents, Cares, Miseries, S^c, Causes. . 
Discontents, cares, crosses, miseries, or whatsoever it is, 

1 Infensus BritannisB Dud, et in ultJo- rentem non capiebat aula, &o. > An 

nem yersus, nee cibum oepit, neo quie- iia possit hominem interimere. < Ab- 

feem, ad Calendas Julias 18^, comites emethy. ^ Ab Troy, bsbtsb memorem 

occidit. > Indignatione nhniflL faxens, Junonis ob iram. « Stultorum regom 

animique impotens, exiliit de lecto, Ai- et populorum continet sestus. 

Mem. 8, subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares j S^c. 361 

that shall cause any molestation of spirits, grief, anguish, and 
perplexity, may well be reduced to this head (preposterously 
placed here in some men's judgments they may seem), yet in 
that Aristotle in his ^ Rhetoric defines these cares, as he doth 
envy, emulation, &c., still by grief, I think I may well rank 
them in this irascible row ; being that they are as the rest, 
both causes and symptoms of this disease, producing the like 
inconveniences, and are most part accompanied with anguish 
and pain. The common etymology will evince it, GurcL, quasi 
cor uro, Dementes curce, insomnes curce, damnosce curce, tristes, 
mordaces, carnificesy S^c, biting, eating, gnawing, cruel, bitter, 
sick, sad, unquiet, pale, tetric, miserable, intolerable cares, as 
the poets ^ cJall them, worldly cares, and are as many in num- 
ber as the sea sands. * Galen, Femelius, Felix Plater, 
Valescus de Taranta, &c., reckon afflictions^ miseries, even 
all these contentions, and vexations of the mind, as principal 
causes, in that they take away sleep, hinder concoction, dry 
up the body, and consume the substance of it. They are not 
so many in number, but their causes be as divers, and not 
one of a thousand free from them, or that can vindicate 
himself, whom that Ate dea, 

* " Per hominum capita molliter ambnlans, 
Plantas pedum teneras habens: *' 

" Over men's heads walking aloft, 
With tender feet treading so soft,** ' 

Homer's Goddess Ate hath not involved into this discon- 
tented * rank, or plagued with some misery or other. Hy- 
ginus,ya5. 220, to this purpose hath a pleasant tale. Dame 
Cura by chance went over a brook, and taking up some of 
the dirty slime, made an image of it ; Jupiter eftsoons com- 
ing by, put life to it, but Cura and Jupiter could not agree 
what name to give him, or who should own him ; the matter 

iLib. 2. Invidia est dolor et ambitio nes sunt maxime melancholici, qiian- 

est dolor, &c. > Insomoes, Claudianus. do yigiliis multis, et solicitudinibus, et 

Tristes,Virg. Mordaces, Luc. Edaces, Hor. laborlbus, et curis ftierint circumyenti. 

Moestee, Amarse, Ovid. Bamnoese, Inqui- * Lucian. Podag. * Omnia imperiJecta, 

etae, Mart. Urentes, Rodentee, Mant. &c. conftiBa, et perturbatione plena, Curdan. 
* Galen, 1. 8, c. 7, de locis afbctis, homl- 

CT r 

362 Otnues of Melanchofy. [Part. L sec i. 

was referred to Saturn as judge, he gave this arbitrement: 
his name shall be Homo ah humoj Gura eum pottidecft quamr 
diu vivcU, Care shall have him whilst he lives, Jupiter his 
soul, and Tellus his body when he dies. But to leave tales. 
A general cause, a continuate cause, an inseparable accident, 
to all men, is discontent, care, misery ; were there no other 
particular affliction (which who is free from?) to molest a 
man in this life, tlie very cogitation of that common misery 
were enough to macerate, and make him weary of his life ; 
to think that he can never be secure, but still in danger, 
sorrow, grief, and persecution. For to begin at the hour of 
his birth, as ^ Pliny doth elegantly describe it, '^ he is bom 
naked, and falls 'a whining at the very first, he is swad- 
dled and bound up like a prisoner, cannot help himself, and 
so he continues to his life's end.'' Cujusque fera pcUnihun, 
saith * Seneca, impatient of heat and cold, impatient of la- 
bour, impatient of idleness, exposed to fortune's contumelies. 
To a naked mariner Lucretius compares him, cast on shore 
by shipwreck, cold and comfortless in an unknown land; 
t no estate, age, sex, can secure himself from this common 
misery. '^ A man that is bom of a woman is of short con- 
tinuance, and full of trouble." Job xiv. 1, 22. ^' And while 
his fiesh is upon him he shall be sorrowful, and while his 
soul is in him it shall mourn." ^^All his days are sorrow 
and his travels, griefs ; his heart also taketh not rest in the 
night," Eccles. ii. 23, and ii. 11. " All that is in it is sorrow 
and vexation of spirit." * Ingress, progress, regress, egress, 
much alike ; blindness seizeth on us in the beginning, labour 
in the middle, grief in the end, error in all. What day 
ariseth to us without some grief, care or anguish? Or 
what so secure and pleasing a morning have we seen, that 

1 lib. 7, Nat. Hist. cap. 1, hominem rlor, &e. * Ad Marinom. t Bo- 

nadum, et ad yagitum edit natura. ethiiu. * Initiam caocitas, prognt- 

Flens ab initio, devinctua facet, &;c. sum labor, ezittiin dolor, error onuiia: 

I Ao/cpva ;fewv tyevoufjv, kcu SaKOvrbg qacm tranquilliim qiueBO, qaem non to- 

AuocucpuTOVf affueve^^ oUrpov. Laeh- 
rymaiu natas sum, et laohrymaiiB mo- 


Mem. 3, subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, Sfc. 363 

hath not been overcast before the evening ? One is miser- 
able, another ridiculous, a third odious. One complains of 
this grievance, another of that. Aliqtuzndo nervi, aliquando 
pedes vexani, (Seneca,) nunc distiUatio, nunc hepatis morbus , 
nunc deest, nunc superest sanguis : now the head aches then 
the feet, now the lungs, then the liver, &c. Ifuie sensus 
exuberat, sed est pudori degener sanguis, S^c, He is rich, but 
base bom ; he is noble, but poor ; a third hath means, but he 
wants health peradventure, or wit to manage his estate; 
children vex one, wife a second, &c. NemofadXe cum cou" 
ditione sua concordat, no man is pleased with his fortune, a 
pound of sorrow is familiarly mixed with a dram of content, 
little or no joy, little comfort, but ^ everywhere danger, con- 
tention, anxiety, in all places ; go where thou wilt, and thou 
shalt find discontents, cares, woes, complaints, sickness, dis- 
eases, incumbrances, exclamations ; '^ If thou look into the 
market, there (saith * Chrysostom) is brawling and conten- 
tion ; if to the court, there knavery and flattery, &c. ; if to a 
private man's house, there's cark and care, heaviness," &c. 
As he said of old, ^ Nil homine in terra spirat miserum 
magis alma f No creature so miserable as man, so gener- 
ally molested, '"in miseries of body, in miseries of mind, 
miseries of heart, in miseries asleep, in miseries awake, in 
miseries wheresoever he turns," as Bernard found, Nunquid 
tentatio est vita kumana super terram f A mere temptation 
is our life (Austin, confess, lib, 10, cap, 28), catena perpetuo- 
rum malorum, et quis potest molestias et difficuUates pati f 
Who can endure the miseries of it ? f " ^^ prosperity we 
are insolent and intolerable, dejected in adversity, in all for- 
tunes foolish and miserable." ^ In adversity I wish for pros- 
perity, and in prosperity I am afraid of adversity. What 

I Ubique perieulnm, ubiqiie dolor, ubi- dum vigilat, quoounqne le yertit. La- 

que nauflraffiam, in hoc ambitu quocun- Basque rerum, tempommque naadmur. 

?ue me vertam. Lypsius. *Hoin. tin blandiente fortuna intolerandi, in 

(>. Si in forum IreriB, ibi rixae et pug- calamitatibus lu^nibree, aemper stulti et 

j8b; Bi in curiam^ ibi firaus, adnlatio ; si miseri. Cardan. * Proepera in ad- 

'n domum priyatam, &c. > Homer. Tersis desidero, et adyeraa prosperis timen. 

Multis repletur homo miaeriis, corporis quis inter hsec medius locus, ubi non lit 

niseriis, animi miseriifl, dum dormit, humanie yitte tentatio ? 

364 Causes of Meumcholy, [Part. I. sec. 2. 

mediocrity may be found ? Where is no temptation ? What 
condition of life is free ? * Wisdom hath labour annexed to 
it, glory envy ; riches and cares, children and incumbrances, 
pleasure and diseases, rest and beggary, go together; as if a 
man were therefore bom (as the Platonists hold) to be 
punished in this life for some precedent sius. Or that, as 
^ Pliny complains, " Nature may be rather accounted a step- 
mother, than a mother unto us, all things considered ; no 
creature's life so brittle, so full of fear, so mad, so furious ; 
only man is plagued with envy, discontent, griefs, covetous- 
ness, ambition, superstition." Our whole life is an Irish sea, 
wherein there is nought to be expected but tempestuous 
storms and troublesome waves, and those infinite, 

8 <* Tantum malorum pelagus aspioio, 
XJt non sit inde enatandi copia,* 


no halcyonian times, wherein a man can hold himself secure, 
or agree with his present estate ; but as Boethius infers, 
* " There is something in every one of us which before trial 
we seek, and having tried abhor ; * we earnestly wish, and ea- 
gerly covet, and are eftsoons weary of it" Thus between hope 
and fear, suspicions, angers, ^ Inter spemque metumque, timores 
inter et iras^ betwixt falling in, falling out, <&c., we bangle 
away our best days, befool out our times, we lead a conten- 
tious, discontent, tumtiltuous, melancholy, miserable life ; in- 
somuch, that if we could foretell what was to come, and it 
put to our choice, we should rather refuse than accept of this 
painful life. In a word, the world itself is a maze, a laby- 
rinth of errors, a desert, a wilderness, a den of thieves, 
cheaters, &c., full of filthy puddles, horrid rocks, precipitiums. 

1 Cardan. Consol. Sapientise labor an- uni animantium ambitio data, luctiu, 

nexus, gloriffiinyidia, divitiis curse, soboli avaritia, uni superstitio. > Euripides. 

Bolicitudo, Toluptati morbi quieti pau- ^' I perceive such an ocean of troubles be 

pertaa, ut quasi fruendorum scelerum fore me, that no means of escape re* 

causa nasci hominem possis cum Platonis- main." < De consol. 1. 2. Nemo tuWk 

Ma agnoscere. ^ Lib. 7, cap. 1. Non satis cum conditione sua concordat, inest dn- 

BBStimare, an melior parens natura homi- gulis quod imperiti petant, experti hor> 

ni, an tristior noverca fuerit : Nulli fra- reant. ^ figse in honore jurat, moz 

giuor Tita, payor, confusio, rabies major, displicet. ^ Hor. 

Mem. 8, subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, Sfc, 365 

an ocean of adversity, an heavy yoke, wherein infirmities 
and calamities overtake, and follow one another, as the sea 
waves ; and if we scape Scylla, we fall foul on Charybdis, 
and so in perpetual fear, labour, anguish, we run from one 
plague, one mischief, one burden to another, duram servien- 
tes sermtutem, and you may as soon separate weight from 
lead, heat from fire, moistness from water, brightness from 
the sun, as misery, discontent, care, calamity, danger from a 
man. Our towns and cities are but so many dwellings of 
human misery. " In which grief and sorrow ( ^ as he right 
well observes out of Solon) innumerable troubles, labours of 
mortal men, and all manner of vices, are included, as in so 
many pens." Our villages are like mole-hills, and men as 
so many emmets, busy, busy still, going to and fro, in and 
out, and crossing one another's projects, as the lines of sev- 
eral sea-cards cut each other in a globe or map. "Now 
light and merry, but (^ as one follows it) by and by sorrow- 
ful and heavy; now hoping, then distrusting; now patient, 
to-morrow crying out ; now pale, then red ; running, sitting, 
sweating, trembling, halting,*' &c. Some few amongst the 
rest, or perhaps one of a thousand, may be Pullus Jo vis, in 
the world's esteem, GaUince jUius albce, an happy and fortu- 
nate man, ad invidiam felix, because rich, fair, well allied, in 
honour and office ; yet peradventure ask himself, and he will 
say, that of all others, * he is most miserable and unhappy. 
A fair shoe, JERc soccus novus, elegans, as he * said, sed nescis 
ubi urat, but thou knowest not where it pincheth. It is not 
another man's opinion can make me happy ; but as * Seneca 
well hath it, " He is a miserable wretch that doth not account 
himself happy ; though he be sovereign lord of a world, he 
is not happy, if he think himself not to be so ; for what avail- 

1 Borrhens in 6 Job. TJrbea et oppida die, eras esjulans ; nn&o pallens, mbeng, 

nihil allud sunt quJun lnunanarum currens, sedens, claudicans, tremens, 

aenimnarum domicilia, quibus Inctns et fcc. ^ Sua cuique calamitas pneoipua. 

moeror, et mortalium yarii infinitique la- * Cn. Graecinus. ^ Epiat. 9, 1. 7. Miser 

bores, et omnis generis Titia, quasi septis est qui se beatissimum non judicat ;. 

includuntur. ^ Nat. Cliytreus de lit. licet imi>eret mundo non est beatus, qui 

EnropsB. Lsetus nunc, mox tristis; nunc se non putat: quid enim refert qualis 

Bperans, paulo post diffidens ; patiens ho- status tuus sit, si tibi Tidetur malus ? 

366 Oautes of Jddanehofy. [Part. L 

eth it what thine estate is, or seem to others, if thou thyself 
dislike it?" A oommon humour it is of all men to think 
well of other men's fortunes, and dislike their own : ^ C7ift 
vlacei alteriusj sua nimirum est odio ton; but * qui JU 
Afec€gfuu, Sfc»y how comes it to pass, what's the cause of it ? 
Many men are of such a perverse nature, they are well 
pleased with nothing, (saith * Theodoret) ^neither with riches 
nor poverty, thej complain when thej are well and when 
they are sick, grumble at all fortunes, prosperity and adver> 
sity ; they are troubled in a cheap year, in a barren, plenty 
or not plenty, nothing pleaseth them, war nor peace, with 
children, nor without." This for the most part is the hu* 
mour of us all, to be discontent, miserable, and most unhappy, 
as we think at least ; and show me him that is not so, or that 
ever was otherwise. Quintus Metellus his felicity is in- 
finitely admired amongst the Romans, insomuch that as 

* Paterculus mentioneth of him, you can scarce find of any 
nation, order, age, sex, one for happiness to be compared 
unto him ; he had, in a word, Bona animt, corporis et far' 
tufUR, goods of mind, body, and fortune, so had P. Mutianus, 
^Crassus. Lampsaca, that Lacedemonian lady was such 
another in * Pliny's conceit, a king's wife, a king's mother, a 
king's daughter; and all the world esteemed as much of 
Polycrates of Samos. The Greeks brag of their Socrates, 
Phodon, Aristides ; the Psophidians in particular of their 
Aglaus, Omni vita felix, ab omni perumlo immunis (which 
by the way Pausanias held impossible) ; the Romans of their 

* Cato, Curius, Fabricius, for their composed fortunes, and 
retired estates, government of passions, and contempt of the 
world ; yet none of all these were happy, or free from dis- 

1 Hor. ep. 1. 1. 4. * Hor. Ser. 1, Sat. 1. nns, qoinqxie habnisae didtar remm bo- 

* Lib. de carat, grsec. aCfect. cap. 6, de narum maxima, quod eflset ditisaimus, 

proyldent. Mul& nihil placet atque qaodesBetnobilissimuB, eloqnentiaslmiu, 

adeo et diTitia« damnant, et paupertttem, Juriaconiultissimvu, pontifex maximoM. 

de morbis expoetulant, bene valentes • lib. 7. Regis filia. Regis uxor, Regla 

graviter femnt, atque ut semel dieam, mater. 7 Qui nihU unqnam mail 

nihil eos delectat, jbc. * Vlx uUins ant dixit, ant fecit, ant aensli, qui bene 

gentis, setatis, ordinis, hominem inTsnies semper fecit, quod alitor feoere wm poi< 

tvtioB felicitatem fortunie Metelli com- nit. 
paxes, TDl. 1. * P. Craasos UuUar 

Bf em. 8, subs. 10.] IHscontenUy Cares, S^c, 867 

content, neither Metellus, Crassus, nor Poly crates, for he 
died a violent death, and so did Gato ; and how much evil 
doth Lactantius and Theodoret speak of Socrates, a weak 
man, and so of the rest. There is no content in this life, but 
as ^ he said, " All is vanity and vexation of spirit ; " lame 
and imperfect Hadst thou Samson's hair, Milo's strength, 
Scanderbeg's arm, Solomon's wisdom, Absalom's beauty, 
Croesus's wealth, P^etis ohdum, Caesar's valour, Alexander's 
spirit, TuUy's or Demosthenes's eloquence, Gyges's ring, Per- 
seus's Pegasus, and Grorgon's head, Nestor's years to come, 
all this would not make thee absolute, give thee content 
and true happiness in this life, or so continue it. Even in 
the midst of all our mirth, jollity, and laughter, is sorrow and 
grief, or if there be true happiness amongst us, 'tis but for a 

3 " Desinit in piscem raulier formosa snpern^ : '' 
" A handsome woman with a fish's tail." 

a fair morning turns to a lowering afternoon. Brutus and 
Cassius, once renowned, both eminently happy, yet you shall 
scarce find two, (saith Paterculus) Qiu)s forhma maturius 
destituerity whom fortune sooner forsook. Hannibal, a con- 
queror all his life, met with his match, and was subdued at 
last, Occurrit forti, qui mage fortis ertt One is brought in 
triumph, as Csesar into Bome, Alcibiades into Athens, caranU 
aureis donatus, crowned, honoured, admired ; by and by his 
statues demolished, he hissed out, massacred, &c. ' Magnus 
Gronsalva, that famous Spaniard, was of the prince and people 
at first honoured, approved ; forthwith confined and banished. 
Admirandas actiones ; graves plerunque seguuntur tnmdtcB, et 
acres calumnicB : 'tis Polybius his observation, grievous enmi- 
ties, and bitter calumnies, commonly follow renowned actions. 
One is bom rich, dies a beggar ; sound to-day, sick to-mor- 
row ; now in most flourishing estate, fortunate and happy, by 
and by deprived of his goods by foreign enemies, robbed by 
thieves, spoiled, captivated, impoverished as they of * " Rab- 

1 Solomon, ISccles. 1, 14. < Hor. Art. Poet. > JotIiu. yita aas. < 2 Sam. 

III. a. I "w 

368 Causes of Mdanchofy. [ParLLseci. 

bah, put under iron saws, and under iron harrowsy and under 
axes of iron, and cast into the die kihi," 

^ ** Quid me felicem toties jactftstis amici. 
Qui cecidit, stabili non erat ille gradu.** 

He that erst marched like Xerxes with innumerable armies, 
as rich as Croesus, now shifts for himself in a poor oock-boat, 
is bound in iron chains, with Bajazet the Tui^, and a feot- 
stool with Aui'elian, for a tyrannizing conqueror to trample 
on. So many casualties there are, that as Seneca said of a 
city consumed with fire, Una dies interest inter maximam 
civitatem et nuUam, one day betwixt a great city and none ; 
so many grievances from outward accidents, and from our- 
selves, our own indiscretion, inordinate appetite, one day 
betwixt a man and no man. And which is worse, as if dis- 
contents and miseries would not come fast enough upon us ; 
homo homini cUemon, we maul, persecute, and study how to 
sting, gall, and vex one another with mutual hatred, abuses, 
injuries ; preying upon and devouring as so many ^ ravenous 
birds ; and as jugglers, panders, bawds, cozening one another ; 
or raging as ' wolves, tigers, and devils, we take a delight to 
torment one another ; men are evil, wicked, malicious, 
treacherous, and * nought, not loving one another, or loving 
themselves, not hospitable, charitable, nor sociable as they 
ought to be, but counterfeit, dissemblers, ambidexters, all for 
their own ends, hard-hearted, merciless, pitiless, and to benefit 
themselves, they care not what mischief they procure to 
others. * Praxinoe and Gorgo in the poet, when they had 
got in to see those costly sights, they then cried bene est, and 
would thrust out all the rest ; when they are rich themselves, 
in honour, preferred, full, and have even that they would, 
they debar others of those pleasures which youth requires, 

1 Boethias, lib. 1, Met. 1. > Dm- * Qnod Patercalus de popnlo Romano, 

nee hie ant captantur. aut. captant : aut durante bello Punico per annos 115, aat 

cadaTera quae lacerantur, aut corri qui bellum inter eoe, aut belli pneparatio, 

lacerant. Petron. 3 Homo omne mon- aut infida pax, idem ago de muudl aeeo- 

strum est, ille nam suspirat ferae, lupoA- lis. ^ Theocritus Idyll. 15. 
(ue et ursos pectore obscuro tegit. Hens. 

Hem. 3, sabs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, S^c. 369 

and tbej formerly have enjoyed. He sits at table in a soft 
chair at ease, but he doth not remember in the mean time that 
a tired waiter stands behind him, "^ an hungry fellow minis- 
ters to him full, he is athirst that gives him drink (saith 
^ Epictetus) and is silent whilst he speaks his pleasure ; pen- 
sive, sad, when he laughs." Plena se proluit auro ; he feasts, 
revels, and profusely spends, hath variety of robes, sweet 
music, ease, and all the pleasures the world can afford, whilst 
many an hunger-starved poor creature pines in the streets 
wants clothes to cover him, labours hard all day long, runs, 
rides for a trifle, fights peradventure from sun to sun, sick 
and ill, weary, full of pain and grief, is in great distress and 
sorrow of heart. He loathes and scorns his inferior, hates or 
emulates his equal, envies his superior, insults over all such 
as are under him, as if he were of another species, a demi- 
god, not subject to any fall, or human infirmities. Generally 
they love not, are not beloved again ; they tire out others* 
bodies with continual labour, they themselves living at ease, 
caring for none else, sibi nait ; and are so far many times 
from putting to their helping hand, that they seek all means 
to depress, even most worthy and well deserving, better than 
themselves, those whom they are by the laws of nature bound 
to relieve and help, as much as in them lies, they will let 
them caterwaul, starve, beg, and hang, before they will any 
ways (though it be in their power) assist or ease ; ^ so unnat- 
ural are they for the most part, so unregai'dful ; fo hard- 
hearted, so churlish, proud, insolent, so dogged, of so bad a 
disposition. And being so brutish, so devilishly bent one 
towards another, how is it possible but that we should be dis- 
content of all sides, full of cares, woes, and miseries ? 

If this be not a sufficient proof of their discontent and 
misery, examine every condition and calling apart. Kings, 
princes, monarchs, and magistrates seem to be most happy, 

1 Qui Aedet in menaa, non meminit slbi et liberius yoluptates suas ezpleyerint, 

otioso minifltrare negotlosos* edentl esu- illi gnatis imponunt duriores contlnentis 

rientes, bibenti sltientes, &o. > Quando iQgee. 
m adolescentia sua ipsi yizerint, lautiiu 

VOL. I. 24 


370 Causes of Meianchofy. [Part. L sec ± 

but look into their estate, you shall ^ find them to be most 
encumbered with cares, in perpetual fear, agonj, sospicion, 
jealousy ; that as ' he said of a crown, if thej knew bat the 
discontents that accompany it, they would not stoop to take it 
up. Quern mihi regem dabis (saith Chrysostom) nan curis 
plenum f What king canst thou show me, not full of cares ? 
* ^^ Look not on his crown, but consider his afflictions ; attend 
not his number of servants, but multitude of crosses." I^hil 
aliud potestas culmmis, quam tempestas mentis, as Gregory 
seconds him ; sovereignty is a tempest of the soul ; Sylla-like 
they have brave titles but terrible fits : splendorem titulo, crur 
datum ammo ; which made * Demosthenes vow, si vel ad 
tribunal, vel ad interitum duceretur : if to be a judge, or to be 
condemned, were put to his choice, he would be condemned. 
Rich men are in the same predicament ; what their pains are, 
stulti nesciunt, ipsi sentiunt : they feel, fools perceive not, as I 
shall prove elsewhere, and their wealth is brittle, like chil- 
dren's rattles ; they come and go, there is no certainty in 
them ; those whom they elevate, they do as suddenly depress, 
and leave in a vale of misery. The middle sort of men are 
as so many asses to bear burdens ; or if they be free, and 
live at ease, they spend themselves, and consume their bodies 
and fortunes with luxury and riot, contention, emulation, &c 
The poor I reserve for another * place, and their discontents. 
For particular professions, I hold as of the rest, there's no 
content or security in any ; on what course will you pitch ; 
how resolve ? to be a divine, 'tis contemptible in the world's 
esteem ; to be a lawyer, 'tis to be a wrangler ; to be a physi- 
cian, '^pudet lotii, 'tis loathed ; a philosopher, a madman ; an 
alchymist, a beggar ; a poet, esurit, an hungry jack ; a musi- 
cian, a player ; a schoolmaster, a drudge ; an husbandman, 
an emmet ; a merchant, his gains are uncertain ; a mechani- 

1 Lt^^brls Ate luctaqne fero R^pim as, sed Titam afflictione reiertam, son 

tnmldiui obaidet arces. Res est inqvJeta catervas satellitum, Kd curarum moltl- 

iigelicitas. ^ Plus aloes quam mellis tudinem. ** As Plutarch xelateth. 

habet. Non humi jacentem toUeres. * Sect. 2, memb. 4, sabsect. 6. ^ Star* 

Faler. 1. 7, c. 8. ' Non diadema aspici- cus et urina, medioorom fercula prima. 

Mem. 8, subs. 10.] JXscontents, Cares, Sfc, 371 

cian, base; a chirurgeon, fulsome; a tradesman, a ^liar; a 
tailor, a thief ; a serving-man, a slave ; a soldier, a butcher ; 
a smith, or a metalman, the pot's never from's nose ; a cour- 
tier, a parasite, as he could find no tree in the wood to hang 
himself; I can show no state of life to give content. The 
like you maj say of all ages ; children live in a perpetual 
slavery, still under that tyrannical government of masters ; 
young men, and of riper years, subject to labour, and a thou- 
sand cares of the world, to treachery, falsehood, and cozenage, 

3 " Incedit per ignes, 
Sappositos cineri doloso," 

^ you incautious tread 
Ou fires, with faithless ashes overhead." 

' old are full of aches in their bones, cramps and convulsions, 
silicemia, dull of hearing, weak sighted, hoary, wrinkled^ 
harsh, so much altered as that they cannot know their own 
face in a glass, a burden to themselves and others, after 
seventy years, " all is sorrow " (as David hath it), they do not 
live but linger. If they be sound, they fear diseases ; if sick, 
weary of their lives ; Non est vivere sed valere, vita. One 
complains of want, a second of servitude, * another of a secret 
or incurable disease ; of some deformity of body, of some 
loss, danger, death of friends, shipwreck, persecution, impris- 
onment, disgrace, repulse, * contumely, calumny, abuse, injury, 
contempt, ingratitude, unkindness, scoffs, fiouts, unfortunate 
marriage, single life, too many children, no children, fabe 
servants, unhappy children, barrenness, banishment, oppres- 
sion, frustrate hopes and ill success, &c. 

" Talia de genere hoc adeo sunt mnlta, loquacem ut 
Delassare valent Fabium.'* 

*' But, every various instance to repeat, 
Would tire even Fabins of incessant prate.** 

Talking Fabius will be tired before he can tell half of them ; 

1 Nihil lacrantur, niai admodum men- xnendieos, qnos nemo andet ftelioei dlo* 

tiendo. Toll. Offlc. * Hor. 1. 2, od. 1. eie. Card. lib. 8, o. 46, de ler. var. 

) Rams feliz idemque Mnex. Seneoa in ^ Spretfleqiie injuxia Ibrmn 'Hor. 
Ber. aeteo. * Omitto tegroSy exolet, 

872 Gauttt of MAmcKofy. [Part. l. se 

Ihey Kre the subject of whole volumes, and shall (amne 
them) be more opportunely dilated ebewbere. In the m 
lime thud much I may saj of them, that generally they t 
afy the soul of man, 'attenuate our bodies, dry th^n, wit 
them, shrivel them up like old apples, make them aa eo mf 
anatomies {'oua aique peHit e»t tolu», tta cvrit macet), tl 
cause ttmput ftxdum tl iqualidum, cumbersome days, 
^raiaqu* lempora, slow, dull, and heavy times ; make us bo 
roar, and tear our hairs, as sorrow did in * Cebes's table, t 
groan for the very anguish of our soub. Our hearts fail 
as David's did, Fsal. xL 12, "for innumerable troubles tl 
compassed him ; " and we are ready to confess with He. 
kiah, Isaiah Iviii. 17, " behold, for felicity I had bitter griei 
to weep with Heraclitus, to curse the day of our birth w 
Jeremy, xx. 14, and our stars with Job ; to hold that a3:ii 
of Silenus, * " better never to have been born, and the b 
next of all, to die quickly ; " or if we muat live, to aband 
the world, as Tlmon did j creep into caves and boles, as c 
wchorites ; cast all into the sea, as Crates Thebanus ; or 
Theombrotus Ambrocialo's four hundred auditors, precipiti 
mirselves to be rid of these n 

SoBSKCT. XL — Conimpitciik Appetite, at Denret, Att^tii 
These concupisuble and irascible appetites are as the t< 
twists of a rope, mutually mixed one with the other, and be 
twining about the heart ; both good, as Austin holds, I. 1 
e. 9, de civ. Dei, ' " if they be moderate ; both pernicious 
they be exorbitiuit.'' This concupisdble appetite, hows^ev 
it may seem to carry with it a show of pleasure and deligl 
and our concupiscences most part affect tis with content and 
pleasing object, yet if they be in extremes, they rack ai 
wring OS on the other side. A true saying it is, " Desi 
hath no rest ; " b infinite in itself, endless ; and as 'one cal 

• OpUmum noD nu- i Tlis. BnoHr. P 

Mem. 8, subs. 11.] Ambition^ a Came, 378 

it, a perpetual rack, ^ or horsemill, according to Austin, still 
going round as in a ring. They are not so continual, as 
divers, felieius atomos denumerare possem, saith ^ Bernard, 
qudm motus cordis ; nunc hmc^ nunc iUa cogitOj you may as 
well reckon up the motes in the sun as them. ' ^ It extends 
itself to everything," as Guianerius will have it, " that is su- 
perfluously sought after ; " or to any * fervent desire, as Fer- 
nelius interprets it ; be it in what kind soever, it tortures if 
immoderate, and is (according to ^Plater and others) an 
especial cause of melancholy. MuUuosis concupiscenttie 
dilaniantur cogitationes mea^ ^ Austin confessed, that he was 
torn a pieces with his manifold desires ; and so dot)i ^ Ber- 
nard complain, " that he could not rest for them a minute of 
an hour ; this I would have, and that, and then I desire to 
be such and such." 'Tis a hard matter therefore to confine 
them, being they are so various and many, impossible to ap- 
prehend all. I will only insist upon some few of the chief, 
and most noxious in their kind, as that exorbitant appetite 
and desire of honour, which we commonly call ambition; 
love of money, which is covetousness, and that greedy desire 
of gain ; self-love, pride, and inordinate desire of vainglory 
or applause, love of study in excess ; love of women (which 
will require a just volume of itself), of the other I will briefly 
speak, and in their order. 

Ambition, a proud covetousness, or a dry thirst of honour, 
a great torture of the mind, composed of envy, pride, and 
covetousness, a gallant madness, one ^ defines it a pleasant 
poison, Ambrose, " a canker of the soul, an hidden plague ; " 
• Bernard, " a secret poison, the father of livor, and mother 
of hypocrisy, the moth of holiness, and cause of madness, 
crucifying and disquieting all that it takes hold of.'* 

1 Molam adnariam. * Tract, da In- Tagor, nuUo temporis momento qnlemo, 

ter. c. 92. > Circa quamlibet rem talis et talis eiw oapio, illad atqne illad 

mundi haec pasdo fieri potest, qun sa- habere desidero. * Ambroe. 1. 8. super 

perflui diligatur. Tract. 16, c. 17. Lucam, serngo animsB. * Nihil ani- 

4 Verrentins desiderium. 5 Imprimis mnm orudat, nihil molesti&s inquietat, 

Ter6 Appetitiis, &o. 8, de alien, ment. seezetum Tinukpestis occulta, fro., epist. 

e Conf 1, o. ^. 7 Per diTerss loca 126. 

374 Cauies of Meltmdko^. {Fmrt, L 

>Seneca calk it rem toUcitam, Hnddam, vanam, vemtotam, 
a windj thing, a vain, solicitous, and fearfol thing. For 
commonly thej that, like Sysiphus, roll this restless stone 
of ambition, are in a perpetual agonj, still 'perplexed, 
wemper taciti, tnsiegque recedutU (Lucretius), doal>tiiil, tim- 
orous, suspicious, loath to offend in word or deed, sdll cog- 
ging and colloguing, embracing, capping, crin^ng, appland- 
ing, flattering, fleering, visiting, waiting at men's doors, with 
all affability, counterfeit honesty and humility.* If that will 
not serve, if once this humour (as ^Cyprian describes it) 
possess his thirsty soul, ambitionxs sahugo vbi bibulam emi- 
mam posndei, by hook and by crook he wiQ obtain it, " and 
from his hole he will climb to all honours and offices, if it be 
possible for him to get up, flattering one, bribing another, he 
will leave no means unessa3r'd to win alL" * It is a wonder 
to see how slavishly these kind of men subject themselves, 
when they are about a suit, to every inferior person ; what 
pains they wiU take, run, ride, cast, plot, countermine, protest 
and swear, vow, promise, what labours undergo, early up, 
down late ; how obsequious and affable they are, how popular 
and courteous, how they grin and fleer upon every man they 
meet ; with what feasting and inviting, how they spend them- 
selves and their fortunes, in seeking that many times, which 
they had much better be without ; as * Cyneas the orator told 
Pyrrhus; with what waking nights, painful hours, anxious 
thoughts, and bitterness of mind, inter spemque metumque, 
distracted and tired, they consume the interim of their time. 
There can be no greater plague for the present. If they do 
obtain their suit, which with such cost and solicitude they 
have sought, they are not so freed, their anxiety is anew to 

1 Ep. 88. s Nihil infelicios his, tar, freqnentat curias, yisitat, optimates 

qtunttis iis timor, quanta dubitafcio, ampl«xatar, applaudit, sduiatur: per 

quantus conatus, quanta solicitudo, nulla fks et nefiis h latebris, in omnem gradum 

illis & mol«stii8 vacua hora. * Semper ubi aditus patet se ingerit, d&unrit. 

attonitus, semper pavidus quid dlcat, &- 6 Turbee cogit ambitio regem insenrire, 

eiatre: ne displioeat humilitatem simu- ut Homerus Agamemnonem querentfui 

lat, honestatem mentitur. * Oypr. inducit. • Plutarcbus. Quin caor 

Prolog, ad ser. To. 2, cunctos honorat, vivemur, et in otio noe oblectemur, quo- 

nniTersis incUnat, subsequitur, obsequi- niam in promptu id nobis sit, &c. 

Mem. Bj sabs. 11.] Ambition^ a Cause. 375 

begin, for they are never satisfied, nihil aliud nisi imperium 
Mpirant, their thoughts, actions, endeavours are all for sov- 
ereignty and honour, like ^ Lues Sforsia that huffing duke of 
Milan, '^ a man of singular wisdom, but profound ambition, 
born to his own, and to the destruction of Italy," though it 
be to their own ruin, and friends' undoing, they will contend, 
they may not cease, but as a dog in a wheel, a bird in a cage, 
or a squirrel in a chain, so ^ Budseus compares them ; ' they 
climb and climb still, with much labour, but never make an 
end, never at the top. A knight would be a baronet, and 
then a lord, and then a viscount, and then an earl, &c. ; a 
doctor, a dean, and then a bishop ; fix)m tribune to praBtor ; 
from bailiff to major ; first this office, and then that ; as 
Pyrrhus in * Plutarch, they will first have Greece, then Af- 
rica, and then Asia, and swell with ^sop's frog so long, till 
in the end they burst, or come down with Sejanus, ad Gemo- 
nias scalaSf and break their own necks ; or as Evangelus the 
piper in Lucian, that blew his pipe so long, till he fell down 
dead. If he chance to miss, and have a canvass, he is in a 
hell on the other side ; so dejected, that he is ready to hang 
himself, turn heretic, Turk, or traitor in an instant. Enraged 
against his enemies, he rails, swears, fights, slanders, detracts, 
envies, murders ; and for his own part, si appetitum explere 
nan potest, furore corripitur ; if he cannot satisfy his desire 
(as * Bodine writes) he runs mad. So that both ways, hit or 
miss, he is distracted so long as his ambition lasts, he can 
look for no other but anxiety and care, discontent and grief 
in the mean time, * madness itself, or violent death in the 
end. The event of this is common to be seen in populous 
cities, or in princes* courts, for a courtier's life (as Budaeus 
describes it) "is a ^ gallimaufry of ambition, lust, fraud, im- 

1 JoTius hist. 1. 1, Tir dngnlari pruden- bitio in inaaniam Ikcild delabitnr, >i ez- 

tia, sed profunda ambitione, ad exitium cedat Patritius^ 1. 4, tit. 20, de r^ 

ItjlisB natu8. > Ut hedera arbori ad- iniitit. •Lib. 6, de rep. cap. 1. 7 im- 

lueret, sic ambitio, &o. > Lib. 8, de primis yero appetitas, sen oononpiseen- 

eontemptu rerum fortuitamm. Biagno tia nimia rei idicnjus, honestas Tel in- 

oonatu et impetu moTentnr, super eodem honestaB, phantasiam lasdunt ; unde 

oentro rotati, non proflciunt, nee ad flnem multi ambitiosi, philauti, irati, aTari, in- 

perreniunt. « Vita Pyrrlii. 6 Am- sani, fce. Velix Plater, L 8, de mentis alien. 


376 Oautes of Melanchofy, [Part. I. eec. i. 

postui*e, dissimulation, detraction, envy, pride ; ^ the ooarty a 
common conventicle of flatterers^ timeservers, politicians, 
&c ; or as " Anthony Perez will, " the suburbs of hell itself. 
If you will see such discontented persons, there you shall 
likely find them. * And which he observed of the markets 
of old Rome, 

** Qai perjamm eonyenire volt hominem, mitto in Comitium ; 
Qai mendacem et gloriosam, apud Glnasinse sacram; 
Dites, damnosoe maritos, sub basilica qa»rito/' &c. 

Perjured knaves, knights of the post, liars, crackers, bad 
husbands, &;c., keep their several stations ; they do still, and 
always did in every commonwealth. 

SuBSECT. XIL — ^OMpyvpia, CoveUmsnesSj a Cause, 

Plutarch, in his ^ book whether the diseases of the body 
be more grievous than those of the soul, is of opinion, ** if 
you will examine all the causes of our miseries in this life, 
you shall find them most part to have had their beginning 
from stubborn anger, that furious desire of contention, or 
some unjust or immoderate affection, as covetousness,** &c 
" From whence are wars and contentions amongst you ? '* 
* St. James asks ; I will add usury, fraud, rapine, simony, 
oppression, lying, swearing, bearing fabe witness, &c, are 
they not from this fountain of covetousness, that greediness 
in getting, tenacity in keeping, sordity in spending ; that they 
are so wicked, * *^ unjust against God^ their neighbour, them-* 
selves;" all comes hence. "The desire of money is the 
ix)0t of all evil, and they that lust after it, pierce themselves 
through with many sorrows," 1 Tim. vi. 10. Hippocrates 
therefore in his Epistle to Crateva, an herbalist, gives him 
this good counsel, that if it were possible, • " amongst other 

1 Aalioa Tita coIluTies ambittonis. eupid- ta enpiditato, oiiffiaeax ttaziflBe seies. 

itatis. simQlationis, impostune, firaudis, Idem fere Chnrflostomiis eom. in c. 6, ad 

inridiaB, superbias intaonicae, divereori- Roman, ser. 11. * Cap. 4, 1. ^ Ut 

am, anla, et commune conventdculum sit iniquus in denm, in prozimum, In 

asaentatidl, artiflcum. &c. Budseus de seipBum. < Si trero, CrateTa, inter csefe* 

asse. lib. 6. * In hu Aphor. * Plan- eras herbartim radices, aTaritiae radieem 

tns Curcul. Act. 4, Seen. 1. ^ Tom. 2. Mcare poeses amaram, nt nulln reliqai« 

Si examines, omnes miseiise eausas Tel a essent, piob6 teito, fto. 
ftirioflo contendendi studio, rel ab ii\jaa- 

Mem. 8, subs. 12.] Oovetotimess, a Cause. 377 

herbs, he should cut up that weed of covetousness by the 
roots, that there be no remainder left, and then know this for 
a certainty, that together with their bodies, thou mayst 
quickly cure all the diseases of their minds." For it is 
indeed the pattern, image, epitome of all melancholy, the 
fountain of many miseries, much discontented care and woe ; 
this '^inordinate or immoderate, desire of gain, to get or 
keep money," as ^ Bonaventure defines it ; or, as Austin 
describes it, a madness of the soul; Gregory, a torture; 
Chrysostom, an insatiable drunkenness; Cyprian, blindness, 
spectosum supplicium, a plague subverting kingdoms, families, 
an * incurable disease ; Budaeus, an ill habit, ^ '^ yielding to 
no remedies;" neither, -^sculapius nor Plutus can cure 
them ; a continual plague, saith Solomon, and vexation of 
spirit, another hell. I know there be some of opinion, that 
covetous men are happy, and worldly-wise, that there is more 
pleasure in getting of wealth than in spending, and no delight 
in the world like unto it. "Iwas f Bias's problem of old 
" With what art thou not weary ? with getting money. What 
is more delectable? to gain." What is it, trow you, that 
makes a poor man labour all his lifetime, carry such great 
burdens, fare so hardly, macerate himself, and endure so 
much misery, undergo such base ofl&ces with so great pa- 
tience, to rise up early, and lie down late, if there were not 
an extraordinary delight in getting and keeping of money ? 
What makes a merchant that hath no need, satis superque 
domif to range all over the world, through all those intem- 
perate X zones of heat and cold ; voluntarily to venture his 
life, and be content with such miserable famine, nasty usage, 
in a stinking ship ; if there were not a pleasure and hope to 
get money, which doth season the rest, and mitigate his inde- 
fatigable pains ? What makes them go into the bowels of 

1 Cap. 6. Dietie salutis : aTaritia eet tur qaam insania : quoniam hac omnes 

amor Immoderattu peounin Tel aequiren- &rt medici laborant. Hip. ep. Abderit. 

dSBf vel retinendie. * Ferum prof«cfco t Extremos currit mereator ad Indoe. 

dirumqae ulcus animl, remediis nou oe- Hor. f Qua re non es laasus? lucrum 

dens medando ezasperatur. 3 Malus ibciendo : quid maxima delectabile? la- 

est morbus maleque afficit avajitla siqui- crail. 
dem ceuseo, &c., ayaiitia difflcilius curar 

578 Oauses of MeUxncholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

the earthy an hundred fathom deep, endangering their dearest 
lives, enduring damps and filthj smells, when thej have 
enough already, if thej could be content, and no such cause 
to labour, but an extraordinary delight they take in riches. 
This may seem plausible at first show, a popular and strong 
argument ; but let him that so thinks, consider better of it, 
and he shall soon perceive, that it is far otherwise than he 
supposeth ; it may be haply pleasing at the first, as most part 
all melancholy is. For such men likely have some lucida 
iniervalla, pleasant symptoms intermixed ; but you must note 
that of * Chrysostom, ^' Tis one thing to be rich, another to 
be covetous ; " generally they are all fools, dizzards, mad- 
men, ^ miserable wretches, living beside themselves, sine arte 
Jriiendiy in perpetual slavery, fear, suspicion, sorrow, and dis- 
content, plus aloes quam mellis habent ; and are indeed, 
^' rather possessed by their money, than possessors ; ** as 
' Cyprian hath it, mancipati pecuniis ; bound prentice to 
their goods, as t Pliny ; or as Chrysostom, servi dimttarumy 
slaves and drudges to their substance ; and we may conclude 
of them all, as 'Valerius doth of Ptolomaeus king of Cy- 
prus, " He was in title a king of that island, but in his mind, 
a miserable drudge of money ; " 

X ^* potiore metallis 
Libertate c arena — ^' 

wanting his liberty, which is better than gold. Damasippus 
the Stoic, in Horace, proves that all mortal men dote by fits, 
some one way, some another, but that covetous men *are 
madder than the rest ; and he that shall truly look into their 
estates, and examine their symptoms, shall find no better of 
them, but that they are all ^ fools, as Nabal was, Be et 
nomine (1 Heg, 25). For what greater folly can there be, 

* Horn. 2, aliud avBras aliad diyes. rex titulo, sed animo peonnin miserabUa 

i Diyitiffi at spinn animum hominia mancipium. % Hor. 10, lib. 1. * Dan- 

timoribua, solicitudinibus, angoribus da est hellebori multo para maxima ava* 

mlrific^ punguDt, yexant, cruciant. ria. & Luke, xii. 20. Stulte, hae 

Sreff. ia horn. s Epist. ad Donat. cap. 2. nocte eripiam animam toam. 
r Lib. 9, ep. 80. > Lib. 9, cap l,insulflB 

lUem. 3, sabs. 12.] Oovetousness, a Cause. 379 

or * madness, than to macerate himself when he need not ? 
and when, as Cyprian notes, ^ '* he may be freed from his 
burden, and eased of his pains, will go on still, his wealth 
increasing, when he hath enough, to get more, to live besides 
himself," to starve his genius, keep back fix)m his wife ^ and 
children, neither letting them nor other friends use or enjoy 
that which is theirs by right, and which they much need per- 
haps ; like a hog, or dog in the manger, he doth only keep it, 
because it shall do nobody else good, hurting himself and 
others ; and for a little momentary pelf, damn his own soul ! 
They are commonly sad and tetric by nature, as Ahab's 
spirit was, because he could not get Naboth's vineyard, 
(3 jReg. 21,) and if he lay out his money at any time, though 
it be to necessary uses, to his own children's good, he brawls 
and scolds, his heart is heavy, much disquieted he is, and 
loath to part from it : Miser ahstinet et timet uti, Hor. He is 
of a wearish, dry, pale constitution, and cannot sleep for 
cares and worldly business ; his riches, saith Solomon, will 
not let him sleep, and unnecessary business which he heapeth 
on himself ; or if he do sleep, 'tis a very unquiet, interrupt, 
unpleasing sleep ; with his bags in his arms, 

^ congestis nndiqne saccis 
Indormit inhians," 

And though he be at a banquet, or at some merry feast, " he 
sighs for grief of heart (as * Cyprian hath it) and cannot 
sleep though it be upon a down bed ; his wearish body takes 
no rest, ^ troubled in his abundance, and sorrowful in plenty, 
unhappy for the present, and more unhappy in the life to 
come." Basil. He is a perpetual drudge, * restless in his 
thoughts, and never satisfied, a slave, a wretch, a dust-worm, 

* Opes qaidem mortalibns snnt demen- * Epist. 2, lib. 2. Suspirat in conyirio, 
tia. Thec^. i Ed. 2, lib. 2. Exonerare bibat licet gemmis et toro molliore mar- 
cam se pomit et releyare ponderibus per- cidom corpus condiderit, Tigilat in plu- 
git magis fortanis augentibas pertinaci- ma. ^ Angastatur ex abundantia, 
ter incubare. * Non amicis, non libe- contristatur ex opulenti <, infeUx praesen- 
ris, non ipsi sibi quidquam impertit ; tibus bonis, infelicior in fhturis. > II- 
Doesidet ad hoc tantum, ne possidere al- lorum cogitatio nunquam cessat qui 
teri liceat, fcc. Hleron. ad Paulin. tarn pecunias supplere diligunt. Quianer. 
ieest quod habet quam quod non liabet. tract. 15, o. if. 

880 Cautet of Melanehofy. (Part, l.wc.%. 

len^fer quod idoh too immoUl, ttdtdtu ohiervat, Cypr. prolog, 
ad lemton. etitl seeking what sacrifice he may o£fer to hk 
golden gaA,perfa> et nefat, he carea not bon*, bis trouble is 
endle.^B, ^ cretcurd divitia, lamtn curia neicio quid temptr 
abest rex ; his wealth mcreaselh, and the more be hath, the 
more ' he wonts i like Pharaoh's lean kine, which devoured 
the fat, and were not satisfied. ' Aiutia therefore dcfioea 
oovetousness, quarumUbtl remm inAonettam et insaliabikm 
eupiditatem, a dishonest and insatiable desire of gain ; and 
in one of his epistles compares it to hell ; * " which deroors 
all, and yet never hath enough, a bottomless pit," an endless 
misery ; i» quern tcopalutn avaritia cadoBeron »enet ut plttri' 
mtim intpingunt, and that which is their greatest corrosive, 
tfaey are in continual suspicion, fear, and distrust. He thinks 
his own wife and children are SO many thieves, and go about 
to oozea him, bis servants are all false : 

" Rem >uun p«ril>se, Mque emdicsrlet, 
El diTbin at<|ue homiimni cLamst contiDOii fldem, 
De suo Cigillo fumaii ei qua exit Taraa." 

" If his doars creak, then out he crie* nnoo, 
Hi> goodi are gaae, end he ia qaite uudoDe." 

Timidus Plutus, an old proverb, As fearful as Plutus ; so 
doth Aristophanes and Lucian bring him in fearful siill, pale, 
anxious, suspicious, and trusting no man, *"They are afraid 
of tempests for their corn ( they are afraid of their friends 
lest they should ask something of them, beg or borrow ; they 
are afraid of their enemies lest they hurt them, thieves lest 
they rob them ; they are afraid of war and afraid of peace, 
afraid of rich and afraid of poor ; afraid of alL" Last of 
all, they are afraid of want, that they shall die beggare, 
which makes them lay up still, and dare not use that they 

oc egeQCLor quo pluuh&bet. 

Mem. 8, subs. 12.] Covetousness, a Cause. 381 

have ; what if a dear year come, or dearth, or some loss ? 
and were it not that they are loath to ^ lay out money on a 
rope, they would be hanged forthwith, and sometimes die to 
save charges, and make away themselves, if their corn and 
cattle miscarry ; though they have abundance left, as ^ Agel- 
lius notes. ^ Valerius makes mention of one that in a fam- 
ine sold a mouse for two hundred pence, and famished him- 
self; such are their cares, * griefs, and perpetual fears. These 
symptoms are elegantly expressed by Theophrastus in his 
character of a covetous man ; * " lying in bed, he asked his 
wife whether she shut the trunks and chests fast, the carcass 
be sealed, and whether the ball door be bolted ; and though 
she say all is well, he riseth out of his bed in his shirt, bare- 
foot and barelegged, to see whether it be so, with a dark lan- 
tern searching every comer, scarce sleeping a wink all night" 
Lucian, in that pleasant and witty dialogue called Gallus, 
brings in Mycillus the cobbler disputing with his cock, some- 
times Pythagoras ; where after much speech pro and con to 
prove the happiness of a mean estate, and discontents of a 
rich man, Fythagoras's cock in the end, to illustrate by exam- 
ples that which he had said, brings him to Gnjrphon the usu- 
rer's house at midnight, and after that to Eucrates; whom 
they found both awake, casting up their accounts, and telling 
of their money, * lean, dry, pale and anxious, still suspecting 
lest somebody should make a hole through the wall, and so 
get in ; or if a rat or mouse did but stir, starting upon a 
sudden, and running to the door to see whether all were fast. 
Plautus, in his Aulularia, makes old Euclio'' commanding 
Staphyla his wife to shut the doors fast, and the fire to be 

1 Hall Char. s Agellliu, lib. 8, cap. obieBS et Instrans, et yix somno indnl- 

1, interdum eo seeleris perv«aiunt ob lu- gens. ^ Curls extenuatns, Tigilans et 

crum, ut vitam propriam commutent. secum supputans. 7 Gave quemquam 

* Lib. 7, cap. 6 ^ Omnes perpetuo alienum in sedes hitromlseris. Ignem 

morbo agitaator, suBpicatar omnes timi- exUngui volo, ne causw quidqaam sit 

dus, sibique ob aurum iusidiari putat, quod te quisquam quseritet. Si bona 

nunquam quiescens, Plin Prooem. lib. fortuoa veniat ne inftromiseris: Occlude 

14. 6 Gap. 18, in lecto jacens interro- sis fores ambobus pessulis. I>i8crutior 

gat nxorem aa aroam probe claudt, an anlmi quia domo abeundum est mihi : 

eapsula, &c. E lecto surgens nudus et Nimis hercule inyitos abeo, nee quid 

abeque calfels, «coeiu« luc«rq4 omnia aguascio. 

582 Cautet of MeUmcholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

put out, lest anybody should make that an errand to oome to 
his house ; when he washed his hands, ^ he was loath to fling 
away the foul water, complaining that he was iuid<Hie, be- 
cause the smoke got out of his roof. And as he went fixHn 
h<Hne, seeing a crow scratch upon the muck-hill, returned in 
all haste, taking it for nudum amen, an ill sign, his mooej 
was digged up ; with many such. He that will but observe 
their actions, shall find these and many such passages not 
feigned for sport, but really performed, verified indeed by 
such covetous and miserable wretches, and that it is, 

* ** manifesta phrenesis 
Ut locaples moriaris egentis yiyere bto." 

A mere madness, to live like a wretch, and die rich. 

SuBSECT. XIIL — Lave of Gaming^ ^c, and JPiecuures im- 
moderate ; Causes, 

It is a wonder to see, how many poor, distressed, miser- 
able wretches, one shall meet almost in every path and street, 
begging for an alms, that have been well descended, and 
sometimes in flourishing estate, now ragged, tattered, and 
ready to be starved, lingering out a painful life, in discontent 
and grief of body and mind, and all through immoderate lust, 
gaming, pleasure and riot. 'Tis the common end of all sen- 
sual epicures and brutish prodigals, that are stupefied and 
carried away headlong with their several pleasures and lusts. 
Cebes in his table, S. Ambrose in his second book of Abel 
and Cain, and amongst the rest Lucian in his tract de Mercede 
conductis, hath excellent well deciphered such men's pro- 
ceedings in his picture of Opulentia, whom he feigns to dwell 
on the top of a high mount, much sought after by mauy 
suitors ; at their first coming they are generally entertained 
by pleasure and dalliance, and have all the content that pos- 
sibly may be given, so long as their money lasts ; but when 
their means fail, they are contemptibly thrust out at a back 
door, headlong, and there left to shame, reproach, despair. 

1 Pknat aqnam pioAmdere, &c. , periit dum ftuniu de tiglllo exit fons. • Jut. S. 14. 

Mem. 8, subs. 18.] Love of Gaming, SfC. 383 

And he at first that had so many attendants, parasites, and 
followers, young and lusty, richly arrayed, and all the dainty 
fare that might be had, with all kind of welcome and good 
respect, is now upon sl sudden stript of all, ^ pale, naked, old, 
diseased and forsaken, cursing his stars, and ready to stran- 
gle himself; having no other company but repentance, sor- 
row, grief, derision, beggary and contempt, which are his 
daily attendants to his life's end. As the ^prodigal son 
had exquisite music, merry company, dainty fare at first; 
but a sorrowful reckoning in the end; so have all such 
vain delights and their followers. ^Tristes voluptatum ex- 
itus, et quisquis voluptatum suarum reminisd volet, intelr 
Itget, as bitter as gall and wormwood is their last ; grief of 
mind, madness itself. The ordinary rocks upon which such 
men do impinge and precipitate themselves, are cards, dice, 
hawks and hounds, Insanum venandi studium, one calls it, 
insance substructiones : their mad structures, disports, plays, 
&c., when they are unseasonably used, imprudently han- 
dled, and beyond their fortunes. Some men are consumed 
by mad fantastical buildings, by making galleries, cloisters, 
terraces, walks, orchards, gardens, pools, rillets, bowers, and 
such like places of pleasure ; Inutiles domos, * Xenophon 
calls them, which howsoever they be delightsome things in 
themselves, and acceptable to all beholders, an ornament 
and befitting some great men ; yet unprofitable to others, 
and the sole overthrow of their estates. Forestus in his ob- 
servations hath an example of such a one that became melan- 
choly upon the like occasion, having consumed his substance 
in an unprofitable building, which would afterward yield him 
no advantage. Others, I say, are ^ overthrown by those mad 
sports of hawking and hunting; honest recreations, and fit 
for some great men, but not for every base inferior person ; 
whilst they will maintain their falconers, dogs, and hunting- 

1 Ventrfcosus, nndns, pallidas, beya nom. Quid si nunc ostendam eos qui 

pudorem occultans, dextra seipsum magna vi argenti domus inutiles sedifl- 

Btrangulans, occurrit autem exeunti cant, inquit Socrates. s Sarisburien- 

poenitentia his miseruin conficiens, &c. sis, Polycrat. 1. 1, t, 14, venatores omnes 

t Luke XT. > Boethius. * In Oeco- adhuc institutionem redolent centauro- 

584 Ooiueg of Jfdaneko^ [P 

iiagsS their wealth, saith ^ Salmatxe, ^ runs awaj with hoondsy 
and their fortunes flj awaj with hawks.** Thej persecute 
beasts so long, till in the end ^hej themselyes degenerate into 
beasts, as * Agrippa taxeth them, 'Actsson-like, for as he was 
eaten to death bj his own dogs, so do thej deToor them- 
selyes and their patrimonies, in snch idle and onneoessaij 
disports, neglecting in the mean time their more necessary 
business, and to follow their vocations. Orer-mad, too, sonae- 
time<i, are our great men in delighting, and doting too mnch 
on it ^'^When thej drive poor husbandmen from their 
tillage," as * Sarisburiensis objects, PofyeraL iL 1, c. 4^ ^ fling 
down country farms, and whole towns, to make parks, and 
forests, starving men to foed beasts, and * punishing in the 
mean time such a man that shall molest their game, more 
severely than him that is otherwise a common hacker, or a 
notorious thief." But great men are some ways to be ex- 
cused, the meaner sort have no evasion why they should not 
be counted mad. Poggius the Florentine tells a merry 
story to this purpose, condemning the foUy and impertinent 
business of such kind of persons. A physician of Milan, 
saith he, that cured mad men, had a pit of water in his 
house, in which he kept his patients, some up to their knees, 
some to the girdle, some to the chin, pro modo in$ani€B, as 
they were more or less affected. One of them by phance, 
that was well recovered, stood in the door, and seeing a 
gallant ride by ¥dth a hawk on his fist, well mounted, with 
his spaniels after him, would needs know to what use all this 
preparation served; he made answer to kill certain fowls; 
the patient demanded again, what his fowl might be worth 

mm. Raro invenitur quisquam eorum agriooloniB pneclnduntnr bjItk et pnta 

modestiu et graTis, raro oontiaeBS, et ut paatoribus at augeantor paficua feris. 

credo Bobrius unquam. i Pancirol. ^Majestatis reus agricola si gastarit 

Tit. 28, avolant opes cum aoeipitre. > A novalibos suie aroentor agricolSf 

I Insignia venatorum stultitia, et super- dnm fierte liabeant vagandi libertatem : 

▼aeanea cura eomm. qui dum nimium istis, at pawua aageantur, pnedia sab* 

Tenationi insistunt, ipsi abjecta omni hu- trahuntur, &c. Sarisburiensis. < Fe- 

manitate in feras degenerant ut Acteon, ria quam hominibiu sequioreB. Gambd. 

fcc. 3 Sabin. in Orid. Hetamor. de Guil. Ck>Bq. qui 96 Declesias matrioM 

<Agrippa de yanit. scient. Insanum ve- de populatua est ad fiwestam noTam. 

nandi studium. dum k noralibus aroen- Matl Paiii. 
tor Bghooin sabtrahnnt pcaEtdia roafeids, 

Mem. 3, sabs. 18.] Love of Gaming, S^c, 385 

which he kiUed in a year; he replied five or ten crowns; 
and when he urged him farther what his dogs, horse, and 
hawks stood him in, he told him four hundred crowns ; with 
that the patient bade be gone, as he loved his life and 
welfare, for if our master come and find thee here, he wiU 
put thee in the pit amongst mad men up to the chin ; taxing 
the madness and folly of such vain men that spend them- 
selves in those idle sports, neglecting their business and 
necessary affairs. Leo dedmus, that hunting pope, is much 
discommended by ^ Jovius in his life, for his immoderate de- 
mre of hawking and hunting, insomuch that (as he saith) 
he would sometimes live about Ostia weeks and months to* 
gether, leave suitors ^ unrespected, bulls and pardons \m* 
signed, to his own prejudice, and many private men's losd. 
•" And if he had been by chance crossed in his sport, or his 
game not so good, he was so impatient, that he would revile 
and miscall many times men of great worth with most bitter 
taunts, look so sour, be so angry and waspish, so grieved and 
molested, that it is incredible to relate it." But if he had 
good sport, and been well pleased, on the other side, incrediJh 
ill munificentid, with unspeakable bounty and munificence 
he would reward all his fellow hunters, and deny nothing to 
any suitor when he was in that mood. To say truth, 'tis the 
common humour of all gamesters, as Galataeus observes, if 
they win, no men living are so jovial and merry, but * if they 
lose, though it be but a trifie, two or three games at tables, 
or a dealing at cards for twopence a game, they are so chol- 
eric and testy that no man may speak with them, and break 
many times into violent passions, oaths, imprecations, and 
unbeseeming speeches, little differing from mad men for the 
time. Generally of all gamesters and gaming, if it be ex- 
cessive, thus much we may conclude, that whether they win 
or lose for the present, their winnings are not Munera for^ 

1 Tom. 2, de vitis illustrium, 1. 4, de yit. ret, et incxediblle est qiuli valtOg animi- 

Leon. 10. > Venationibus adeo perditd que habitu dolorem Iracundlamque pne- 

stndebat et aucnpiis. > Aut infeliciter ferret, &c. 4 Uniculqne antem hoc a 

venatag tarn impatiens inde, ut siiinmos naturalnsitum est. ut doleatsicubi errar- 

MBpe Tiros aoerbissimis ooniumeliis 6nera- erit aui deoeptus nt. 

VOL. I. 25 

386 OauMti of Jfdanekofy. (Put. L see. S. 

tmuEy $ed insiduty as that wise Seneca detemiiiies, not tor- 
tune's gifby bat baits, the common catastrophe is ^ beggary, 
* Ui pesHs viiam, sic adimit alea pecumamy as the plagae 
takes awaj life, doth gaming goods, for * Oftmes nudiy irtopes 
0t egeni; 

^ ** Alea Scylla vorax, species certissima fortt, 

Non contenta boDis animam qnoqne perfida mergit, 
Foeda, furax, infamis, inen, fiirioea, mina.** 

For a little pleasure they take, and some small gains and 
gettings now and then, their wives and children are wringed 
in the mean time, and they themselves with loss of body and 
loul rue it in the end. I will say nothing of those prodigi- 
ous prodigals, perdenda pecunia genitos^ as he ^ taxed An- 
thony, Qui pairitnonium sine uUd fori calumnid amittwidj 
saith ' Cyprian, and ^ mad Sybaritical spendthrifls, Qutque 
und comedunt patrimonia coma ; that eat up all at a break- 
fiist, at a supper, or amongst bawds, parasites, and players, 
consume themselves in an instant, as if they had flung it 
into ' Tiber, with great wagers, vain and idle expenses, &a*^ 
not themselves only, but even all their friends, as a man 
desperately swimming drowns him that comes to help him, 
by suretyship and borrowing they will willingly undo all their 
associates and allies. ^ IroH pecuniis, as he saith, angry 
with their money ; ^^ ^ what with a wanton eye, a liquorish 
tongue, and a gamesome hand, when they have indiscreetly 
impoverished themselves, mortgaged their wits together with 
their lands, and entombed their ancestors* fair possessions 
in their bowels, they may lead the rest of their days in 
prison, as many times they do ; they repent at leisure ; and 
when all is gone begin to be thrifty ; but Sera est infundo 
parsimonia^ 'tis then too late to look about ; their ^^ end is 

1 Jn^vn. Sat. 8. Neo «niin locnUs com- 27. * Sallnst. • Tom. 3, Ser. de Alea. 

ItanHbus itur ad caaum tabulae, posita "* Plutus in Aristoph. calls all such gamo- 

0ed luditnr area. Lemnlus, instit. ca. 44, sters madmen. Si in insanum homlQem 

mendaciorum quidem, et pieijuriorum et contigero. Spontanenm ad ae trahunt 

panpertatis mater est alea, nuUam ha> fUrorem, et os, et nares, et oculos riTos 

bens patrimonii reyerentiam, quum illnd fiiciunt furoris et dlTersoria, Chrys. bran, 

effaderit, sensim in furta delabitur et ra- 17. ^ Paacadus Justus, 1. 1, de aha. 

pinas. Sarin. Polycrat. 1.1,0.6. SDam- > Seneca. »> Hall. ii In Sat. 11. Sed 

noderus. 3]>an. Souter. ^ Petiar. dial, deficiente cnimena : et cxesoente guk^ 

Mem. 8, subs. 18.] Lov$ of Gaming^ S^c, 387 

miserj, sorrow, shame, and discontent. And well they de- 
serve to be infamous and discontent. ^ Gatamidiari in Am' 
vhithecUro, as by Adrian the emperor's edict they were of 
old, decoctores honorum stiorum, so he calls them, prodigal 
fools, to be publicly shamed, and hissed out of all societies, 
rather than to be pitied or relieved. ^ The Tuscans and Boe- 
tians brought their bankrupts into the market place in a bier 
with an empty purse carried before them, all the boys fol- 
lowing, where . they sat all day circumsiante plebe, to be infa- 
mous and ridiculous. At • Padua in Italy they have a stone 
called the stone of turpitude, near the senate house, where 
spendthrifts, and such as disclaim non-payment of debts, do 
sit with their hinder parts bare, that by that note of disgrace, 
others may be terrified from all such vain expense, or bor- 
rowing more than they can tell how to pay. The * civilians 
of old set guardians over such brain-sick prodigals, as they 
did over madmen, to moderate their expenses, that they 
should not so loosely consume their fortunes, to the utter un- 
doing of their families. 

I may not here omit those two main plagues, and com- 
mon dotages of human kind, wine and women, which have 
infatuated and besotted myriads of people ; they go commonly 


<( ^ Qai vino indnlget, qaemqae alea docoqnit, ille 
In venerem putret" 

To whom is sorrow, saith Solomon, Fro. xxiii. 29, to whom 
is woe, but to such a one as loves drink ? it causeth torture 
(vino tortus et ira), and bitterness of mind, Sirac. 31, 21. 
Vinum furoris, Jeremy calls it, 15 cap, wine of madness, as 
well he may, for insanire facit sanos, it makes sound men 
eick and sad, and wise men ' mad, to say and do they know 
not what. Accidit hodie terribilis cctsus (saith ^ S. Austin), 

qalfl te manet exitus— i«biu in rentrem die coiuumes, a third is deoomposed by 

menis. i Spartian. Adriano. > Alex, yenery." * Pocolum quasi ainas in 

ab Alex. lib. 6, c. 10. Idem Gerbeliua, qno ssepe nauftagium flMsiant, jactuia 

lib. 6, Grae dific. > Fines Moris, tarn pecuniae turn mentis. Erasm. in 

4 Justinian, in Dfgestis. & Persius, Sat. Proy. calicum remiges. chil. 4, cent. 7 

5. *' One indulges in wine, another the Pro. 41. 7 Ser. 88, ad frat. in Eremo. 

S88 Oom$n of Melaaukoly. [Pnt. L sec t. 

hear a miserable accident; CTriUus's Mm this daj in hit 
drink, Matnm pnegnaniem n&qmitr cppreuU, wo/roretn vio- 
lart vobtttj patrem oceidUferty ei dua$ aiia$ sorortM ad var» 
tern vtdneraviij would have violated his sister, killed his 
fiither, &c A tme sajing it was of him, Vino dart latUiam 
ot dolormnj drink caoseth mirth, and drink caoseth sorrow, 
drink causeth " poverty and want," (Prov. zxL) shame and 
disgrace. MuUi ignobUu evaiere ob vim poium^ et (Austin) 
amisns honorihu projttgi aberr6ruiU; manj men have 
made shipwreck of their fortunes, and go like rogues and 
be^ars, having turned all their substance into aurum potah- 
iUj that otherwise might have lived in good worship and 
happy estate, and for a few hours' [Measure, for their Hilary 
term's but short, or ^ free madness, as Seneca calls it, par- 
chase unto themselves eternal tediousness and trouble. 

That other madness is on women, Aporiatare faeit ear, 
saith the wise man, ' Atque hamim cerebrum minuiL Pleas- 
ant at first she is, like Diosoorides Bhododaphne, that £ur 
plant to the eye, but poison to the taste, the rest as bitter as 
wormwood in the end (Prov. v. 4) and sharp as a two-edged 
sword, (vii. 27) ^ Her house is the way to hell, and goes 
down to the chambers of death." What more sorrowful can 
be said? they are miserable in this life, mad, beasts, led like 

• " oxen to the slaughter ; " and that which is worse, whore- 
masters and drunkards shall be judged, amtUutU gratiam, 
saith Austin, perdunt gloriam, ineurrunt danmationem atet' 
nam* They lose grace and glory ; 

* ^ brevis ilia volnptas 
Abrogat SBternam coeli decns ** 

they gain hell and eternal damnation. 

1 Obene unlns bom inianiam ntemo mentary pleMure blots out the etunal 
temporis tawUo peoaant. > Menander. glory of a hearenly lift.*' 

• Pnt. & ^ MflrUn. eooo. " That mo* 

Hem. 8, subi. 14.] Philauiia, or Self-lave^ ^c. 389 

SuBSECT. XIV. — PhUauHcLj OT Sdf4om^ Vcdnghry^ Praise^ 
HowmTy Immoderate Applause, Pcide, overmuch Joy, S^c^ 

Self-love, pride, and vainglory, ^ cacus amor sui, which 
Clirjsostom calls one of the devil's three great nets ; * ^ Ber- 
nard, an arrow which pierceth the soul through, and slays it; 
a sly, insensible enemy, not perceived," are main causes. 
Where neither anger, lust, oovetousness, fear, sorrow, &c^ 
nor any other perturbation can lay hold ; this will slyly and 
insensibly pervert us, Qusm non gula victt, Philautia supera^ 
vtt, (saith Cyprian,) whom surfeiting could not overtake, self- 
love hath overcome. • " He hath scorned all money, bribes, 
gifls, upright otherwise and sincere, hath inserted himself to 
no fond imagination, and sustained all those tyrannical con- 
cupiscences of the body, hath lost all his honour, captivated 
by vainglory." Chrysostom. sup. lo. Tu sola animum men* 
temque peruris, gloria. A great assault and cause of our pres- 
ent malady, although we do most part neglect, take no notice 
of it, yet this is a violent batterer of our souls, causeth mel- 
ancholy and dotage. This pleasing humour; this soft and 
whispering popular air, Atnabilis insania ; this delectable 
frenzy, most irrefragable passion. Mentis gratissimus error^ 
this acceptable disease, which so sweetly sets upon us, ravish- 
eth our senses, lulls our souls asleep, puffs up our hearts as 
80 many bladders, and that without all feeling, * insomuch as 
*^ those that are misaffected with it, never so much as once 
perceive it, or think of any cure." We commonly love him 
best in this ' malady that doth us most harm, and are very 
willing to be hurt ; adulationihus nostris libenter favemus 
(saith • Jerome) we love him, we love him ibr it : "^0 Bon- 
ciari, stuwe suave fait a te tali hcec trihui ; 'Twas sweet to 

1 Hor. s Sagltta qnee animam pene- centias stutinnerint) ht multotiM eap* 

trat, leviter penetrat, aed noo leve infli- ti k Tana gloria (Mnnia perdidemnt. 

git ytilnufl. sup. cant. * Qui omnem < Hac eorrepU non c<^tant de medela. 

pecuniarum contemptum habent, et nul- s du talem k tenia arertite pe8t«m. 

U imaginationifl totiufl mnndi se immis- < Ep. ad Eostochium, de eustod. Tirgin. 

cnerint, et tyrannical corporis concuplg- 7 Lyps. Ep. ad Bondanum. 

890 Causes of Mdanchofy. [Part. I. see. S. 

hear it And as ^ Plinj doth ingenuoaslj confess to his dear 
friend Augurinus, ** all thj writings are most acceptable, bat 
those especially that speak of us." Again, a little after to 
Maximus, ' '^ I cannot express how pleasing it is to me to 
hear myself commended." Though we smile to ourselvesy at 
least ironically, when parasites bedaub us with false enco- 
miums, as many princes cannot choose but do, Quum tale 
quid nihil intra se repererint, when they know they come as 
fiir short, as a mouse to an elephant, of any such virtaes; 
yet it doth us good. Though we seem many times to be 
angry, * '' and blush at our own praises, yet our souls in- 
wardly rejoice, it puffs us up ; " 'tis faJdax suavitasj blandus 
damony " makes us swell beyond our bounds, and forget our- 
selves." Her two daughters are lightness of mind, immod- 
erate joy and pride, not excluding those other concomitant 
vices, which * lodocus Lorichius reckons up ; bragging, hy- 
pocrisy, peevishness, and curiosity. 

Now the common cause of this mischief, ariseth from our- 
selves or others, ^ we are active and passive. It proceeds 
inwardly from ourselves, as we are active causes, from an 
overweening conceit we have of our good parts, own worth, 
(which indeed is no worth,) our bounty, favour, grace, valour, 
strength, wealth, patience, meekness, hospitality, beauty, tem- 
perance, gentry, knowledge, wit, science, art, learning, our 
t excellent gifts and fortunes, for which. Narcissus-like, we 
admire, flatter, and applaud ourselves, and think all the world 
esteems so of us ; and as deformed women easily believe 
those that tell them they be fair, we are too credulous of our 
own good parts and praises, too well persuaded of ourselves. 
We brag and venditate our • own works, and scorn all others 
in respect of us ; Injlati scientid (saith Paul), our wisdom, 
• our learning, all our geese are swans, and we as basely es- 

1 Ep. lib. 9. Omnia tna aoripta pal- laudem guam intrinaecas animie tetaa- 

eherrima existimo, maximi tamea iUa tur. ' Thesaur. Theo. ^ Neo enim mihi 

qtue de nobis. > Exprimere non poa- cornea fibra eat. Per. tEmaniboaillis, 

■tun qukm ait jucnndum, Sec. * Hie- Naacentnr violae. Pera. 1, Sat. ^ Cm- 

ron. et licet noa indifj^noa dicimua et cali- nia enim noatra aupra modum placent 

das rubor ora perAindat, attamen ad ^ Fab. 1. 10, o. 8. Ridentur, mala com* 

Mem. 8, subs. 14.] Philatdia, or Self-love, SfC, 391 

teem and vilifj other men's, as we do over-highly prize and 
value our own. We will not suffer them to be in se- 
eundis, no, not in tertiis ; what, Mecum confertur Ulysses J 
they are Mures, Muscce, ctdices prce se, nits and flies com- 
pared to his inexorable and supercilious, eminent and arro- 
gant worship ; though indeed they be far before him. Only 
wise, only rich, only fortunate, valorous, and fair, puffed up 
with this tympany of self-conceit ; ^ as that proud Pharisee, 
they are not (as they suppose) " like other men," of a purer 
and more precious metal ; * Soli rei gerendi sunt efficaces, 
which that wise Periander held of such ; ^ meditantur omne 
qui prius negotium, S^c. Novi quendam (saith t Erasmus) I 
knew one so arrogant that he thought himself inferior to no 
man living, like * Callisthenes the philosopher, that neither 
held Alexander's acts, or any other subject worthy of his pen, 
such was his insolency ; or Seleucus king of Syria, who 
thought none fit to contend with him but the Romans. ^ Eos 
solos dignos ratus quibuscum de imperio certaret. That 
which Tully writ to Atticus long since, is still in force, 
• " There was never yet true poet nor orator, that thought 
any other better than himself." And such for the most part 
are your princes, potentates, great philosophers, historiog- 
raphers, authors of sects or heresies, and all our great schol- 
ars, as • Hierom defines ; " a natural philosopher is a glorious 
creature, and a very slave of rumour, fame, and popular opin- 
ion," and though they write de contemptu ghrice, yet as he 
observes, they will put their names to their books. VoUs et 
fanuB me semper dedi, saith Trebellius PoUio, I " have wholly 
consecrated myself to you and fame." " 'Tis all my desire, 
night and day, 'tis all my study to raise my name." Proud 
' Pliny seconds him ; Quanquam ! ^c, and that vainglori- 

ponunt oarmina, yemm gaudent soriben- existimaret, To. VossiaB, lib. 1, cap. 9, de 

tes, et se venerantar, et ultra. Si taceas hint. * Plutarch. Tit. Catonis. a Ke- 

laudant, quicquid soripsere beati. Hor. mo unquam PocSta aut Orator, qui quen- 

ep. 2, 1. 2. 1 Luke xriii. 10. * De quam se meliorem arbitraretur. ^ Con- 

meliore luto flnxit praecordia Titan, sol. ad Pammachium. Mundi philoso- 

Auson. sap. t Chil. 8, cent. 10, pro. phus, glorise animal, et popularis aur» 

97. Qui se crederet neminem ulla in re et rumorum venale mancipium. ^ Epist. 

prsBStantiorem. > Tanto fiutu scripsit, 5, Capitoni suo : Diebus ac noctibus, boo 

ttt Alexandri gesta inferiora scriptis suis solum cogito si qu& me possum leTave 

892 Causes of Melanchofy. [Part. L mc a. 

0U8 ^ orator, is not ashamed to confess in an Epistle of his i» 
Marcus Lecceius Ardeo incredihiU cupiditcUe^ fyc. ^I bora 
with an incredible desire to have my ' name registered in thj 
book." Out of this fountain proceed all those cracks and bragja, 

• speramus carmina fingi Posss Unenda cedro, et lent ser^ 

vanda cupresso * Non usitatd nee tenui ferar pennd 

nee in Urra marabar Umgius. Nil parvum avt humiU moda, 

nil mortcUe loquor, Diear qua vioUns ohstrepit Ausidas. 

Exegi monwnentum €ere perennius. Jamque opus exegi^ quod 
nee Jovis iroy nee ignis, Sfe.y cum venit iUe dieSy ^c^ parte 
iamen meliore met super a&a perennis astra ferar, nomenque 
erit indelehiU nostrum, (This of Ovid I have paraphrased 

in English.) 

** And when I am dead and gone, 
My corpse laid under a stone, 
My fame shall yet survive. 
And I shall be alive, 
In these my works forever, 
My glory shall persever,** &o. 

And that of Ennius, 

" Nemo me lachrymis deooret, neque funera fletn 
Faxit, cur? voUto docta per ora virdm/* 

^ Let none shed tears over me, or adorn my bier with sorrow 
—^because I am eternally in the mouths of men." With 
many such proud strains, and foolish flashes too common with 
writers. Not so much as Democharis on the * Topics, but 
he will be immortal. Typotius de famd, shall be famous, 
and well he deserves, because he writ of fame ; and every 

trivial poet must be renowned. " Plausuque petit dares' 

cere vulgi" " He seeks the applause of the public" This 
puffing humour it is, that hath produced so many great tomes, 
built such famous monuments, strong castles, and Mausolean 
tombs, to have their acts eternized, " Digito monstrari, ei 

humo. Idvotomeo suflBcit, &o. l Tul- sius Ibrat. uneb. d« Seal. > Hor. art. 

Uus. s Ut nomen meum scriptis tuis Po6t. * Od. Vit. 1. 8. J&mqae opiu 

lUustretur. Inquiea animus studio nter- ex^. Vade. liber fbeliz ; Palingen. Ub, 

fiitatis, noctes et dies aogebatur. Hen- X8. * In lib, 8. 

Mem. 8, sabs. 14.] Vainglory, Pride, S^e. 393 

dicier hie est ; *' ^ to be pointed at with the finger, and to have 
it said, 'there he goes/" to see their names inscribed, as 
Phryne on the walls of Thebes, Phryne fecit ; this causeth 
so many bloody battles, ^et nodes cogit vigilare serenas ;** 
^ and induces us to watch during calm nights." Long jour- 
neys, ^Magnum iter intendo, sed dot mihi gloria vires,** " I 
contemplate a monstrous journey, but the love of glory 
strengthens me for it," gaining honour, a little applause, 
pride, self-love, vainglory. This is it which makes them 
take such pains, and break out into those ridiculous strains, 
this high conceit of themselves, to ^ scorn all others ; ridicuh 
fcustu et intolercmdo eontemptu ; as ^ Pal»mon the grammarian 
contemned Yarro, secum et natas et morituras literal jactansj 
and brings them to that height of insolency, that they cannot 
endure to be contradicted, • or " hear of anything but their 
own commendation," which Hierom notes of such kind of 
men. And as ^ Austin well seconds him, ^ 'tis their sole 
study day and night to be commended and applauded.** 
When as indeed, in all wise men's judgments, quihus cor sapit, 
they are * mad, empty vessels, funges, beside themselves, de- 
rided, et ut Camelus inproverbio quarens comua, etiam quas 
kahebat aures amisit, ^ their works are toys, as an almanac 
out of date, '^ authoris pereunt garrulitate sui, they seek fame 
and immortality, but reap dishonour and infamy, they are a 
common obloquy, insensati, and come far short of that which 
they suppose or expect. ' puer ut sis vitcdis mettio. 

" How muoh I dread 
Thy days are short, some lord shall strike thee dead." 

Of SO many myriads of poets, rhetoricians, philosophers, 
sophisters, as ♦ Eusebius well observes, which have written 
in former ages, scarce one of a thousand's works remains, 

1 De ponte d<«jicen. * Sueton. lib. InMtniam litam, domine, long^ llio k me. 

degram. > Nihil Iib«nter audlunt, nisi Austin, eons. lib. 10, csap. 87. « '' As 

laudes suas. 4 Epis. 66. Nihil allud Camelus, in the novel, who lost his ears 

dies noctesque cogitant nisi ut in studiis while he was looking for a pair of horns." 

snis laudentur ab hominibus. ^ Quas 7 Mart. 1. 6, 61. > Hor. Sat. 1, 1. 2. 

mijor dementia aut dici, ant ezcogitari * lib. cont. Philos. cap. 1- 
potest, quAm sic ob gloriam crnciari? 

394 Oau$e$ of Melanchoh. [Put. L 

nomina et libri nmtd cum corparibus itUeneruni^ their books 
and bodies are perished together. It is not as thej vainlj 
think, they shall sarelj be admired and immortal, as one told 
Philip of Macedon insultingly, after a yictory, that his 
shadow was no longer than before, we may say to them, 

** Nos demiramor, sed non com deside TiUgo, 
Sed velnt Harpyas, Gorgonas, et Ftirias." 

'* We marvel too, not as the vulgar we, 
But as we Gofgons, Harpies, or Furies see.*^ 

Or if we do applaud, honour, and admire, quota pears, how 
small a part, in respect of the whole world, never so much as 
hears our names, how few take notice of us, how slender a 
tract, as scant as Alcibiades's land in a map ! And yet 
every man must and will be immortal, as he hopes, and ex- 
tend his fame to our antipodes, when as half, no not a quarter 
of his own province or city, neither knows nor hears of him ; 
but say they did, what's a city to a kingdom, a kiagdom to 
Europe, Europe to the world, the world itself that must have 
an end, if compared to the least visible star in the firmament, 
eighteen times bigger than it ? And then if those stars be 
infinite, and every star there be a sun, as some will, and as 
this sun of ours hath his planets about him, all inhabited, 
what proportion bear we to them, and where's our glory? 
Orhem terrarum victor Somanus habebat, as he cracked in 
Petronius, all the world was under Augustus ; and so in Con- 
stantine's time, Eusebius brags he governed all the world, 

universum mundum prcaciare admodum administravity et 

omnis orbis gentes Imperaiori subfecti ; so of Alexander it is 
given out, the four monarchies, &c., when as neither Greeks 
nor Romans ever had the fifteenth part of the now known 
world, nor half of that which was then described. What 
braggadocios are they and we then ? qitam hrevis hie de no- 
bis sernWf as ^ he said, ^pudebit audi nominiSy how short a 
time, how little a while doth this fame of ours continue? 
Every private province, every small territory and city, when 

1 Tal. Som. Scip * BoethiuB. 

Mem. 3, subs. 14.] Vainglory^ Pride, S^c. 395 

we have all done, will yield as generous spirits, as brave ex- 
amples in all respects, as famous as ourselves, Cadwallader in 
Wales, Hollo in Normandy, Bobin Hood and Little John, are 
as much renowned in Sherwood, as Caesar in Rome, Alexan- 
der in Greece, or his Hephestion, ^ Omnia cetas omnisque pop- 
tUtts in exemplum et admirattanem veniet, every town, city, 
book, is full of brslve soldiers, senators, scholars ; and though 
2 Bracydas was a worthy captain, a good man, and as they 
thought, not to be matched in Lacedaemon, yet as his mother 
truly said, plures habet Sparta Bracyda meliores, Sparta had 
many better men than ever he was ; and howsoever thou ad- 
mirest thyself, thy friend, many an obscure fellow the world 
never took notice of, had he been in place or action, would 
have done much better than he or he, or thou thyself. 

Another kind of mad men there is opposite to these, that 
' are insensibly mad, and know not of it, such as contemn all 
praise and glory, think themselves most free, when as indeed 
they are most mad ; calcard sed alio fastu ; a company of 
cynics, such as are monks, hermits, anachorites, that contemn 
the world, contemn themselves, contemn all titles, honours, 
offices ; and yet in that contempt are more proud than any 
man living whatsoever. They are proud in humility, proud 
in that they are not proud, scspe homo de varuB gloricB con- 
temptu, vanius gloriatur, as Austin hath it, confess, lib. 10, 
cap. 38, like Diogenes, intiis gloriantur, they brag inwardly, 
and feed themselves fat with a self-conceit of sanctity, which 
is no better than hypocrisy. They go in sheep's russet, many 
great men that might maintain themselves in cloth of gold, 
and seem to be dejected, humble by their outward carriage, 
when as inwardly they are swoln full of pride, arrogancy, and 
self-conceit. And therefore Seneca adviseth his friend Lu- 
cilius, * '^ in his attire and gesture, outward actions, especially 
to avoid all such things as are more notable in themselves ; as 

1 Putean. Gisalp. hitt. lib. 1. > Pin- sunt, agperam cultnm et yidosum caput, 

tarch. Lycurgo. * Epist 18. lUud negligentiorem barbam, indictum argen- 

te admoneo, ne eomm more facias, qai to odium, cubile humi posltum, et quio- 

Don proficere, sed eoDspici oupiunt, quae quid ad laudem perversa Tia sequituT) 

in liabitu tuo, aut genera Tit« notabilia erita. 

896 Oautes of MeUmekofy. [Part. L 

a ragged atdre, hinute head, horrid beard, contempt of 
monej, coarse lodgings and whatsoever leads to fiune that op- 
posite way." 

All this madness jet proceeds from ourselves, the main 
engine which batters us is from others, we are merely passive 
in this business ; from a company of parasites and flatt^rera^ 
that with immoderate praise, and bombast epithets, glozing 
titles, false eulogiums, so bedaub and applaud, gild over many 
a silly and undeserving man, that they dap him quite oat of 
his wits, ^es %mprimi$ viclerUa est, as Hierom notes, this 
common applause is a most violent thing, laudum placenta^ a 
drum, fife, and trumpet cannot so animate ; that fattens men, 
erects and dejects them in an instant ^ Palma negata ma- 
cruvti^ dancUa reducit opimum. It makes them fat and lean, as 
frost doth conies. ^ ^ And who is that mortal man that can 
so contain himself, that if he be immoderately commended 
and applauded, will not be moved ? " Let Him be what he 
will, those parasites will overturn him ; if he be a king, he is 
one of the nine worthies, more than a man, a god forthwith, 
♦ edictum Domini Deique nostri ; and they will sacrifice 

unto him, 

t " divinos si tu patiaris honores, 
Ultrb ipsi dabiraas meritasque sacrabiraus aras.'* 

If he be a soldier, then Themistocles, Epaminondas, Hector, 
Achilles, duo fidmina belli, triumviri terrarum, S^c^ and the 
valour of both Scipios is too little for him, he is tnvicttssimuSy 
serenissimus, muliis trophms omaiissimus, natura dominuSy 
although he be lepus gcdeatug, indeed a very coward, a milk* 
sop, X and as he said of Xerxes, postremus in pugnd, primus in 
Jugd, and such a one as never durst look his enemy in the 
face. If he be a big man, then is he a Samson, another 
Hercules ; if he pronounce a speech, another TuUy or Demos- 
thenes ; as of Herod in the Acts, " the voice of Gk)d and not 

1 Per. s Quia rero tain bene modu- you will accept divine honours, we will 

lo 8U0 metiri se novit, ut eum asaiduae et willingly erect and conaecrate altan to 

immodicae laudationea non moveant? you." t Juatin. 
flen. Steph. * Mart. t Stroza. '* If 

Mem. 8, subs. 14.J Vainglory^ Pride, ^c, 397 

of man ; " if he can make a rerse, Homer, Virgil, &c. And 
then my sillj weak patient takes all these eulogiums to him- 
self; if he be a scholar so commended for his much reading, 
excellent style, method, &c., he will eviscerate himself like a 
spider, stady to death, Laudatas ostendit avis Junonia pen- 
naSj peacock-like he will display all his feathers. If he be a 
soldier, and so applauded, his valour extolled, though it be 
impar congresms, as that of Troilus, and Achilles, Infelix 
puer, he will combat with a giant, run first upon a breach, 
as another ^ Philippus, he will ride into the thickest of his 
enemies. Commend his housekeeping, and he will beggar 
himself; commend his temperance, he will starve himself. 

" landataqne Tirtus 
Crescit, et immensum gloria calcar habet." ^ 

he is mad, mad, mad, no woe with him ; impatiens con- 

iortis erity he will over the ^ Alps to be talked of, or to main- 
tain his credit. Commend an ambitious man, some proud 
prince or potentate, m phis cequo hudetur (saith ^ Erasmus) 
cristas erigit, exuit haminem, Deum se putat, he sets up his 
crest, and will be no longer a man but a god« 

t " nihil est quod credere de se 
Nod audet quum laudator diis seqaa potesti».*'| 

How did this work with this Alexander, that would needs be 
Jupiter's son, and go like Hercules in a lion's skin ? Domi- 
tian a god (§ Dominus Deus noster sic fieri jubet), like the 
I Persian kings, whose image was adored by all that came 
into the city of Babylon. Commodus the emperor was so 
gulled by his fiattering parasites, that he must be called Her- 
cules. *Antoniu3 the Roman would be crowned with ivy. 

1 LItiiu. Qlozia tantam elatus, non oeu, et declamatio Am. Jot. Sat. 10. 

ba, in medlos hostes irruen, quod com- s in MorisB Eocom. f Juvenal. Sat. 4. 

ptetb murifl conipici se ptj^gnantem, a $ " There la nothing which orer-lauded 

muio speotantlhus, egregium duoebat. power will not presume to imagine of it- 

*" Applauded virtue grows apace, and self." S Sueton. c. 12, in Domitiano. 

glory Inoludes within it an immense im- || Briaonius. ^ Antonius ab assentatori- 

pulse." > I demens, et ssevas eurre per bus eveetus Librum se patrem appellari 

ilpei. Aude Aliquid| &e., nt pueris pi*- Jussit, et pro deo se Tsnditavit ledhnitus 

398 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. % 

carried in a chariot, and adored for Bacchus. Cotys, king of 
Thrace, was married to ^Minerva, and sent three several 
messengers one after Another, to see if she were come to his 
bed-chamber. Such a one was * Jupiter Menecrates, Maxi- 
minus Jovianus, Dioclesianus Hercuieus, Sapor the. Persian 
king, brother of the sun and moon, and our modern Turks, 
that will be gods on earth, kings of kings, God's shadow, com- 
manders of all that may be commanded, our kings of China 
and Tartary in this present age. Such a one was Xerxes, 
that would whip the sea, fetter Neptune, stultd jactcmtid, and 
send a challenge to Mount Athos ; and such are many sottish 
princes, brought into a fooFs paradise by their parasites, 'tis a 
common humour, incident to all men, when they are in great 
places, or come to the solstice of honour, have done, or de- 
served well, to applaud and flatter themselves. StuUiHam 
suam produrU, S^c, (saith * Platerus) your very tradesmen if 
they be excellent, will crack and brag, and show their folly 
in excess. They have good parts, and they know it, you 
need not tell them of it ; out of a conceit of their worth, they 
go smiling to themselves, a perpetual meditation of their tro- 
phies and plaudits, they run at last quite mad, and lose their 
wits.' Petrarch, lib. 1, de corUemptu mundi, confessed as 
much of himself, and Cardan, in his fifth book of wisdom, 
gives an instance in a smith of Milan, a fellow-citizen of his, 
^ one Galeus de Rubeis, that being commended for refining 
of an instrument of Archimedes, for joy ran mad. Plutarch 
in the life of Artaxerxes, hath such a like story of one Cha- 
mus, a soldier, that wounded king Cyrus in battle, and " grew 
thereupon so '^ arrogant, that in a short space after he lost his 
wits." So many men, if any new honour, office, preferment, 

hedera, et corona yelatng anrea, et thyr- 11. Oracolum est, Tivlda ssepe ingenia 
sum tenens, cothurnisque saccinctus luxuiiare hac et evanescere, multosqne 
curru Telut Liber pater vectus eat Alex- sensum penitas amisisse. Homines intu- 
andriae. Pater, yol. post. ^ Minenrse entur, ac si ipsi non essent homines, 
nuptias ambit, tanto furore percitus, ut * Galeus de Rubeis, ciyis noster faber fer- 
satellites mitteret ad videndum num dea rarius, ob inventionem instrumenti Co- 
in thalamis venisset, &c. 2 ^iian. li. cleae olim Archimedis dicti, pro Isetitia 
12. * Be mentis alienat. cap. 8. s Se- insaniyit. ^ Insania postmodum cor* 
quiturque superbia formam. Liyiua, li. reptus, ob nimiam inde arrogantiam. 

Mem. 8, snbs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 399 

booty, treasure, possession, or patrimony, ex insperato fall 
unto them, for immoderate joy, and continual meditation of it, 
cannot sleep ^ or tell what they say or do, they are so rav- 
ished on a sudden ; and with vain conceits transported, there 
is no rule with them. Epaminondas, therefore, the next day 
after his Leuctrian victory, ^ " came abroad all squalid and 
submiss," and gave no other reason to his friends of so doing, 
than that he perceived himself the day before, by reason of 
his good fortune, to be too insolent, overmuch joyed. That 
wise and virtuous lady, * Queen Katherine, Dowager of Eng- 
land, in private talk, upon like occasion, said, ''that *she 
would not willingly endure the extremity of either fortune ; 
but if it were so, that of necessity she must tindergo the one, 
she would be in adversity, because comfort was never want- 
ing in it, but still counsel and government were defective in 
the other ; " they could not moderate themselves. 

SuBSECT. XV. — Love of Learning, or overmuch Study, 
With a Digression of the Misery of Scholars, and why the 
Muses are Melancholy. 

Leonartus Fuchsius, Instit, lib. iii. sect. 1, cap. 1, Faelix 
Plater, lib. iii. de mentis alienat.. Here, de Saxonia, Tract, 
post, de melanch. cap. 3, speak of a ^peculiar fury, which 
comes by overmuch study. Fernelius, lib. 1, cap. 18, ® puts 
study, contemplation, and continual meditation, as an especial 
cause of madness ; and in his 86 consul, cites the same words. 
Jo. Arculanus, in lib. 9, Rhasis ad Alnansorem, cap. 16, 
amongst other causes reckons up studium vehemens ; so doth 
Levinus Lemnius, lib. de occvl. nat. mirac. lib. 1, cap. 16. 
■^"Many men (saith he) come to this malady by continual 

1 Bene ferre magnam diflce fortunam. hac nulli unquam dcfait solatinm, in al- 

Hor. Fortunam rererenter habe, qui- tera multis consilium, &c. Lod. Vives. 

cunque repents Dives ab ezili progrediere ^ Peculiaris furor, qui ex literis fit. 

loco. Ausonius. s Processit squalidus « Nihil magis auget, ac asddua studia, et 

et submissus, ut hesterni diei gaudium profundse cogitationes. 7 Non desunt, 

intemperaus hodie castigaret. ' Uxor qui ex jugi studio, et intempestiva lucu- 

Henr. 8. ^ Neutrius se fortunsB extre- bratione, hue deyenerunt, hi prse caeteris 

mum libenter cxperturam dixit : sed si enim plerunque melancholia solent Infes- 

necessitas alterius sub nde imponeretur, tari. 
optare se difflciljm et adversam : quod in 


400 Catuei of MeUmckofy. [Pan I. sec 1. 

* study, and night-waking, and of all other men, scholars are 
most subject to it ; " and such* Rhasis adds, ^^ that have oom- 
monlj the finest witB.** Gont. Uh. 1, tracL 9. Marsilios Fi- 
dnus, d6 tanit. tuendd^ Uh. 1, cap, 7, puts melancholy amongst 
.one of those five principal plagues of students, 'tis a common 
Maul unto them all, and almost in some measure an insepar- 
able companion. Varro belike for that cause calls TWsfat 
Philmophos et teveroSf severe, sad, dry, tetric, are common 
epithets to scholars ; and ^ Patritius therefore, in the institu- 
tion of princes, would not have them to be great students 
For (as Machiavel holds) study weakens their bodies, dulls 
the spirits, abates their strength and courage; and good 
scholars are never good soldiers, which a certain Groth well 
perceived, for when his countrymen came into Greece, and 
would have burned all their books, he cried out against it, by 
no means they should do it, ''^ leave them that plague, 
which in time will consume all their vigour, and martial 
spirits." The ^ Turks abdicated Comutus the next heir from 
the empire, because he was so much given to his book ; and 
'tis the common tenet of the world, that learning dulls and 
diminisheth the spirits, and so per consequens produceth mel- 

Two main reasons may be given of it, why students should 
be more subject to this malady than others. The one is, they 
live a sedentary, solitary life, sihi et mtisMy free from bodily 
exercise, and those ordinary disports which other men use ; 
and many times if discontent and idleness concur with it, 
which is too frequent, they are precipitated into this gulf on 
a sudden; but the common cause is overmuch study; too 
much learning (as ^ Festus told Paul) hath made thee mad ; 
'tis that other extreme which effects it. So did Trincavellius, 
lib. 1, consil 12 and 13, find by his experience, in two of his 

* study is a continual and earnest 81. Onecis hanc pestem reUnqnite, qvm 

meditation, applied to something with dubinm non est qoin breri omnem ik 

great desire. Tally. i Etilli qui sunt vigoremereptura, Ifartiosque spiritos «x- 

■nbtilis ingenii, et multse praemeditatio- haustuva sit; nt ad armatractanda plane 

nis, de fiusili incidunt in melanchoUam. inhabiles futuri slnt. ^ Knoles, Tnik 

tObstudiorumsolicitudiuMmJib. 5,Tit.6. ffist. ft Acts, xxri. 24. 

Gaapar Ens, Thesaur. Polit. Apoteles. 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.J Stttdy, a Cause. 401 

patients, a yoang baron, and another that contracted this 
maJady by too vehement study. So Forestus, observat. h 10, 
observ. 13, in a young divine in Louvaine, that was mad, and 
said, ^ '^ he had a Bible in his head ; ** Marsilius Ficinus de 
santt tuend, lib. 1, cap. 1, 3, 4, and lib. 2, cap. 16, gives 
many reasons, ^ " why students dote more often than others." 
The first is their negligence ; ' *' other men look to their tools, 
a painter will wash his pencils, a smith will look to his ham- 
mer, anvil, forge ; a husbandman will mend his plough-irons, 
and grind his hatchet, if it be dull ; a falconer or huntsman 
will have an especial care of his hawks, hounds, horses, 
dogs, &c. ; a musician will string and unstring his lute, &c ; 
only scholars neglect that instrument, their brain and spirits 
(I mean) which they daily use, and by which they range over 
all the world, which by much study is consumed." Vide 
(saith Lucian) ne fanictdum nimis intendendo, cUiquando ah- 
rumpas : ^*' See thou twist not the rope so hard, till at length 
it * break." Ficinus, in his fourth chap, gives some other 
reasons ; Saturn and Mercury, the patrons of learning, they 
are both dry planets ; and Origan us assigns the same cause, 
why Mercurialists, are so poor, and most part beggars ; for 
that their president Mercury had no better fortune himself. 
The destinies of old put poverty upon him as a punishment ; 
since when, poetry and beggary are Gemelli, twin-born brats, 
inseparable companions ; 

* " And to this day is every scholar poor; 

Gross gold from them runs headlong to the boor: ** 

Mercury can help them to knowledge, but not to money. 
The second is contemplation. •" which dries the brain and 

lNimii8 Btudiis melanehoUous evasit, ftc, soli musarum mystae tarn negligeu- 

dicens 86 Biblium in capite habere. ^Cur tea sunt, ut instrumentum illud quo 

melanchoIiSL assidufll, crebrisque delira- mundum universum xnetiri solent, spiri- 

mentifl Texentur eorum animi ut desipere turn scilicet, penitus negligere videantur. 

GOgantur. ' Solera quilibet artlfex in- * Arcus et arma tibi non aunt iniltanda 

strnmenta sua diligentfasimi curat, peni- Dianae. Si nunquam cesses tendere mol- 

eellos pictor ; malleos incudesque fober lis erit. Orid. 5 Ephemer. <> Con- 

ferrarius; miles equos, arma yenatorjau- templatio cerebrum eudccat et extinguit 

otps ayes et canes, cytharam cytharasdus, oalorem natiualem, unde cerebrum fHgi* 

VOL. I. 26 


402 Caiises of Melanchofy. [Part. I. sec i. 

exdnguisheth natural heat ; for whilst the spirits are inteii: 
to meditation above in the head, the stomach and liver are 
left destitute, and thence come black blood and crudities bj 
defect of concoction, and for want of exercise the superflaoos 
vapours cannot exliale," &c. The same reasons are repeated 
by Gromesius, lib. 4, cap. 1, de sale ^Nymannus orat. de Imag. 
Jo. Voschius, lib. % cap* 5, d^ peste; and something more 
thej add, that hard students are commonly troubled with 
gouts, catarrhs, rheums, cachexia, bradiopepsia, bad eyes, 
stone and colic, * crudities, oppilations, vertigo, winds, con- 
sumptions, and all such diseases as come by overmuch sitting; 
they are most part lean, dry, ill-coloured, spend their fortunes, 
lose their wits, and many times their lives, and all through 
immoderate pains, and extraoixlinary studies. If you will 
not believe the truth of this, look upon great Tostatus and 
Thomas Aquinas's works, and tell me whether those men 
took pains ? peruse Austin, Hierom, &c., and many thousands 

" Qui cnpit optatam cnrsu contingere metanif 
Multa tulit, fecitque puer, sudavit et alsit.*' 

'^ He that desires this wished goal to gain, 
Must sweat and freeze before he can attain,** 

and labour hard for it. So did Seneca, by his own confession, 
ep. 8. ' " Not a day that I spend idle, part of the night I 
keep mine eyes open, tired with waking, and now slumbering 
to their continual task." Hear TuUy, pro Archid Poetd: 
" whilst others loitered, and took their pleasures, he was con- 
tinually at his book," so they do that will be scholars, and 
that to the hazard (I say) of their healths, fortunes, wits, and 
lives. How much did Aristotle and Ptolemy spend? uni\is 

dam et siccum evadit quod est melanchol- eachectici et nunqaam bene colorati, 

icnm. Accedlt ad hoc. quod natura In propter debilitatem digestivae^ fiicultalLs, 

contemplatione, cerebro prorAUS cordique multiplioantur in iis superfluitates. Jo. 

intenta, stomachum heparque destituit, Voschius, parte 2, cap. 6, de peste. 

nnde ex alimentin male coctis, sanguis > NuUus mihi per otium dies exit, partem 

crassus et niger eflicitur, dum nimio otio noctis studiis dedico, non yero somno. 

membrorum superflui yapores non exha- sed oculos yigilia fiitigatos cadentesqne, 

lant. 1 Cerebrum exsiccatur, corpora in operam detineo. 
sensim cpracilescuDt. s studiosi sunt 

Mem. 3, snbs. 15.] Study, a Cause, 403 

regni precium they say, more than a king's ransom ; how 
many crowns per annum, to perfect arts, the one about his 
History of Creatures, the other on his Almagest ? How 
much time did Thebet Benchorat employ, to find out the 
motion of the eighth sphere ? forty years and more, some 
write ; how many poor scholars have lost their wits, or be- 
come dizzards, neglecting all worldly affairs and their own 
health, wealth, esse and bene esse, to gain knowledge, for 
which, after all their pains, in this world's esteem they are 
accounted ridiculous and silly fools, idiots, asses, and (as oft 
they are) rejected, contemned, derided, doting, and mad. 
Liook for examples in Hildesheim, spiceL 2, de mania et 
delirio ; read Trincavellius, L 3, consil, 36, etc. 17. Mon- 
tanus, consiL 233. * Garceus, de Judic, genit, cap, 33. Mer- 
curialis, consil. 86, cap. 25. Prosper ^Calenius in his Book 
de atrd bile ; Go to Bedlam and ask. Or if they keep their 
wits, yet they are esteemed scrubs and fools by reason of 
their carriage " after seven years* study " 

" statulL taciturnias exit, 
Plerumque et risn populum quatit.** 

" He becomes more silent than a statue, and generally excites 
people's laughter." Because they cannot ride a horse, which 
every clown can do ; salute and court a gentlewoman, carve 
at table, cringe and make conges, which every common 
swasher can do, * hos populus ridet, &c., they are laughed to 
scorn, and accounted silly fools by our gallants. Yea, many 
times, such is their misery, they deserve it ; * a mere scholar, 
a mere ass. 

6 " Obstipo capite, et figentes lamine terrain, 

Marmara cum secam, et rabiosa silentia rodunt, 
Atque experrecto trutinantar verba labello, 

1 Johannes HanttBchiiu Bohemus, nat. mistocles said, he could make a small 

1516, eruditufl vir, nimiis studiis in Phre- town become a great city. ^ Pen. Sat. 

nesin incidit. Montanus instances in a ^ Ingenium sibi qaod vanas desumpsit 

Frenchman of Tolosa. < Cardinalis Athenas et septem studiis annos dedit, 

Cncios; ob laborem, Tigiliam, et diutur- insenuitque. Libris et curis statua taci- 

na studia factus Melancholicus. > Pen. turnius exit, Plerunque et risu populum 

Sat. 3. They cannot fiddle; but, as The^ qnatit, Hor. ep. 1, lib. 2. 

404 Oaiues of Melancholy, [Part I. sec. 1 

^groti veteris meditantes somnia, gigni 

De nihilo nihUiim; in nihilam nil posse reverti." 

1 " who do lean awry 
Their heads, piercing the earth with a fixt eye; 
When, by themselves, they gnaw their murmaring, 
And fnrions silence, as Hwere balancing 
Each word upon their outstretched lip, and when 
They meditate the dreams of old sick men. 
As ' Oat of nothing, nothing can be brought; 
And that which is, can ne^er be tam*d to nought.* " 

Thus they go commonlj meditating unto themselves, thus 
they sit, such is their action and gesture. Fulgosus, L 8, c. 7, 
makes mention how Th. Aquinas, supping with king Lewis 
of France, upon a sudden knocked his fist upon the tahle, 
and cried, conclusum est contra ManicluEos ; his wits were a 
wool-gathering, as they say, and his head busied about other 
matters, when he perceived his error, he was much ^ abashed. 
Such a story there is of Archimedes in Vitruvius, that hav- 
ing found out the means to know how much gold was mingled 
with the silver in king Hiero's crown, ran naked forth from 
the bath and cried e^i^xa, I have found ; • " and was commonly 
80 intent to his studies, that he never perceived what was 
done about him ; when the city was taken, and the soldiers 
now ready to rifle his house, he took no notice of it." St. 
Bernard rode all day long by the Lemnian lake, and asked 
at last where he was, MaruUus, lib. 2, cap. 4 It was De- 
mocritus*8 carriage alone that made the Abderites suppose him 
to have been mad, and sent for Hippocrates to cure him ; if 
he had been in any solemn company, he would upon all 
occasions fall a laughing. Theophrastus saith as much of 
Heraclitus, for that he continually wept, and Laertius of 
Menedemus Lampsacus, because he ran like a madman, 
* saying, " he came from hell as a spy, to tell the devils what 
mortal men did." Your greatest students are commonly no 
better, silly, soft fellows in their outward behaviour, absurd, 

1 Translated bj H. B. Holiday. < Tho- fte. * Sub Farin laryft cireamirit nr- 

mas rabora conJViguB dixit se de argmnen- bem, dicitans te ezploratorem ab Inliwis 

to eogitdwe. > Plutarch. vitiL Marcelli. Teniflse, delatumm daDmonibiis mortaH- 

Nec sensit urbem captain, nee militefi in um peccata. 
domum irruentes, adeo intentus stucUis, 

Mem. 8, subs. 16.] Studf/j a Oause^ 405 

ridiculous to others, and no whit experienced in worldly busi- 
ness ; they can measure the heavens, range over the world, 
teach others wisdom, and yet in bargains and contracts they 
are circumvented by every base tradesman. Are not these 
men fools ? and how should they be otherwise, ^ but as so 
many sots in schools, when (as ^he well observed) they 
neither hear nor see such things as are commonly practised 
abix>ad ? '' how should they get experience, by what means ? 
• *' I knew in my time many scholars," saith ^neas Sylvius 
(in an epistle of his to Gasper Scitick, chancellor to the em- 
peror), " excellent well learned, but so rude, so silly, that 
they had no common civility, nor knew how to manage their 
domestic or public afiairs." ^^ Faglarensis was amazed, and 
said his farmer had surely cozened him, when he heard him 
tell that his sow had eleven pigs, and his ass had but one 
foaU* To say the best of this profession, I can give no other 
testimony of them in general, than that of Pliny of Isseus ; 
* ^^ He is yet a scholar, than which kind of men there is 
nothing so simple, so sincere, none better, they are most part 
harmless, honest, upright, innocent, plain -dealing men." 

Now, because they are commonly subject to such hazards 
and inconveniences as dotage, madness, simplicity, &c., Jo. 
Voschius would have good scholars to be highly rewarded, 
and had in some extraordinary respect above other men, " to 
have greater * privileges than the rest, that adventure them- 
selves and abbreviate their lives for the public good." But 
our patrons of learning are so far nowadays from respecting 
the muses, and giving . that honour to scholars, or reward 
which they deserve, and are allowed by those indulgent privi- 
legts^ of many noble princes, that after all their pains taken 
in the universities, cost and charge, expenses, irksome hours, 

1 Petronius. Ego arbitror in sehollB cum aeoxuHtTit, qui snem ftetam nndecim 

gtaltiflsimoe fieri, quia nihil eorum quas porcellos, adnam uoom duntaxat pul- 

in una habexnus aut audiunt aut yident. lam enizam retulerat. > Lib. 1, Epist. 

> Not! mei« diebus, plerosque sindtts lite- 8 Adhnc Bchola«ticus tantum est ; quo 

rarum deditos, qui disciplinis admodum genere hominum, nihil aut est simpuci- 

i]>iindabant, sed nihil ciTilitatis habentes, us, aut sincerius aut melius. ^ Jura 

nee rem publ. nee domesticam regere nft- priyilegiandi, qui ob commune bonum 

tani Stupuit Paglarensis et ftirti vili- abbreviant sibi yitam. 


406 Gauges of Melancholy. [Part. I. see. 2 

laborious tasks, wearisome days, dangers, hazards (barred 
interim from all pleasures which other men have, mewed op 
like hawks all their lives), if thej chance to wade through 
them, thej shall in the end be rejected, contemned, and which 
is their greatCKst misery, driven to their shifts, exposed to 
want, poverty, and beggary. Their familiar attendants are, 

* ** Pallentes morbi, luctus, curseqae laborqne 

£t metiu, et malesuada fames, et turpis egestas, 
Terribiles visu formsB " 

" Grief, labour, care, pale sickness, miseriefl, 
Fear, filthy poverty, hunger that cries, 
Terrible monsters to be seen wiih eyes.*' 

If there were nothing else to trouble them, the conceit of 
this alone were enough to make them all melancholy. Most 
other trades and professions, after some seven years* appren- 
ticeship, are enabled by their craft to live of themselves. A 
merchant adventures his goods at sea, and though his hazard 
be great, yet if one ship return of four, he likely makes a 
saving voyage. An husbandman's gains are almost certain ; 
quibus ipse Jupiter nocere non potest (whom Jove himself 
can't harm), ('tis f Cato's hyperbole, a great husband him- 
self) ; only scholars, methinks, are most uncertain, unrespected, 
subject to all casualties and hazards. For first, not one of a 
many proves to be a scholar, all are not capable and docile, ^ ex 
omni ligno non JU Mercurius ; we can make majors and officers 
every year, but not scholars ; kings can invest knights and 
barons, as Sigismund the emperor confessed ; universities can 
give degrees ; and Tu quod es, e populo quilihet esse potest ; 
but he nor they, nor all the world, can give learning, make 
philosophers, artists, orators, poets ; we can soon say, as 
Seneca well notes, virum bonum, 6 divttem^ point at a 
rich man, a good, a happy man, a prosperous man, sumptuose 
vestitum, Calamistratum, bene olentem, magno temporis im- 
pendio constat hcec laudatio, 6 vtrum literarum, but 'tis not 

* Virg. 6 ^n. f Plutarch. yUA sules : B«z et Poeta quotannis non na» 

C|ju8, Gertum agricolationis lucrum, &c. citur. 
1 Quotannis fiunt consules et prooon- 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Stvdy, a Goose, 407 

so easily perfoi*med to find out a learned man. Learning is 
not so quickly gotf though they may be willing to take pains, 
to that end sufficiently informed, and liberally maintained by 
their patrons and parents, yet few can compass it Or if 
they be docile, yet all men's wills are not answerable to their 
wits, they can apprehend, but will not take pains ; they are 
either seduced by bad companions, vel in ptiellam impingunl^ 
vel in pociUum (they fall in with women or wine), and so 
spend their time to their friends' grief and their own un- 
doings. Or put case they be studious, industrious, of ripe 
wits, and perhaps good capacities, then how many diseases 
of body and mind must they encounter ? No labour in the 
world like unto study. It may be, their temperature will not 
endure it, but- striving to be excellent to know all, they lose 
health, wealth, wit, life and all. Let him yet happily escape 
all these hazards, cereis intestinis, with a body of brass, and is 
now consummate and ripe, he hath profited in his studies, and 
proceeded with all applause ; after many expenses, he is fit 
for preferment, where shall he have it ? he is as far to seek 
it as he was (after twenty years' standing) at the first day of 
his coming to the University. For what course shall he 
take, being now capable and ready ? The most parable and 
easy, and about which many are employed, is to teach a 
school, turn lecturer or curate, and for that he shall have fal- 
coner's wages, ten pound per annum, and his diet, or some 
small stipend, so long as he can please his patron or the 
parish ; if they approve him not (for usually they do but a 
year or two), as inconstant as * they that cried " Hosanna " 
one day, and " Crucify him " the other ; serving-man-like, 
he must go look a new master; if they do, what is his 
reward ? 

1 *' Hoc quoque te manet ut pueros elementa docentem 
Occapet extremis in vicis alba seuectus." 

" At last thy snow-white age in suburb schools, 
Shall toil in teaching boys their grammar rules.'* 

• Mat. 21. 1 Hor. epist. 20, 1. 1. 

403 Oatatt of Mdaneho^. [Part. L sec. 1. 

Like an ass, he wears out hia time for provender, and can 
Bbow a stum rod, togam tritam at lacerwn, soith * Haedus, an 
old torn gown, an ensign of his infelidty, he hath hb laboor 
for his pain, a modieum to keep him till he be decrepit, and 
that is all. Grammatieiu tton at feelix, &c If he be a 
trencher chaplain in a gentleman's houae, as it befell ' Eu- 
phormio, after some seven years' service, he may perchance 
have a living to the halves, or some small rectory with the 
mother of the maids at length, a poor kinswoman, or a 
cracked chambermaid, to have and to hold during the time 
of bis life. But if he offend hia good pati'on, or displease 
bis lady mistress in the mean time, 

1 " Ducetur Plaall velnt icliu sb Hercule Chciu, 

Ponetnrqae fbrtji, fti qaid tentAvarit nnqqani 

HIscera " 

as Hercules did by Cacus, he shall be dragged forth of dooi^ 
by the heels, away with him. If he bend his forces to some 
other studies, with an intent to be S teereiit to some noble- 
man, or in such a place frith an ambassador, he shall find 
that these persona rise like apprentices one under another, 
and in so many tradesmen's shops, when the master is dead, 
the foreman of the shop commonly steps in his place. Now 
for poets, rhetoricians, historians, philosophers, * mathemati- 
cians, sophisters, Sec. ; they are like grasshoppers, sing they 
must in summer, and pine in the winter, for there is no pre- 
ferment for them. Even so they were at first, if you will 
believe that pleasant tale of Socrates, which he told fair 
Phiedrus under a plane-tree, at (he banks of the river Iseus ; 
about noon when it was hoi, and the grasshoppers made a 
noise, he took that sweet occasion to tell him a tale, bow 
grasshoppers were once scholars, musicians, poets, &c., be- 
fore the Kusea were bom, and lived without meat and drink, 
and for that cause were turned by Jupiter into grasshoppers. 
And may be turned ageia, In T^oni Oicadas, aut Lycw- 
rum ranag, for any reward I see they are hke to have ; or 

•Ub. 1, dsiioal«m.ui«. 1 SKtiMo. ijDT.Sit.E. • An ooUt w>n. 

Mem. 8, snbs. 15.J Study^ a Cause, 409 

else in the mean time, I would they could live as they did, 
without any viaticum, like so many * manucodiatae, those In- 
dian birds of paradise, as we commonly call them, those I 
mean that live with the air and dew of heaven, and need no 
other food ? for being as they are, their * " rhetoric only 
serves them to curse their bad fortunes," and many of them 
for want of means are driven to hard shifts ; from grasshop- 
pers they turn humble-bees and wasps, plain parasites, and 
make the muses, mules, to satisfy their hunger-starved 
paunches, and get a meal's meat To say truth, 'tis the com- 
mon fortune of most scholars, to be servile and poor, to com- 
plain pitifully, and lay open their wants to their respectless 
patrons, as f Cardan doth, as % Xilander and many others ; 
and which is too common in those dedicatory epistles, for 
hope of gain, to lie, flatter, and with hyperbolical eulogiums 
and commendations, to magnify and extol an illiterate un- 
worthy idiot, for his excellent virtues, whom they should 
rather as ^Machiavel observe, vilify and rail at downright 
for his most notorious villanies and vices. So they prostitute 
themselves as fiddlers, or mercenary tradesmen, to serve 
great men's turns for a small reward. They are like § In- 
dians, they have store of gold, but know not the worth of it ; 
for I am of Synesius's opinion, • " King Hiero got more by 
Simonides's acquaintance, than Simonides did by his ; " they 
have their best education, good institution, sole qualification 
from us, and when they have done well, their honour and im- 
mortality from us ; we are the living tombs, registers, and as 
so many trumpeters of their fames ; what was Achilles with- 
out Homer ? Alexander without Arrian and Curtius ? who 
had known the Caesars, but for Suetonius and Dion ? 

II ** Vizemnt fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi : sed omnes illachryraabiles 

1 AldroTandns de Avibus. 1. 12, Gesner, potiiu Titupexare oporteret. $ Or as 

&c. * Literas habent quds sibi et bones know not tbeir strength, they con- 

fortunas sun maledicant. Sat. Menip. sider not their own worth. 8 Plura ex 

t lib. de libris i'ropriis, fol. 24. % Prse- Simonidis fiuuiliaritate Hiero consequ- 

fbt. translat. Plutarch. * Polit. dis- ntus est, quam ex Hieronis Simonides. 

Sat. laudibus extollant eos ac si yirtnti- |) Hor. lib. 4, od. 9. 
us poUerent quos ob inflnita scelera 

410 Oames of Melancholy. [Part I. see. i 

Urgentor, ignotiqae longa 
Nocte, carent qaia vate sacro." 

** Before great Agaroemnon reignM, 

Reigned kings as great as he, and brave, 
Whose huge ambition's now contain'd 

Id the small compass of a grave : 
In endless night they sleep, unwept, unknown. 
No bard thej had to make all time theur own." 

thej are more beholden to scholars, than scholars to them ; bat 
they undervalue themselves, and so by those great men are 
kept down. Let them have that encyclopaedian, all the 
learning in the world; they must keep it to themselves, 
• " live in base esteem, and starve, except they will submit," 
as BudsBus well hath it, " so many good parts, so many en- 
signs of arts, virtues, be slavishly obnoxious to some illiterate 
potentate, and live under his insolent worship, or honour, like 
parasites,'' Qui tanquam mures cUienum panem comedunt. 
For to say truth, artes Jub nan sunt lucrattvcB, as Guido 
Bonat that great astrologer could foresee, they be not gainful 
arts these, sed esurtentes etfamelicce, but poor and hungry. 

t ** Dat Galenus opes, dat Justinianus honores, 
Sed genus et species cogitur ire pedes : " 

" The rich physician, hononrM lawyers ride, 
Whilst the poor scholar foots it by their side." 

Poverty is the muses' patrimony, and as that poetical divin- 
ity teacheth us, when Jupiter's daughters were each of them 
married to the gods, the muses alone were left solitary, Heli- 
con forsaken of all suitors, and I believe it was, because they 
had no portion. 

*' Calliope longum cselebs cur vixit in sevum? 
Nempe nihil dotis, quod numeraret, erat." 

" Why did Calliope live so long a maid? 
Because she had no dowry to be paid." 

Ever since all their followers are poor, forsaken, and left 

* Inter Inertes et plebeioe fere jaoet, terras insolentisque potentiae, Lib. L de 

altimum locum habenfl, nisi tot artis ylr- contempt, rernm fbrtuitaram. f Bo- 

tutisque inflignia, turpiter, obnoxi^, chanan. el^. lib. 
Bupparisitando fascibus subjecerit pro- 

■ ?■ ■!»;-_ ^1. J-.T-- T I ■■■I-. M^p,^— ~» 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study ^ a Cause. 41 1 

unto themselves. Insomuch, that as ^ Petronius argues, you 
shall likely know them by their clothes. "There came," 
saith he, "by chance into my company, a fellow not very 
spruce to look on, that I could perceive by that note alone he 
was a scholar, whom commonly rich men hate ; I asked him 
what he was, he answered, a poet ; I demanded again why 
he was so ragged, he told me this kind of learning never 
made any man rich." 

2 " Qui Pelago credit, magno se foenore tollit, 
Qui pugnas et rostra petit, prsecingitur anro: 
Vilis adulator picto jacet ebrius ostro, 
Sola pruinosis horret facundia pannis." 

" A merchant's gain is great, that goes to sea; 
A soldier embossed all in gold; 
A flatterer lies fox'd in brave array; 
A scholar only ragged to behold." 

All which our ordinary students, right well perceiving in the 
universities, how unprofitable these poetical, mathematical, 
and philosophical studies are, how little respected, how few 
patrons ; apply themselves in all haste to those three commo- 
dious professions of law, physic, and divinity, sharing them- 
selves between them, * rejecting these arts in the mean time, 
history, philosophy, philology, or lightly passing them over, 
as pleasant toys fitting only table-talk, and to furnish them 
with discourse. They are not so behoveful; he that can 
tell his money hath arithmetic enough ; he is a true geometri- 
cian, can measure out a good fortune to himself; a perfect 
astrologer that can cast the rise and fall of others, and mark 
their errant motions to his own use. The best optics are, to 
reflect the beams of some great men's favour and grace to 
shine upon him. He is a good engineer, that alone can make 
an instrument to get preferment. This was the common 
tenet and practice of Poland, as Cromerus observed not long 

1 In Satyriodn. intrat senex, sed cultu Arbiter. * Oppreasus paupertate anl- 

non ita speciosns, ut jbcild appareret mus, nihil eximium aut sublime cogitare 

•urn hac nota literatuin esse, quos divites potest, amoenitates literaruiu, aut ele- 

odisse Solent. Ego inquit Poeta sum: gantiam, quoniam nihil prssidii in his 

Quare ergo tarn mal6 yestitus es ? Prop- ad y\tab commodum yidet, primd negli- 

ter hoc ipsum ; amor ingenii neminem gere, mox odisse incipit. Hens, 
pnquam divitem fecit. * Petrouius 


412 Causes of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. s. 

since, in the first book of his history ; their universities were 
generally base, not a philosoplier, a mathematician, an anti- 
quary, &c., to be found of any note amongst them, because 
they had no set reward or stipend, but every man betook 
himself to divinity, hoc solum in votis habenSy opimum sacer- 
dotium^ a good parsonage was their aim. This was the prac- 
tice of some of our near neighbours, as * Lipsius inveighs, 
" they thrust their children to the study of law and divinity, 
before they be informed aright, or capable of such studies." 
Scilicet omnibus artihus antistat spes lucri, et formosior est 
cumulus auri, quam quicquid Graci Latinique delirantes 
scripserunt. Ex hoc numero deinde veniunt ad gvJbemactda 
reipub. intersunt et prcesunt consiliis regum^ 6 pater, 6 patria f 
so he complained, and so may others. For even so we find, 
to serve a great man, to get an office in some bishop's court 
(to practise in some good town), or compass a benefice is the 
mark we shoot at, as being so advantageous, the highway to 

Although many times, for aught I can see, these men fail 
as often as the rest in their projects, and are as usually frus- 
trate of their hopes. For let him be a doctor of the law, an 
excellent civilian of good worth, where shall he practise and 
expatiate ? Their fields are so scant, the civil law with us so 
contracted with prohibitions, so few causes, by reason of 
those all-devouring municipal laws, quibus nihil illiterattus, 
saith ^Erasmus, an illiterate and a barbarous study (for 
though they be never so well learned in it, I can hardly 
vouchsafe them the name of scholars, except they be' other- 
wise qualified), and so few courts are left to that profession, 
such slender offices, and those commonly to be compassed at 
such dear rates, that I know not how an ingenious man should 
thrive amongst them. Now for physicians, there are in 
every village so many mountebanks, empirics, quacksalvers, 
paracelsians, as they call themselves, Gaucijici et sanicid4By 
60 t Clenard terms them, wizards, alchemists, poor vicars, 

•Epistol. quaMt.lib. 4, Ep. 21. i Gioeron. dial. t EpiBt. Ub. 2. 

Mem. 3, sabs. 16.] Study y a Cause, 413 

cast apothecaries, physicians' men, barbers, and good wives, 
professing great skill, that I make great doubt how they shall 
be maintained, or who shall be their patients. Besides, there 
are so many of both sorts, and some of them such harpies, 
so covetous, so clamorous, so impudent ; and as ^ he said, litig- 
ious idiots, 

" Qui bus loquacis affatim arrogantise est, 
Peritiae pariirn aut nihil, 
Kec ulla mica literarii salis, 

Grumenimulga natio : 
Loquuteleia turba, litium strophse, 

Maligna litigantinm cohors, togati vnltnres, 
Lavernse alumni, Agyrtse," &c. 

" Which have no skill but prating arrogance, 
No learning, such a purse-milking nation : 
Gown'd vultures, thieves, and a litigious rout 
Of cozeners, that haunt this occupation," &c. 

that they cannot well tell how to live one by another, but as 
he jested in the Comedy of Clocks, they were so many, 
^ major pars popvli aridd reptant fame, they are almost 
starved a great part of them, and ready to devour their fel- 
lows, * Et noxid caUidttate se corripere, such a multitude of 
pettifoggers and empirics, such impostors, that an honest man 
knows not in what sort to compose and behave himself in 
their society, to carry himself with credit in so vile a rout, 
scientice nomen, tot sumptibus partum et mollis, projlieri 
dispudeat, postquam, S^c, 

Last of all come to our divines, the most noble profession 
and worthy of double honour, but of all others the most dis- 
tressed and miserable. If you will not believe me, hear a 
brief of it, as it was not many years since publicly preached 
at Paul's cross, ' by a grave minister then, and now a rever^ 
end bishop of this land : " We that are bred up in learning, 
and destinated by our parents to this end, we suffer our child- 
hood in the grammar-school, which Austin calls ^nagnam ty* 
rannidem, et grave malum, and compares it to the torments of 

1 Ja. Dousa Epodon. lib. 2, car. 2. > Joh. Howson, 4 Norembris, 1597. the 
s PlautoB. * Barcl. Argenis, lib. 8. sermon was printed bj Arnold Hartfield. 

414 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. l 

martyrdom ; wbeD we oome to the university, if we live of 
the college allowance, as Phalaris objected to the jLeontiaes, 
ndvTuv ivde^c 1r^v /Jfiov xal ^^ou, needy of all things but hunger 
and fear, or if we be maintained but partly by our parents' 
cost, do expend in unnecessary maintenance, books and de- 
grees, before we come to any perfection, five hundred poundsi 
or a thousand marks. If by this price of the expense of 
time, our bodies and spirits, oor substance and patrimonies, 
we cannot purchase those small rewards, which are oars by 
law, and the right of inheritance, a poor parsonage, or a 
vicarage of fifty pounds per annum, but we must pay to the 
patron for the lease of a life (a spent and out-worn life) 
either in annual pension, or above the rate of a copyhold, 
and that with the hazard and loss of our souls, by simony and 
perjury, and the forfeiture of all our spiritual preferments, 
in esse and posse, both present and to come. What father 
after awhile will be so improvident to bring up his son to his 
great charge, to this necessary beggary ? What Christian 
will be so irreligious, to bring up his son in that course of 
life, which by all probability and necessity, coget ad turpia, 
enforcing to sin, will entangle him in simony and peijury," 
when as the poet said, Invitaius ad hcec aliquis de ponte ne- 
gahit : " a beggar's brat taken from the bridge where he sits 
a-begging, if he knew the inconvenience, had cause to refuse 
it.". This being thus, have not we fished fair all this while, 
that are initiate divines, to find no better fruits of our labours, 
^hoc est cur paHes, cur quis non prandeat hoc estf do we 
macerate ourselves for this ? Is it for this we rise so early all 
the year long ? * " leaping (as he saith) out of our beds, when 
we hear the bell ring, as if we had heard a thunderclap." 
If this be all the respect, reward and honour we shall have, 
^frange leves calamos, et scinde Thalia lihelhs : let us give 
over our books, and betake ourselves to some other course of 
life ; to what end should we study ? ' Quid me litterulas 

1 Pen. Sat. 8. * E lecto ezsilientes. falmine territi. 1. > liart. 3 Mart 
ad ■ubitum tiatianabuli plausiun quaai 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause, 415 

stvUi docuere parentes, what did our parents mean to make us 

scholars, to be as far to seek of preferment after twenty years' 

study, as we were at first; why do we take such pains? 

Quid tantum tnsanis juvat impaUescere chartist If there be 

no more hope of reward, no better encouragement, I say 

again, Frange leves calamoSy et scinde Thalia liheUos ; let's 

turn soldiers, sell our books, and buy swords, guns, and pikes, 

or stop bottles with them, turn our philosopher's gowns, as 

Cleanthes once did, into millers' coats, leave all, and rather 

betake ourselves to any other course of life, than to continue 

longer in this misery. * PrcBstat dentiscalpia radere, qudm 

literariis monumentis magnatum favorem emendicare. 

Yea, but methinks I hear some man except at these words, 
that though this be true which I have said of the estate of 
scholars, and especially of divines, that it is miserable and 
distressed at this time, that the church suffers shipwreck of 
her goods, and that they have just cause to complain ; there 
is a fault, but whence proceeds it ? If the cause were justly 
examined, it would be retorted upon ourselves, if we were 
cited at that tribunal of truth, we should be found guilty, and 
not able to excuse it. That there is a fault among us, I con- 
fess, and were there not a buyer, there would not be a seller ; 
but to him that will consider better of it, it will more than 
manifestly appear, that the fountain of these miseries pro- 
ceeds from these griping patrons. In accusing them, I do 
not altogether excuse us ; both are faulty, they and we ; yet 
in my judgment, theirs is the greater fault, more apparent 
causes, and much to be condemned. For my part, if it be 
not with me as I would, or as it should, I do ascribe the 
cause, as ^ Cardan did in the like case ; meo infortunio potius 
quam illorum sceleri, to t^iine own infelicity rather than 
their naughtiness ; although I have been baffled in my time 
by some of them, and have as just cause to complain as 

* Sat. Menip. i Lib. 8, de cons, inaulgus, reoudi noa possam jam senior 

I I had no money, I wanted impudence, ut aim talis, et flngi nolo, utcnnque 

[ could not scramble, temporiae, diwsem- male cedatin rem meam et obscurus inde 

ble : non pranderet olus, sc, Tia dicam, delitescam. 
ad palpaadum et adulandum penitos 

416 Cause9 of Mdanchcly, [Part. I. secS. 

another ; or rather indeed to mine own negligence ; for I was 
ever like that Alexander in * Plutarch, Crassus his tutor in 
philosophy, who, though he lived many jears familiarlj with 
rich Crassus, was even as poor when from (which many 
wondered at) as when he came first to him ; he never asked, 
the other never gave him anything ; when he travelled with 
Crassus he borrowed a hat of him, at his return restored it 
again. I have had some such noble friends' acquaintance 
and scholars, but most part (common courtesies and ordinary 
respects excepted), they and I parted as we met, they gave 
me as much as I requested, and that was And as Alex- 
ander ab Alexandra, GeniaL dier, L 6, c. 16, made answer to 
Hieronimus Massainus, that wondered, quum plures ignavos 
et ignohiles ad dignitatei €t sacerdotia promotos qtiotidte vide- 
ret, when other men rose, still he was in the same state, 
eodem tenore et foriund cut mercedem lahorum studiorumque 
deberi putaret, whom he thought to deserve as well as the rest 
He made answer, that he was content with his present estate, 
was not ambitious, and although ohjurgabundus suam $egnitiem 
acctisaret, cum obscune sartis homines ad sacerdotta et pan- 
tificaJtus evectos, Sfc, he chid him for his backwardness, yet 
he was still the same ; and for my part (though I be not 
worthy perhaps to carry Alexander's books), yet by some 
overweening and well-wishing friends, the like speeches have 
been used to me ; but I replied still with Alexander, that I 
had enough, and more peradventure than I deserved ; and 
with Libanius Sophista, that rather chose (when honours and 
offices by the emperor were offered unto him) to be talis 
Sophista, qudm talis Magistratus. I had as lief be still De> 
mocritus junior, and privus privatus, si mihi jam daretur 

optio, quam talis fortasse Doctor, talis Dominus. Sed 

quorsum hac f For the rest 'tis on both sides f acinus detes- 
tandum, to buy and sell livings, to detain from the church, 
that which Grod's and men's laws have bestowed on it ; but 

^ Vit. Orassi. neo taxXA Judloue potest utram pauperior oum pximo ad Ciaasnm, 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Sttidy, a Catise. All 

in them most, and that from the covetousness and ignorance 
of such as are interested in this business ; I name covetous- 
ness in the first place, as the root of all these mischiefs, 
which, Achan-like, compels them to commit sacrilege, and to 
make simoniacal compacts (and what not) to their own ends, 
* that kindles God's wrath, brings a plague, vengeance, and a 
heavy visitation upon themselves and others. Some, out of 
that insatiable desire of filthy lucre, to be enriched, care not 
how they come by it per fas et nefas, hook or crook, so they 
have it. And others when they have with riot and prodi- 
gality embezzled their estates, to recover themselves, make a 
prey of the church, robbing it, as ^Julian the apostate did, 
spoil parsons of their revenues (in keeping half back ' as a 
great man amongst us observes) ; " and that maintenance on 
which they should live ; " by means whereof, barbarism is 
increased, and a great decay of Christian professors ; for who 
will apply himself to these divine studies, his son, or friend, 
when after great pains taken, they shall have nothing where- 
upon to live ? But with what event do they these things ? 

* " Opesque totis viribus venamini, 
At inde messis accidit miserrima." 

They toil and moil, but what reap they ? They are ccfm- 
monly unfortunate families that use it, accursed in their prog- 
eny, and, as common experience evinceth, accursed themselves 
in all their proceedings. " With what face (as * he quotes 
out of Aust.) can they expect a blessing or inheritance from 
Christ in heaven, that defraud Christ of his inheritance here 
on earth ? " I would all our simoniacal patrons, and such as 
detain tithes, would read those judicious tracts of Sir Henry 
Spelman, and Sir James Sempill, knights ; those late elabo- 
rate and learned treatises of Dr. Tilflye, and Mr. Montague, 
which they have written of that subject. But though they 

iBetim habentiratunijSibique mortem in his Reports, second part, fol. 44. 

aeternam acquirunt, aliis miserabilem rni- * Euripides. ^ Sir Henry Spelman, de 

nam Serrarius in JoAuam, 7. Euripides, non temerandis Ecclesiis. 
s Nicephoros, lib.lO, cap. 6. * Lord Cook, 

VOL. I. 27 

418 Causes of Melancholy, [Part I. sec. s. 

should read, it would be to small purpose, clames licet et mart 
cobIo confundas ; thunder, lighten, preach hell and damnation, 
tell them 'tis a sin, thej will not believe it ; denounce and 
terrify, they have ^ cauterized consciences, they do not attend, 
as the enchanted adder, they stop their ears. Call them base, 
irreligious, profane, barbarous, pagans, atheists, epicures, (as 
some of them surely are,) with the bawd in Plautus, EugCj 
opHme^ they cry and applaud themselves with that miser, 
' stmul ac nummos contemphr in area ; say what you will, 
quocunqvs modo rem; as a dog barks at the moon, to no 
purpose are your sayings ; Take your heaven, let them have 
money. A base, profane, epicurean, hypocritical rout ; for 
my part, let them pretend what zeal they will, counterfeit re- 
ligion, blear the world's eyes, bombast themselves, and stuff 
out their greatness with church spoils, shine like so many pea- 
cocks ; so cold is my charity, so defective in this behalf, that 
I shall never think better of them, than that they are rotten 
at core, their bones are full of epicurean hypocrisy, and athe- 
istical marrow, they are worse than heathens. For as Diony- 
sius Halicamasseus observes, Antiq. Roto. lib. 7, ' Primum 
locum, S^c, <' Greeks and Barbarians observe all religious 
rites, and dare not break them for fear of offending their 
gods ; but our simoniacal contractors, our senseless Achans, 
our stupefied patrons, fear neither God nor devil, they have 
evasions for it, it is no sin, or not due jure divino, or if a sin, 
no great sin, &c And though they be daily punished for it, 
and they do manifestly perceive, that as he said, frost and 
fraud come to foul ends ; yet as ^ Chrysostom follows it, ^uUa 
ex pcBnd sit correctio, et quasi adversis maUtia hominum prO' 
vocetur, crescit quoiidie quod puniatur ; they are rather 
worse than better, — iram atque animos a crimine sumunt, 
and the more they are corrected, the more they offend ; but 
let them take their course, '^ Itodey caper, vites, go on still as 

1 1 Tim. 4. 2. s Hor. > Primum Barbari, fce. * Tom. 1, de steril. tii- 

locum apud omnes gentes habet patritiuB um annorum sub Elift aermoae. 6 (Mi, 

deorum cultus, et genlorum, nam hunc Fast, 
iiutissimd custodiunt, tarn Oneei quam 

Mem. 3, subs. 16.] Study y a Cause. 419 

they begin, 'tis no sin, let them rejoice secure, Grod's ven- 
geance will overtake them in the end, and these ill-gotten 
goods, as an eagle's feathers, ^ will consame the rest of their 
substance ; it is ^ aurum Uiolosanum, and will produce no 
better effects. • " Let them lay it up safe, and make their 
conveyances never so close, lock and shut door," saith Chrys- 
ostom, " yet fraud and covetousness, two most violent thieves, 
are still included, and a little gain evil gotten will subvert the 
rest of their goods." The eagle in ^sop, seeing a piece of 
flesh, now ready to be sacrificed, swept it away with her 
claws , and carried it to her nest ; but there was a burning 
coal stuck to it by chance, which unawares consumed her 
young ones, nest, and all together. Let our simoniacal 
church-chopping patrons, and sacrilegious harpies, look for no 
better success. 

A second cause is ignorance, and from thence contempt, 
successit odium in literas ab ignorantid vulgi ; which ^Junius 
well perceived; this hatred and contempt of learning pro- 
ceeds out of '^ ignorance ; as they are themselves barbarous, 
idiots, dull, illiterate, and proud, so they esteem of others. 
Stnt Meccenaies, non deeruni, Flacci, Marones : Let there be 
bountiiul patrons, and there will be painful scholars in all 
sciences. But when they contemn learning, and think them- 
selves sufficiently qualified, if they can write and read, scram- 
ble at a piece of evidence, or have so much Latin as that 
emperor had, * qui nescit dissimulare, nescii vivere, they are 
unfit to do their country servi^ to perform or undertake 
any action or employment, which may tend to the good of a 
commonwealth, except it be to fight, or to do country justice, 
with common sense, which every yeoman can likewise do. 
And so they bring up their children, rude as they are them- 
selves, unqualified, untaught, uncivil most part. * Quis ^ 

1 De male qunsitis vix gaudet tertiiu xitiam, fce. In 6, Corinih. * Aoad. 

h«ras. > Strabo, lib. 4, Geog. > Ni- cap. 7. ^ An neminem habet inimi- 

hil fiMsiUas op«s erertet, quam ayaritia et cum pneter ignorantem. * He that 

fraude paxta. St gi enim teram addM cannot dissemble cannot lire. *Spist. 

tali arcae, et exteriore Janna et vecte earn qneet. lib. 4, epist. 21, LipsliB 
9QnunaniB8, intus tamen frandem et ata- 

420 Catties of Melancholy, [Part I. sec s. 

nostrd juventute legitime instituitur Uteris f Quis oratores 
aut philosophos tangitf quis historiam legit, iHam reruns 
agendarum quasi animam f precipitant parentes vota tua, ^c.y 
'twas Lipsius's complaint to bis illiterate countrymen, it may 
be ours. Now sball tbese men judge of a scbolar's worth, 
tbat bave no wortb, tbat know not wbat belongs to a student's 
labours, that cannot distinguish between a true scholar and a 
drone ? or him that by reason of a voluble tongue, a strong 
voice, a pleasing tone, and some trivially polyanthean helps, 
steals and gleans a few notes from other men's harvests, and 
so makes a fairer show than he that is truly learned indeed ; 
that thinks it no more to preach, than to speak, ^ ^' or to run 
away with an empty cart," as a grave man said ; and there- 
upon vilify us, and our pains; scorn us, and all learning. 
* Because they are rich, and have other means to live, they 
think it concerns them not to know, or to trouble themselves 
with it ; a fitter task for younger brothers, or poor men's sons, 
to be pen and inkhom men, pedantical slaves, and no whit 
beseeming the calling of a gentleman, as Frenchmen and 
Germans commonly do, neglect therefore all human learnings 
what have they to do with it ? Let marinei^ learn astron- 
omy ; merchants' factors study arithmetic ; surveyors get 
them geometry; spectacle-makers optics; landleapers geog- 
raphy ; town-clerks rhetoric, what should he do with a spade, 
that hath no ground to dig ; or they with learning, that hath 
no use of it ? thus they reason, and are not ashamed to let 
mariners, apprentices, and .the basest servants, be better 
qualified than themselves. In former times, kings, princes, 
jand emperors, were the only scholars, excellent in all 

Julius Csdsar mended the year, and writ his own Comment 

* " media inter praslia Bemper, 
Stellarum coelique plagis, superisque vacavit." 

1 "Dr. King, in his last lecture on Jonah, bwbaro &8ta literas eontemnimi. * Lu* 
■ometime right reverend lord bishop of can. lib. 8. 
London. * Quibus opes et otium, hi 

Mem. 8, snbs. 15.] Study j a Cause, 421 

*Antonius, Adrian, Nero, Seve. Jul. &c * Michael the 
emperor, and Isacius, were so much given to their studies, 
that no base fellow would take so much pains ; Orion, Per- 
seus, Alphonsus, Ptolomeus, famous astronomers; Sabor, 
Mithridates, Lysimachus, admired physicians ; Plato's kings 
all ; Evax, that Arabian prince, a most expert jeweller, and 
an exquisite philosopher ; the kings of Egypt were priests of 
old, chosen and from thence, — Idem rex komtnum, Phcebique 
sacerdos ; but those heroical times are past ; the Muses are 
now banished in this bastard age, ad sordida tuguriola, to 
meaner persons, and confined alone almost to universities. 
In those days, scholars were highly beloved, ' honoured, 
esteemed ; as old Ennius by Scipio Africanus, Virgil by 
Augustus ; Horace by Mecaenas ; princes' companions ; dear 
to them, as Anacreon to Polycrates ; Philoxenus to Diony- 
sius, and highly rewarded. Alexander sent Xenocrates the 
Philosopher fifty talents, because he was poor, msu rerum, 
aut eruditione prcestantes viri, mensis olim regum adhihiti^ 
as Philostratus relates of Adrian and Lampridius of Alex- 
ander Severus ; famous clerks came to these princes' courts, 
velut in Jbycceum^ as to a university, and were admitted to 
their tables, quasi divum epulis accumbenies ; Archilaus, 
that Macedonian king, would not willingly sup without Eurip- 
ides (amongst the rest he drank to him at supper one night 
and gave him a cup of gold for his pains), delectatus poeta 
suavi sermone ; and it was fit it should be so ; because, as 
* Plato in his Protagoras well saith, a good philosopher as 
much excels other men, as a great king doth the commons of 
his country ; and again, * quoniam iUis nihil deest, et minime 
egere sclent, et disctplinas quas projitentur, soli d contemptu 
vindicare possunt, they needed not to beg so basely, as they 
compel * scholars in our times to complain of poverty, or 

1 Spartian. Soliciti de rebus nimis. quibus omabant heroas. Erasm. ep. Jo. 

« Nicet. 1, Anal. Fumis lucubrationum Fabio epis. Vien. * Probus vir et Phi- 

Bordebant. ^ Qrammaticis olim et dia- losophus ma^s prasstat inter alios homi- 

lecticesjurisqoe profesaoribus, qui speci- nes, quam rex inclitus inter plebeios. 

men eruditionis dedissent, eadem digui- * Heinsius, prae&t. Poematum. * Scjr« 

tatis insignia decrererunt Imperatores, Tile nomen Scholaris jam. 

422 Causes of Melancholy. [Psrt. L see. S. 

crouch to a rich chaff for a meal's meat, but ooold vindicate 
themselves, and those arts which they professed. Now they 
would and cannot ; for it is held bj some of them, as an 
axiom, that to Ifeep them poor, will make them stadj ; they 
must be dieted, as horses to a race, not pampered, ^ Alendos 
volunt, non saginandos, ne tneKaris mentis Jlammula extin. 
gucUur ; a fat bird will not sing, a fat dog cannot hant, and 
60 by this depression of theirs, 'some want means, others 
will, all want 'encouragement, as being forsaken almost; and 
generally contemned. 'Tis an old saying, Sint MeemnaieSj 
non deerunt^ Flacciy MaroneSy and 'tis a true saying stilL 
Tet oftentimes, I may not deny it, the main fault is in our- 
selves. Our academics too frequently offend in neglecting 
patrons, as * Erasmus well taxeth, or making ill choice of 
them; negligimus oblatos aut ampleetimur parum aptos, or 
if we get a good one, non kudemus mtUuis officiis favorem 
ejus aUrCy we do not ply and foUow him as we should. 
Idem mihi accidit Adolescenti (saith Erasmus) acknowledg- 
ing his fault, et gramssime peccavt, and so may f I say my- 
self, I have offended in this, and so peradventure have many 
others. We did not spandere magncUum favorihuSy qui ccspe- 
runt nos amplectiy apply ourselves with that readiness we 
should ; idleness, love of liberty, immodicus amor libertatis 
effecit ut diu cum perfidis amiciSy as he confesseth, et perti- 
naci paupertate eoUuctarery bashfulness, melancholy, timo- 
rousness, cause many of us to be too backward and remiss. 
So some offend in one extreme, but too many on the other, we 
are most part too forward, too solicitous, too ambitious, too 
impudent ; we commonly complain deesse MmcenateSy of want 
of encouragement, want of means, when as the true defect is 
in our own want of worth, our insuflSciency ; did Maecenas 
take notice of Horace or Virgil till they had shown them- 
selves first ? or had Bavius and Mevius any patrons ? Egre- 

1 Seneca. * Hand llidii emersnint, 4, Gent. 1, adag. 1. t Ibd I done as 

&c. ' Media qnod noctis ab hora se- others did, put myself forward, I migbt 

disti qu& nemo fitber, quSL nemo sedebat, hare haply been as great a man as many 

qui d^cet obliquo lanam deduoere ferro : of my equals, 
rara taaien meroes. Jut. Sat. 7. * Chil. 


Mem. 8, subs. 16.] Study^ a Gaiise. . 423 

gium specimen dent^ saith Erasmus, let them approve them- 
selves worthy first, sufficientlj qualified for learning and 
manners, before thej presume or impudently intrude and 
put themselves on great men as too many do, with such base 
flattery, parasitical colloguing, such hyperbolical elogies they 
do usually insinuate, that it is a shame to hear and see. 
Jbnmodicce laudes canciliant invidiam^ potius quam latidem, 
and vain commendations derogate from truth, and we think 
in conclusion, non meUtis de loudcUo, pejus de lavdante, ill of 
both, the commender and commended. So we ofiend, but 
the main fault is in their harshness, defect of patrons. How 
beloved of old, and how much respected was Plato to Diony- 
sius ? How dear to Alexander was Aristotle, Demeratus to 
Philip, Solon to CrcBsus, Anexarcus and Trebatius to Augus- 
tus, Cassius to Yespatian, Plutarch to Trajan, Seneca to 
Nero, Simonides to Hiero? how honoured? 

I" Sed baeo priCLs fuere, nunc recondita 
Senent quiete," 

those days are gone ; M spes, et ratio studiorum in Ccesare 
tantum / * as he said of old, we may truly say now, he is our 
amulet, our ^ sun, our sole comfort and refuge, our Ptolemy, 
our common Maecenas, Jacobus munijicus, Jacobtis padficuSy 
mysta Musarum^ Rex Platomcus : Grande decuSy columenque 
nostrum; a famous scholar himself, and the sole patron, 
pillar, and sustainer of learning ; but his worth in this kind 
is so well known, that as Paterculus of Cato, Jam ipsum 
laudare nefas sit; and which 1[T\inj to Trajan, Seria te 
carmina, honorque (Btemus annalium, non hmc brevis et pu- 
denda pnedicatio coleL But he is now gone, the sun of ours 
set, and yet no night follows, Sol occuhuitj nox niMa sequuta 
est. We have such another in his room, % aureus aUer. 
AviUsus, simili frondescit virga metaUoy and long may he 
reign and flourish amongst us. 

1 Oatullns, JuTen. * All our hopei Phnbof hie noiter, »olo intuitu lub«ntl- 
ftnd inducements to studj an centred in omn leddat. t njaegyr. t VliglL 
CiMar alone. < Nemo est quem non 

42 i Causei of Mdaneholy. [Part. I. sec. l. 

Let me not be maliciouB, and lie against mj geniosy I may 
not deny, but that we have a sprinkling of our gentry, here 
and there one, excellently well learned, like those Fuggeri 
in Germany; Dubartus, Du Plessis, Sadael, in France; 
Picus Mirandula, Schottus, Barotius, in Italy ; Apparent ran 
natUes in gurgite vatto. But they are but few in respect of 
the multitude, the major part (and some again excepted, that 
are indifferent) are whoUy bent for hawks and hounds, and 
carried away many times with intemperate lust, gaming and 
drinking. If they read a book at any time {si quod est in- 
terim otii d venatu, poctdis, aledy scortis) 'tis an £nglish Chron- 
icle, Sir Huon of Bordeaux, Amadis de Gaul, &c, a play 
book, or some pamphlet of news, and that at such seasons 
only, when they cannot stir abroad, to drive away time, 
^ their sole discourse is dogs, hawks, horses, and what news ? 
If some one have been a traveller in Italy, or as far as the 
emperor's court, wintered in Orleans, and can court his mis- 
tress in broken French, wear his clothes neatly in the new- 
est fashion, sing some choice outlandish tunes, discourse of 
lords, ladies, towns, palaces, and cities, he is complete and to 
be admired ; ^ otherwise he and they are much at one ; no 
difference between the master and the man, but worshipM 
titles ; wink and choose betwixt him that sits down (clothes 
excepted) and him that holds the trencher behind him ; yet 
these men must be our patrons, our governors too some- 
times, statesmen, magistrates, noble, great, and wise by in- 

Mistake me not (I say again) Vos, 6 Patritius scmgvisy 
you that are worthy senators, gentlemen, I honour your 
names and persons, and with all submissiveness, prostrate 
myself to your censure and service. There are amongst you, 
I do ingenuously confess, many well-deserving patrons, and 
true patriots, of my knowledge, besides many hundreds which 
I never saw, no doubt, or heard of, pillars of our common- 

1 Rams enlm ferme senflos oommanJa niu genere, et pnBoIaxo nomine tantam, 
In iUa Fortuna. Jqt. Sat. 8. * QoIb lud^iia. Jut. Sat. 8. 

tnim generoBom cUzerit hunc que Indig- 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Study^ a Cause, 425 

wealth, ^ whose worth, bounty, learning, forwardness, true 
zeal in religion, and good esteem of all scholars, ought to be 
consecrated to all posterity ; but of your rank, there are a de- 
bauched, corrupt, covetous, illiterate crew again, no better 
than stocks, merum pecus (testor Deum, non mihi videri dig- 
nos ingenui hominis appellatione), barbarous Thracians, et 
quis ille thrax qui hoc neget? a sordid, profane, pernicious 
company, irreligious, impudent, and stupid, I know not what 
epithets to give them, enemies to learning, confounders of the 
church, and the ruin of a commonwealth ; patrons they are 
by right of inheritance, and put in trust freely to dispose of 
such livings to the church's good ; but (hard task-masters they 
prove) they take away their straw, and compel them to make 
their number of brick ; they commonly respect their own 
ends, commodity is the steer of all their actions, and him they 
present in conclusion, as a man of greatest gifts, that will 
give most ; no penny, * no pater-noster, as the saying is. 
Nisi preces auro fulcias, amplius irritas : ut Cerbents offa, 
their attendants and officers must be bribed, feed, and made, 
as Cerberus is with a sop by him that goes to hell. It was 
an old saying, Omnia Romce venalia (all things are venal at 
Rome), 'tis a rag of Popery, which will never be rooted out, 
there is no hope, no good to be done without money. A 
clerk may offer iiimself, approve his * worth, learning, hon- 
esty, religion, zeal, they will commend him for it ; but * proli- 
tas Jmidatur et alget If he be a man of extraordinary parts, 
they will flock afar off to hear him, as they did in Apuleius, 
to see Psyche : mviti mortales confluebant ad mdendum scecvM 
decus, speculum gloriosvm, laudatur ah omnibus, spectatur ab 
omnibus, nee quisquam non rex, non regius, cupidus efus nup' 
tiarum petitor accedit ; mirantur quidem dimnam formam 
omnes, sed ut simulacrum fahre politum mirantur ; many 
mortal men came to see fair Psyche the glory of her age, 

1 1 haye often met with myself, and Musis venias comitatus, Homere, Nil ta- 

eonfened with divers worthy gentlemen, men attuleris, ibis, Homere, foras. > Et 

In the country, no whit inferior, if not to legat historioos auctores, norerit omnef 

be preferred, for divers kinds of learning, Twquam ungues digitoeque suos. Jut 

lo many of our academics. ^ Ipse licet Sat. 7. * Juvenal. 

426 Ccntsei of Mdaneholy. [Part. L see. l 

thej did admire her, ooHimend, desire her for her divine 
beauty, and gaze upon her ; but as on a picture ; none would 
marry her, quod indotaiOy fair Psjlche had no money. ^ So 
they do by learning ; 

s M didicit jam diyes avaras 
Tantam admirari, tantam laudare disertoa, 
Ut pueri Jononis ayem ** 

" Your rich men have now learned of latter days 
T* admire, commend, and come together 
To hear and see a worthy scholar speak. 
As children do a peacock's feather.** 

He shall have all the good words that may be given, 'a 
proper man, and 'tis pity he hath no preferment, all good 
wishes, but inexorable, indurate as he is, he will not prefer 
him, though it be in his power, because he is indotatus, he 
hath no money. Or if he do give him entertainment, let 
him be never so well qualified, plead affinity, consanguinity, 
sufficiency, he shall serve seven years, as Jacob did for Ra* 
chel, before he shall have it ^ If he will enter at first, he 
must yet in at that Simoniacal gate, come off soundly, and 
put in good security to perform all covenants, else he will not 
deal with, or admit him. But if some poor scholar, some 
parson chaff, will offer himself; some trencher chaplain, that 
will take it to the halves, thirds, or accept of what he will 
give, he is welcome ; be conformable, preach as he will have 
him, he likes him before a million of others ; for the best is 
always best cheap ; and then as Hierom said to Cromatius, 
pateUd dignum operculum, such a patron, such a clerk ; the 
cure is well supplied, and all parties pleased* So that is still 
verified in our age, which • Chrysostom complained of in his 
time. Qui opulenttores sunt, in ordinem parcisitorum cogunt 
eos, et ipsos tanquam canes ad mensas suas enutriunt, eorvmf 

1 Ta Tero licet Orpheus sis, saxa sono bique coDgiariom est. * Quatnor ad 

testudinis emoUiens, nisi plumbea eoram portas Ecclesias itus ad omnes ; sangoi- 

oorda, aari yel argenti malleo emollias« nis aut Simonis, pnesnUs atqne M. 

&c. SalisburiensiB. Poliorat. lib. 6, c. 10. Holcot. * lib. contra Gentiles de Bab> 

* Juven. Sat. 7. * Euge bene, no need, ila nuurtyre. 
Doosaepod. lib. 2,— dos ipsa scientia si- 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 427 

que impudentes Ventres inigtmrum ccenarum reliquiis differ- 
tiunt, iisdem pro arbitrio ahUentes : Bicb men keep these 
lecturers, and fawning parasites, like so many dogs at their 
tables, and filling their hungry guts with the offals of their 
4neat, they abuse them at their pleasure, and make them say 
what they propose. * " As children do by a bird or a but- 
terfly in a string, pull in and let him out as they list, do they 
by their trencher chaplains, prescribe, command their wits, 
let in and out as to them it seems best." If the patron be 
precise, so must his chaplain be ; if he be papistical, his clerk 
must be so too, or else be turned out. These are those clerks 
which serve the turn, whom they commonly entertain, and 
present to church livings, whilst in the mean time we that are 
University men, like so many hide-bound calves in a pasture, 
tarry out our time, wither away as a flower ungathered in a 
garden, and are never used ; or as so many candles, illumin- 
ate ourselves alone, obscuring one another's light, and are 
i^ot discerned here at all, the least of which, translated to a 
dark room, or to some country benefice, where it might shine 
'apart, would give a fair light, and be seen over all. Whilst 
we lie waiting here as those sick men did at the Pool of * Be- 
thesda, till the Angel stirred the water, expecting a good 
hour, they step between, and beguile us of our preferment. 
I have not yet said; if after long expectation, much expense, 
travel, earnest suit of ourselves and friends, we obtain a sYpall 
benefice at last ; our misery begins afresh, we are suddenly 
encountered with the flesh, world, and devil, with a new 
onset ; we change a quiet life for an ocean of troubles, we 
come to a ruinous house, which before it be habitable, must 
be necessarily to our great damage repaired ; we are com- 
pelled to sue for dilapidations, or else sued ourselves, and 
icarce yet settled, we are called upon for our predecessor's 
arrearages ; first-fruits, tenths, subsidies, are instantly to be 

I Prsescribunt, imperanfc, in ordinem tunt, aut attrahunt, 1100 ii libidine sua 

eogunt, ingenium noetrum prout ipsis pendere aequum ceiueiites. Heinsius. 

yidebitur, astringnnt et relaxant ut pa- * Job. 5 
pilionem pueri aat bmchixm fllo demit- 

428 Catues of Melancholy. [Part. I. see. 2. 

paid, benevolence, procurations, &c., and, which is most to be 
feared, we light upon a cracked title, as it befell Clenard, of 
Brabant, for his rectory and charge of his BegiiuB ; he was 
no sooner inducted, but instantly sued, axpimusque (* saith 
he) strenue litigare^ et implacabiU heUo confligere ; at len^tlv 
atler ten years' suit, as long as Troy's siege, when he had 
tired himself, and spent his money, he was fain to leave all 
for quietness' sake, and give it up to his adversary. Or else 
we are insulted over, and trampled on by domineering officers, 
fleeced by those greedy harpies to get more fees ; we stand 
in fear of some precedent lapse ; we fall amongst refractory, 
seditious sectaries, peevish puritans, perverse papists, a las- 
civious rout of atheistical Epicures, that will not be reformed, 
or some litigious people (those wild beasts of Ephesus must 
be fought with) that will not pay their dues without much 
repining, or compelled by long suit; Laid clericis oppido 
tnfesti, an old axiom, all they think well gotten that is had 
from the church, and by such uncivil, harsh dealings, they 
make their poor minister weary of his place, if not Ids life ; 
and put case they be quiet honest men, make the best of it, 
as often it falls out, from a polite and terse academic, he must 
turn rustic, rude, melancholize alone, learn to forget, or ebe 
as many do, become maltsters, graziers, chapmen, &c., (now 
banished from the academy, all commerce of the muses, and 
confined to a country village, as Ovid was from Rome to 
Pontus,) and daily converse with a company of idiots and 

Nbs interim quod attinet (nee enim immunes ah hoc noxd 
iumus) idem reatus manet, idem nobis, et si non multd gravitts, 
crimen ohjici potest: nostra enim cvlpd sit, nostrd incurid, 
nostrd avaritid, quod tarn frequentes, foedceque Jiant in Ec- 
cUsid nundinationes, (templum est vaenale, deusque) tot sordes 
invehantur, tanta grassetur impietas, tanta nequitia, tarn in- 
sanus miseriarum EuriptLS, et turharum cestuarium, nostro 

* Epist. lib. 2. Jam suffectus in locum demortoi, protio is ezortuB est adTenarim 
frc.| post multos labores, sumptus, &c. 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause, 429 

tnqtiam, omnium ( Academicorum imprimis) vitio sit. Quod 
tot Hesp. modis afficicUur, a nobis seminarium ; tdtro malum 
hoc accersimus, et qudvis contumelid, qudvis interim miserid 
digni^ qui pro virili non occurrimus. Quid enim fieri posse 
speramus, quum tot indies sine delectu pauperes alumni, terrce 
filii, et cti/uscunque ordines homunciones ad gradus certatim 
admittantur f qui si definitionem, distinctionemque unam aut 
alteram memoriter edidicerint, et pro more tot annos in dia- 
lecticd posuerint, non refert quo profectu, quales demum sint, 
idiotce, nugatores, otiatores, aleatores, compotores, indigni, lihid- 
inis vohiptatumque administri, " Sponsi Penelopes, nebulones, 
Alcinoique," modd tot annos in academid insumpserint, et se 
pro togatis venditdrint; lucri causa, et amicorum intercessu 
praesentantur : addo etiam et magnificis nonnunquam ehgiis 
morum et scierUice: et jam valedicturi testimonialibus hisce 
litteris, amplissime conscriptis in eorum gratiam honorantur, 
ah iis, qui fidei suce et existimationis jacturam proctd dubio 
fadunt* Doctores enim et professores (quod ait ^iUe) id 
unum curant, ut ex professionibus frequentibus, et tumultuariis 
potius quam legitimis, commoda sua promoyeant, et ex dis- 
pendio publico suum faciant incrementum. Id solum in votis 
haherU annui plerumque magistratus, ut ah incipientium nu- 
mero ^pecunias emungant, nee midtum interest qui sint, litera^ 
tores an literati, modd pingues, nitidi, ad aspectum speciosi, 
et quod verbo dicam, pecuniosi sint, ^ Philosophastri Keen- 
tiantur in artibus, artem qui non hahent, * Eosque sapientes 
esse jubent, qui nulla praediti sunt sapientia, et nihil ad 
gradum praeterquam velle adferunt. Uieohgastri (solvant 
modo) satis superque docti, per omnes honorum gradtis eve- 
huntur et ascendunt, Atque hinc fii quod tam viles scurrce, 
tot passim idiotce, literarum crepusctdo positi, larvce pastorum, 
circumforanei, vagi, barbi, fungi, crassi, asini, merum pecus, 
in sacrosanctos theohgice aditus, iUotis pedibus irrumpant, 

1 Jan. Acad. cap. 6. < Acciplamus dia Latina, in Ade Christi Ozon. pablici 

pecuniam, demittamos asinum ut apad habita^ Anno 1617, Feb. 16. * Sat. 

PataTinos, Italos. s Hos non ita pri- Menip. 

dem pentrinzi in Philoflophastro, Com»- 

430 Causei of Mdanchofy, [Part. L sec. S 

prtBter inverecundam frontem cutferentes nihily vulgares quc»- 
dam quiiquiUoi, et tcholarium qtuedam nu^amenta, indigna 
qua vel rectpiarUur in trtviis. Hoc iUud indignum gentu 
hominum et foamlicumy indiguniy vagum, ventris maneipiumy 
ad sUvam pottus rdegandum^ ad harcu apHus quam ad arcu^ 
quod divinat hatce literas iurpiter proiHtwU; hi sunt qui 
ptdpita compltnt^ in ades nobilium irrepunt, et quum reliquis 
vita dettituantur subndiis, oh corporis et animi egestatenij 
aliarum in repub, partium minime capaces sint ; ad sacrani 
hanc anchorojn, confugiunt^ sacerdotium quovismodd captantes^ 
non ex sinceritcUe, quod ^ Paulus ait, sed cauponantes verbum 
Dei. Ne quis interim viris bonis detractum quid putet, quos 
habet ecclesia AngUcana qtusmplurimos, egregie doctos^ iUus- 
tres, intactce fanue homines^ et plures foraan qucun qtuevis 
JBuropa provincia / ne quis a Jlorentissimis AcademiiSy qua 
viros undiqudque doctissimos, omni virtutum genere suspie- 
iendosy abunde producunt, Et muUo plures utraque hM- 
turoj muUo splendidior futuraj si non ha sordes splendidum 
lumen ejus ohfuscarenty obstaret corruption et cauponantes 
quadam harpya^ proletariique bonum hoc nobis non invi- 
derent Nemo enim tarn cacd mente, qm non hoc ipsum 
videat : nemo tarn stolido ingenio, qui non intelligat ; tarn per^ 
tinaci judicio^ qui non agnoscaty ab his idiotis drcumforaneisj 
sacram poUui Theologiam, ac calestes Musas quasi prophanum 
quiddam prostitui. Yiles animse et effirontes (sic enim Lu- 
therus ^ alicubi vocat) lucelli causa, ut muscse ad mulctra, ad 
nobilium et heroum mensas advolant, in spem sacerdotii, 
cujuslibet honoris^ officii, in quamvis aulam, urbem se inge^ 

runt, ad quodvis se ministerium compontmt. " Ut nervis 

alienis mobile lignum- Ducitur" Hbr, Lib. II. SaL 

7, ' ofiUm sequentes, psittacorum more, in prsedse spem quid- 
vis effutiunt : obsecundantes Parasiti (^ Erasmus ait) quidvis 
docent, dicunt, scribunt, suadent, et contra conscientiam pro- 
bant, non ut salutarem reddant gregem, sed ut magnificam sibi 
parent fortunam. * Opiniones quasvis et decreta contra ver- 

1 2 Cor. ii. 17. > Comment, in Oal. SHeinsioB. « Soolesiast. 6 Lath 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Studf/, a Catise, 431 

bum Dei astruunt, ne non offendant patronum, sed ut retin* 
eant favorem procerum, et populi plausum, sibique ipsis opes 
accumulent. £o etenim plerunque animo ad Theologiam 
accedunty nan ut rem divinamy sed ut suam faeiant ; non ad 
JEcclesicB bonum pramovendum, sed exptlandum; qiUBrentes^ 
quod Paulus ait, non quae Jesu Chrisd, sed quae sua, non 
domini thesauruniy sed ut sihi, suisque thesawrizent. ^Nec 
tantum its, qui vilioris fortumB, et ab/ectw sortis sunt, hoc in 
usu est : sed et medios, summos, elatos, ne dicam JEipiscopos^ 
hoc malum invasit. ^ '' Dicite, pontifices, in sacris quid/acit 
aurum f" ^ summos saepe viros transversos agit avaritia, et qui 
reliquis morum probitate prcducerent ; hi fcLcem prceferunt 
ad Simoniam, et in corruptionis hunc scopulum impingentes^ 
non tondent pecus, sed deglubunt, et qiiocunque se conferuntf 
expilant, exhauriunt, ahradunt, magniMn faince szub, si non 
animce naufragium fadentes ; tU non ah infimis ad summos, 
sed a summis ad infimos malum promandsse videatur, et 
illud verum sit quod 'iUe olim lusit, emerat ille prius, vendere 
jure potest. Simoniacus enim (quod cum Leone dicam) 
gratiam non aceepit, si non accipit, non habet, et si non babet, 
nee gratus potest esse ; tantum enim absunt istorum nonnuUi, 
qui ad clavum sedent, a promovendo reliquos, ut penitus im- 
pediant, probe sihi conscii, quihus artihus iUic pervenerint. 
* Nam qui ob literas emersisse illos credat, desipit ; qui vero 
ingenii, eruditionis, experientisB, probitatis, pietatis, et Musa- 
rum id esse pretium putat (quod olim reverd fuit, hodie pro* 
mittitur) planissime insanit. Utcunque vel undecunque malum 
hoc originem ducat, non uUra quceram, ex his primordiis 
coepit vitiorum colluvies, omnis calamitas, otnne miseriarum 
agmen in EccUsiam invehitur. Hinc tam freqaens simonia^ 
hinc ortce querelce, fraudes, imposturce, ah hoc fonte se denvd- 
runt omnes nequitia. Ne quid ohiter dicam de amhitione, 
adtdatione plusquam atUicd, ne tristi domiccenio hborent, de 
hiomi, de fosdo nonnunquam vitce exemplo, quo nonnidlos 
qffendunt, de compotatione Syhariticd, Sfc, hinc ille squalor 

1 Pen. Sat. 2. < SaUiut. • Sat. Menip. 


432 Causes of Melancholy, [Part. L sec. x 

€tcademicus, tristes hac tempestate Cafnenae, quum quims 
homunculiu, artium tgnat'us, his artihus assurgat, hunc in 
modum promaveatur et cUtescat, amhitiosis appdlaitomfnis in- 
signis, et muUis dignitatihus augusttu vulgi oculos perstringatj 
henl se haheaty et grandia gradiens mafestatem quandam ae 
amplitudinem pra se f evens ^ miramqtte soUcitudinem^ harhd 
reverendus, toga nittdusj purpura coruscus, supeSecitlts splen- 
darej et famulorum numero maxime conspicuus. Quales 
statuoB (qtiod ait ^ iUe) quae sacris in sedibus columnis im- 
ponuntur, velut oneri cedentes videntur, ac si insiidarent, 
quum rever& sensu sint carentes, et nihil saxeam adjuvent 
firmitatem : adantes videri volunt, quum sint statutB lapicle€B, 
umbratiles reverd homuncioneSy Jungi, forsan et hardi, nihil d 
saxo differentes, Quum interim docti viri, ei viice sanctioris 
omamentis praditi, qui cesium diei sustinent, his iniqud sorte 
serviant, minimo forsan salario contenti, puris nominihus 
nuncupati, humiles, obscuri, mvUoque digniores licet, egentes, 
inhonorati vitam privam privatam agant, tenuique septdti 
sacerdotioy vel in coUegiis suis in mtemum incarcerati, in- 
glorie delitescant, Sed nolo diutius hanc movere sentinam, 
hinc iUce lachrgmce^ lugubris mtisarum habituSy *hinc ipsa 
religio (gtu}d cum Secellio dicam) in ludibrium et contemptum 
adducitur, ahjectum sacerdotium (atque hcee uhi fiunJty ausim 
dicerey et putidum ^putidi dicterium de clero usurpare) puti- 
dum vulgus, inopSy rude, sordidumy melanchoUcumy miserum, 
despicabiley contemnendum,'\ 

iBudaeus, de Aiise, lib. 6. * Lib. de tbem, and are deserring of eTery oppro- 

rep. Gallomm. > Campian. t As for brium and suffering, since we do not after^ 

ourselves (for neither are we firee from this wards encounter them according to our 

fkult) the same guilt, the same crime, may strength. For what better can we expect 

be objected against us ; fur it is through when so many poor, be^;arly fellows, 

our fault, negligence, and avarice, that so men of every order, are readily and with- 

many and such shamefal corruptions oc- out election, admitted to degrees? Who, 

cur in the church (both the temple and if they can only commit to memory a 

the Deity are offered for sale), that such few definitions and divisions, and pass the 

sordidness is introduced, such impiety customary period in the study of logics, 

committed, such wickedness, such a mad no matter with what effact, whatever sort 

gulf cf wretchedness and irregularity — they prove to be, idiots, triflers, idlers, 

these I say arise from all our &ults, but gamblers, sots, sensualists, 
more particularly from ours of the Uni- 
versity. We are the nursery in which " mere ciphers in the book of llfb 

those ills are bred with which the slate like those who boldly woo'd Ulysses's 
Is afflicted; we voluntarily introduce wifb; 

Mem. 4, subs. 1.] 

Nurse, a Cause. 



SuBSECT. I. — Non-necessary, remote, outward, adventitious, 
or accidental causes : as first from the Nurse, 

Of those remote, outward, ambieDt, necessary causes, I 
have sufficiently discoursed in the precedent member, the 

Bom CO congume the fruits of earth : in 

As yaia and idle as Pheacia^s youth ; " 

only let them have pasged the stipulated 
period in the University, and professed 
themselves collegians; eitner for the sake 
of profit, or through the influence of 
their friends, they obtain a presentation ; 
nay, sometimes even accompanied by 
brilliant eulogies upon their morals and 
acquirements ; and when they are about 
to take leavej they are honoured with the 
most flattering literary testimonials in 
their favour, by those who undoubtedly 
sustain a loss of reputation in granting 
them. For doctors and professors (as an 
author says) are anxious about one thing 
only, viz : that out of their various call- 
ings they may promote their own advan- 
tage, and convert the public loss into 
their private gains. For our annual offi- 
cers wish this only, that those who com- 
mence, whether they are taught or un- 
taught is of no moment, sliall be sleek, 
&t, pigeons, worth the plucking. The 
Philosophastic are admitted to a degree 
in Arts, because they have no acquaint- 
ance with them. And they are desired 
to be wise men, because they are endowed 
with no wisdom, and bring no qualifica- 
tion for a degree, except the wish to have 
it. The Theologastic (only let them pay) 
thrice learned, are promoted to every 
academic honour. Hence it is that so 
many vile buffoons, so many idiots, every- 
where, placed in the twilight of letters, 
the mere ghosts of scholars, wanderers 
in the market place, vagrants, barbels, 
mushrooms, dolts, asses, a growling herd, 
with unwashed feet, break into the sacred 
precincts of theology, bringing nothing 
along with them but an impudent front, 
some vulgar trifles and foolish scholastic 
technicalities, unworthy of respect even 
at the crossing of the highways. This is 
the unworthy, vagrant, voluptuous race, 
fitter for the hogsty (haram) than the 
altar (aram), that basely prostitute divine 
literature; these are they who fill the 
pulpits, creep into the palaces of our no- 

YOL. I. 28 

bility after all other prospects of existence 
fkil them, owing to their imbecility of 
body and mind, and their being incapa- 
ble of sustaining any other parts in the 
commonwealth ; to this sacred refnge 
they fly, undertaking the office of the 
ministry, not from sincerity, but as St. 
Paul says, huckstering the word of Gk>d. 
Let not any one suppose that it is here 
intended to detract from those many 
exemplary men of which the Church of 
England may boast, learned, eminent, 
and of spotless &me, Ibr they are more 
numerous in that than in any other 
church of Europe ; nor from those most 
learned universities which constantly 
send forth men endued with every form 
of virtue. And these seminaries would 
produce a still greater number of inesti- 
mable scholars hereafter if sordid nes